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associationofsoutherncaliforniadefensecounselVolume22013INSIDEJudgestipsontrialexhibitsInsurancecoverageTradesecretdamagesAssumptionofRiskASCDCPresidentN.DeniseTaylorinherownwords Volume22013verdict1verdicttheassociationofsoutherncaliforniadefensecounsel2520ventureoakswaysuite150sacramentoca95833Exhibits10MetaphysicalMoment13N.DeniseTaylor21TradeSecrets17features10HowNottoHandleExhibitsInTrialJudgeKathleenM.WhiteJudgeDanielP.Maguire13TheMetaphysicalMomentWhenaPipeBeginstoLeakIsNotaSuddenDischargeWhereDamageOnlyResultsFromaGradualorContinuousProcessGaryJ.WaxRobertA.Olson17TradeSecretMisappropriationDamagesandtheUnderusedHeadStartDoctrineDefenseH.ThomasWatsonKarenM.Bray21ImVeryBullishonThisOrganizationASCDCPresidentDeniseTaylorTalksCandidlyAbouttheChangesintheCourtsBuildingMembershipandtheYearsEventsCarolA.Sherman25Gregoryv.CottCaliforniaSupremeCourttoFurtherClarifythePrimaryAssumptionofRiskDoctrineJeffreyM.LenkovandStevenJ.Renick3010LegalWritingTipsFortheYoungAssociateHannahL.Mohrmandepartments2IndextoAdvertisers3PresidentsMessagebyN.DeniseTaylor5CapitolCommentbyMichaelD.Belote6NewMembers9WhatWeDobyPatrickA.Long292013HallofFamePhotos32DefenseVerdicts33AmicusCommitteeReport35MembershipApplication36ExecutiveCommitteeBoardofDirectors 2verdictVolume22013VerdictMagazineispublishedormembersoTheAssociationoSouthernCaliorniaDeenseCounselASCDC.TheopinionsandadviceinVerdictMagazinearethoseothesubmittingauthorsandarenotnecessarilythoseoASCDC.Allrightsarereservedinallcountries.NopartothismagazinemaybereproducedinanyormwithoutwrittenconsentromVerdictMagazine.EditorialproductionandadvertisingofcesatVerdictMagazine2520VentureOaksWaySuite150SacramentoCA95833.Telephone800564-6791.Returnpostagemustaccompanyanyunsolicitedmaterialiitistobereturned.VerdictMagazineassumesnoresponsibilityorsuchmaterials.theassociationofsoutherncaliforniadefensecounselindextoadvertisersADRServicesInc.8ArrowheadEvaluationServices37BiomechanicalAnalysis31EdFernandez12ExecutivePresentations28FieldsADR34FirstMediationCorp.32ForensisGroup7GreinesMartinSteinRichlandLLP26JackDaniels24JudicateWest8KGAInc.14KusarCourtReportersInsideFrontCover16PhillipFeldmanLawOffices30PMADisputeResolution15ProConsulInc.4ThonBeckVanniCallahanPowell24AlternativeResolutionCenters27verdict2520ventureoakswaysuite150sacramentoca95833staffeditorLisaPerrochetexecutivedirectorJenniferBlevinsartdirectorJohnBerkowitzcontributorsMichaelD.BeloteKarenM.BrayJeffreyM.LenkovPatrickA.LongRobertA.OlsonJudgeDanielP.MaguireHannahL.MohrmanCarolA.ShermanStevenJ.RenickN.DeniseTaylorH.ThomasWatsonGaryJ.WaxJudgeKathleenM.WhiteprintingSig-1PrintingassociationofsoutherncaliforniadefensecounselofficerspresidentN.DeniseTaylorpresident-electRobertA.OlsonvicepresidentMichaelSchonbuchsecretary-treasurerGlennT.BargerboardofdirectorsJamesB.ColeMichaelA.ColtonJulianneDeMarcoPeterS.DoodyChristopherE.FaenzaThomasP.FeherClarkR.HudsonDanKramerEdwardR.LeonardLisaJ.McMainsGaryT.MontgomeryStephenC.PasarowLisaPerrochetLawrenceR.RamseyNinosP.SaroukhanioffJohnW.ShawPatrickStockalperJeffreyA.WalkerForadvertisinginformationcontacttheASCDCbelowexecutiveoffices2520VentureOaksWaySuite150SacramentoCA95833800-564-6791ascdccamgmt.comwww.ascdc.org Volume22013verdict3N.DeniseTaylorASCDC2013PresidentpresidentsmessageItshardtobelievethatitislatesummeralreadyTeyearisyingbyandIamsopleasedwiththeworkthatyourASCDCboardhasalreadydonethisyear.Teenthusiasmorournewmemberoutreachhasbeengratiying.OurAmicusCommitteeisasbusyaseverintheirsearchorrighteouspositionstosupportonbehalothedeense.Ourseminarandwebinarcommitteesareplanningavarietyoeducationalprogramstobenetyouourmembers.TebudgetcutstothecourtshavebeenthetopicoconversationoroverayearparticularlyinLosAngeleswherethehardhitcutbacksrequiredanoverhaulothesystemwithrespecttopersonalinjurycasesearlierthisyear.ASCDCstandsortheAssociationoSouthernCaliorniaDeenseCounselandwhathappensinLosAngelescountyaectsthepracticeovirtuallyalloourmembersinthewholeSouthernCaliorniaareaeventhoseasarsouthasSanDiegoorasarnorthasBakerseld.IamverypleasedtoreporthavingjustsuccessullycompletedmyownrstjurytrialinthePIcourtsystemthatsoareverythingisgoingbetterthananyonecouldhavepredicted.AsothiswritingeverysinglePIcasethathasansweredreadyortrialinDepartment9192or93hasbeensentouttotrialthatsameday.Wehavenotseenthepredicteddelaysatleastnotyet.ForthiswecanthankJudgeDanBuckleyorhisleadershipandvisionJudgeAmyHogueinDepartment1whohasinhersteadywayadministratedtheassignmentstothetrialcourtsJudgesBeaudetJessnerOnkonkwoandWeinbachwhohavehandledtheFSCsmotionsandhearingsinthePIdepartmentswithairnessandeciencyandmostimportantlythecourtclerksandstawhohavemanagedthechaosthatofenispresentinthePIdepartmentswithskillpatienceandgoodhumor.ASCDChostedawell-attendedhottopicsseminarinJulywithanupdateontheLosAngelesSuperiorcourtoeredbyJudgesBuckleyHogueandBeaudetaswellastwoothetrialjudgesJudgeMarcMarmaroromtheMoskcourthousedowntownandJudgeBobbiillmanromSantaMonica.TeircandidremarkshelpedthoseinattendancegainabetterunderstadingoandappreciationorthePIcourts.ASCDCcontinuestosupportthecourtsinanywaywecanandwillcontinuetokeepourmembersinormedaboutthechangessothatwecancontinuetoachievejusticeorourclientsinthesechallengingtimes.OurHalloFamegatheringattheBiltmoreMilleniumHotelwasaspredictedanunqualiedsuccesswithasell-outcrowdoWhosWhootheSouthernCaliorniacivilplaintianddeensebarandmembersothejudiciary.Iyoudidntmakeityoumissedagreateveningoacross-the-aisleellowshipwithhearteltandhumoroustributestothreeiconsoourlegalcommunity.OurinauguralHalloFamememberWallyYokaintroducedJudgeBillMacLaughlinasourJudgeotheYearwhoacceptedwithhisusualclassandgrace.DavidOKeeealsoapriorrecipientoourHalloFameawardintroducedhisoldriendandclassmateomGirarditherecipientoourCivilAdvocateAward.omocourseacceptedtheawardwithhumorandcivility.PhilBakersintroductionohisdadour2013HalloFameAwardrecipientBobBakerwasbothentertainingandpoignantwithBobsacceptanceaperectendingtotheevening.SpecialthankstoourocersributeBooksponsorsandtoRickKraemeratExecutivePresentationsorhisinvaluableassistanceinmakingthisatrulymemorableevent.IwouldliketopersonallyinvitealloyoutocometoourSantaBarbaraseminarinSeptember.Withaproessionalliabilityocusthisseminarhasbeenmybabyoralongtimeandbringingitbacklastyearwasgratiyingespeciallywhenitwassosuccessul.TisyearClarkHudsonromSanDiegohascapablytakenthehelmandhasputtogetheranexcitingprogramwhichwillnotonlyprovidelotsoMCLEcreditonSeptember20and21butwillbeinterestingandinormative.FollowedbyouroptionallunchandwinetastingtourintheSantaYnezvalleyonSaturdayitsaweekendthatshouldnotbemissed.akealookatthebackcoverothiseditionoVerdictorotherupcomingASCDCeventsandpleaseconsiderattending.Mydoorisopenpleasecallore-mailmeiyouhaveanysuggestionsorwanttocontributeinanywaytothesuccessoyourorganizationtheASCDC. 4verdictVolume22013 Volume22013verdict5MichaelD.BeloteLegislativeAdvocateCaliforniaDefenseCounselcapitolcommentHalf-EmptyHalf-FullAferwhatseemedlikeanever-endingpatternostatebudgetsdelayedpastthebeginningothenextscalyearCaliorniahasnowenteredaperiodoreliablyon-timespendingplans.SeveralactorsareatplayincludingoverwhelmingmajoritiesineachhouseorDemocratsaconstitutionalchangereducingtherequiredbudgetvoterom23tosimplemajorityandeventhoughitperhapsisimpolitetosuggestitaprovisionwhichpermanentlyoreitslegislativepayorlatebudgets.CDCspentmanymonthsworkingwithalargenumberobargroupsintheOpenCourtsCoalitionseekingtoincreasebudgetallocationsorthejudicialbranch.Tenalspendingplanincreasedspendingorthejudicialbranchby63millioncomposedo60millionorthetrialcourtsandthebalancededicatedtotheSupremeCourtcourtsoappealandHabeasCorpusResourceCenter.Tenaltotalwasreducedromthe100millionrecommendedinboththeSenateandAssemblyleadingtoadebateaboutwhethertheresultwasawinoraloss.Clearlytheprincipalcauseorreducingtheincreasedallocationrom100millionto63millionwastheinsistencebythegovernorsoceonmoreconservativerevenueprojections.ObviouslyestimatingrevenuesoranenterprisethesizeoCaliorniastategovernmentisasmuchartasscienceandbecauserevenuesdependinlargemeasureuponcapitalgainsinourboomandbusteconomiccyclesCaliorniasrevenueisnotoriouslydiculttopredict.ForavarietyoreasonsGovernorBrownpredictedlowerrevenuesthandidthelegislatureandwhenlowerrevenueprojectionswereagreeduponspendingaugmentationsdeclinedaswell.Evenwithreinvestmentothe63millioncourtshavecontinuedtoabsorbpainulcuts.ShortlyaferthebudgetenactmentLosAngeleswasorcedtolayoapproximately175morecourtemployees.CourtADRservicesinLAhavebeeneliminatedandverysignicantchangeshavebeennecessaryincourtprocessingopersonalinjurycases.Statewidesixty-onecourthouseshavebeenclosedpotentiallyorever.Viewedinthislightthe63millioniswoeullyshortotheneed.Ontheotherhand2013representstherstyearthatbudgetallocationstothecourtshavebeguntoturnaround.Legislatorsrombothpartiesinbothhousesagreedthatcourtshavebeencuttoodeeplycausingunacceptablelossesinaccesstojustice.Lawmakersocompletelydisparatephilosophiesdescribedthe63millionasadownpaymentonwhatmustbedoneorthejudicialbranch.Signicantlytheissuehasbeenarticulatedasonenotjustaectinglawyerstheinterestsosinglemotherstracviolatorsjuvenilesincrisisandthegeneralbusinesscommunitywhichcountsoncourtstoecientlyresolvedisputesareamongtheneedswhicharerequentlymentioned.BeyondthecourtbudgetCDChasbeeninvolvedinawiderangeocivilissuesthisyear.AB715orexamplewouldhaveenactedadenovostandardoappellaterevieworevidentiaryrulingsonsummaryjudgmentmotions.WithCDCandothersopposingthisproposalwillnotbeenactedthisyear.CDCalsohelpedshelveAB788whichcouldhaveintereredwiththeabilityocounseltoprovidetranscriptstoclientsandinsurersandweobtainedamendmentstoAB648relatingtocourtreportereesorshort-causematters.LookingaheadtothenalsixweeksothelegislativeyearwhichwilladjournonSeptember13itisverylikelythatotherkeyissuesrelatingtocivilprocedurewillbedebated.Inactitisofennotuntiljustdaysbeoretheendosessionthatattemptsaremadetoraisecontroversialsubjects.ItisentirelypossibleorexamplethatMICRAlimitincreaseswillbeproposedbetweennowandSeptember13eventhoughthechancesosuccessontheissueareconsideredquitelow.TenextissueoVerdictwilldescribewhatcouldbeahecticperiodattheendothelegislativeyear. 6verdictVolume22013newmembersmarchjulyArcherNorrisKaylaS.S.BetboutMarkFuruyaJeanLantzDanielMcKenzieBrianC.MergesBeamBrobeckWestBorgesRosaLouiseM.DouvilleSponsoringMemberDavidJ.BrobeckBlauAssociatesDavidBlauSponsoringMemberJoyiaGreeneldBonneBridgesMuellerOKeeeNicholsEricE.HartmansSponsoringMemberBrianL.HofmanBoothLLPJasonM.BoothTeodoreV.KrepsSponsoringMemberMargaretDruganBoyceSchaeerLLPKarenA.NewcombSponsoringMemberJamesC.SchaeferBuchalterNemerP.C.RobertDatoSponsoringMemberHarryW.R.ChamberlainCallahanTompsonShermanCaudillLLPDeniseM.CalkinsCarrollKellyrotterFranzenMcKennaBlakenyA.BoggsSponsoringMemberDavidPruettChapmanGlucksmanDeanRoebBargerZacharyMarksSponsoringMemberGlennBargerColemanHorowittLLPLaurenceYeeWongSponsoringMemberRobertRisbroughCollinsCollinsMuirStewartHowardFrancoCollinsworthSpechtCalkinsScottD.CalkinsDanielsFineIsraelSchonbuchLebovitsJaimeZagoriaDimalantaClarkLLPZubinFarinpourDohertyCatlowJohnDohertyDorseyWhitneyLLPKentJ.SchmidtDowlingAaronIncorporatedDanielK.KlingenbergerMicahK.NilsonSponsoringMemberTomasFeherEngleCarobiniCoatsDanielJ.CarobiniJennieA.HendricksonSponsoringMemberBenjaminF.CoatsEricksenArbuthnotPaulA.GreenSponsoringMemberMarkKieerFidoneMotookaMarjorieMotookaFordWalkerHaggertyBeharAlexanderJ.BeharSponsoringMemberJefreyS.BeharFredricksonMazeikaGrantElliotHellerGreinesMartinSteinRichlandMeehanRaschBarbaraRavitzSponsoringMemberRobertOlsonHaightBrownBonesteelMaryBethSiposSponsoringMemberS.ChristianStouderHarringtonFoxxDubrowCanterErikaN.BrennerDerekA.EarleyJuleeFritschMichaelJenkinsSponsoringMemberEdwardR.LeonardHiggsFletcherMackVirginiaL.PriceSponsoringMemberPeterDoodyIversonYoakumPapianoHatchPatrickMcAdamJosephW.McCarthyALawCorporationJoeMcCarthyLaFolletteJohnsonDeHaasFeslerAmesMichaelE.BauerSaraGrecoTien.NguyenLennarCorp.KellyGivenJulieHolleyLorberGreeneldPolitoLLPErinKennedyClancySponsoringMemberJoyiaZ.GreeneldLewisBrisboisBisgaardSmithDanielC.DeCarloTomasS.KiddSponsoringMemberDeborahSiriasManningKassEllrodRamirezresterLLPJohnnaJ.HansenJoshuaShayneSponsoringMemberLouPappasMarangaMorgensternSandorK.CarrascoPatriciaM.FordSponsoringMemberRobertMorgensternMcKaydeLorimierArainNancyA.RamseySponsoringMemberPaulA.deLorimierMeneksheLawFirmCatherineAdamsMeredithWeinsteinNumbersLLPCharlesH.NumbersMeyersMcConnellReiszSidermanFrederickS.ReiszSponsoringMemberJohnW.McConnellIIINeilDymottFrankMcFallrexlerSezenOygarSponsoringMemberClarkR.HudsonNewmeyerDillionLeonardPolyakovSponsoringMemberMarkHimmelsteinOfcesoAdrienneD.CohenDanielleM.DaltonemreL.FischerSponsoringMemberAdrienneD.CohenOfcesoLarryKentLarryKentPalumboBergstromDavidS.MartucciKevin.MeadeRebackMcAndrewsKjarWarordStockalperMooreLLPCindyShapiroSponsoringMemberPatrickStockalperRichardsonHarmanOberPCDennisAlthouseRobertsonAssociatesAPCLesW.RobertsonRosenSabaLLPMomoE.akahashiRyanMercaldoLLPJefreyP.CarvalhoNormanRyanAliciaM.ZimmermanSchumannRosenbergLLPKimSchumannSponsoringMemberChristopherFaenzaSlaughterReaganLLPMeganWinterSponsoringMemberWilliamSlaughterSpringelFinkRichardKottaylorBlesseyLLPAnnaChungJordanR.GaskinsBrentLehmanBassilMadanatShannonWainwrightSponsoringMemberN.DeniseaylorresslerLLPMohammedS.MandegaryMaryE.McPhersonSponsoringMemberLindaB.MorrisonVarnerBrandtBrendanW.BrandtAndrewRossWatkinsLetoskyLLPBrianLetoskyWattenDiscoeBassettMcMainsonyDiscoeKatieMaileyWaxlerCarnerBrodskyLLPGretchenS.CarnerAndrewJ.WaxlerSponsoringMemberHarryChamberlainWilsonElserMoskowitzEdelmanDickerPeterHughesKellyA.VanNortWingetSpadaoraSchwartzbergLLPBrandonS.ReiYokaSmithLaurenM.PisieczkoBrandonL.WymanSponsoringMemberWalterYoka Volume22013verdict7 8verdictVolume22013 Volume22013verdict9PatrickA.LongwhatwedoAlongwithmostmembersoourassociationIbelongtoaratherlargenumberootherbargroupsDRIIADCADAFDCCABAOCBAokaythatsenoughwiththeacronyms.ButasideromgettingtogetherwithellowmembersoourAssociationoSouthernCaliorniaDeenseCounselnoticeIdidntuseanacronymhereoneomyavoriteothergroupstohangwithistheAmericanBoardorialAdvocatesacronymicallyknownasABOA.OneothereasonscertainlynotthemostimportantisthatIofenndcolleaguesinABOAwithlowerbarnumbersthanmine.YepasyoumayknowABOAhascertainprerequisitestomembershiponeowhichisthatanapplicantmusthavetriedacertainnumberojurytrials.Ayetherestherub.Intheolddaysolkswithbarnumberslikeminecouldtryacaseortwoormorepermonthmonthinandmonthout.Ocoursealmostallothosecaseswereautomobileaccidentsslipandallsandperhapstheoccasionalmedicalordentalmalpractice.Butaswewilldiscussinamomenttheremaynotbeasmanycasesgettingtotrialandsomanythatdogototrialnowarenotthetypethatyoungerlessexperiencedattorneyswouldbeauthorizedbyaclienttotryatleastasrstchairandintheolddaystherewasnorstandsecondchairjusttheonlychair.MeetingABOAsmembershiprequirementsisntgettinganyeasierortheyoungercrowd.RecentlyIsatdownordinneratanABOAunctioninOrangeCounty.ItsalwaysapleasureandhonortositwitholkswhomIveadmiredmostomylegallieandtalkwiththemaboutthelawtodayslawrmnancialissuesclientproblemsmarketingproblematicjudgesocourseIpersonallydontknowanyothosegoodrestaurantsandgreatsaloons.AtourtablethediscussionturnedtotheFridayeditionotheLosAngelesDailyJournalssummaryorecentverdictsandsettlementsthroughoutthestate.MostouspayprettycloseattentiontotheVerdictsSettlementsrecapcheckingtoseewhatkindsocasesaregoingtotrialthedamageawardsandsettlementsincasessimilartooneswearehandlingwhoswinningandwhoslosingamongtheattorneysweknowandhowjudgesarerulingonmotionsorsummaryjudgmentetc.TatVerdictsSettlementssectionalwaysdrawsalotoattentionamongourASCDCmembershipandABOAolksaswell.MyABOAdinnercompanionsunanimouslythoughttherehasbeenadramaticshifinthenatureothecasesnowbeingtakentotrialwithamuchincreasedemphasisonIPcasestrademarkinringementtradesecretsbreachocontractclassactionspartnershipdisagreementsandotheressentiallybusiness-relatedmatters.Ohtherearestilltheoccasionalrear-endautocollisionsslipandallsandthelikebuttheyapparentlyarebeingtriedinmuchdiminishednumbersromyearspast.Tereareprobablyanumberoreasonsorthisbutourgroupagreedthattheprimaryreasonisthatitisnowsimplytooexpensiveoraplaintisattorneyandsometimesadeendanttotakeacasetotrialunlesstheallegeddamagesexceed100000200000ormore.Tecostsotrialseemtohaveoutracedthegeneraleconomy.Considertheaveragecurrentcostoamedicaldoctorstestimony5000perhaldayandsimilaramountsordepositiontestimonyandreviewingrecordsplushumanactorsandaccidentreconexpertscourtreportersaudio-visualexpensesandprettysoonplaintiscounselneedstosegueromMacallan25toDewarsaferaharddayswork.OneomyABOAcolleagueswonderedwhenheseesaverdictinanautomobilecaseinVerdictsSettlementsor50000howmuchtheplaintiandhisorherattorneyputintheirpockets.Intermsoverdictstodays50000isthenew5000.Ourgroupseemedtoeelthatthesamenumberocasesaregoingtotrialasintheolddaysbutmostotodayscasesinvolvesquadronsocounseloneachsideandtakeweeksormoretotry.Nooneatourtablehadanyanswersbutoneinourgroupmadeaninterestingsuggestioni.erevamptheconceptosmallclaimstoencompassamountsupto75000andallowattorneystoappearbutmodiytherulestopermittestimonybyadavitetc.Andyesthecurrentconceptoexpeditedjurytrialswasdiscussed.imesarechangingandhavechangedandsuceittosaythatthekeywordasalwaysisadaptability.Asisofenrepeatedthedinosaursdidnthavethatcharacteristic.Letsmakesurewedo.MaybeIllstartmedicalschoolinSeptember.Primumnonnocere.PatrickA.Longpalongldlawyers.comAnsweringReadyorMaybeNot 10verdictVolume2201310verdictVolume22013HowNottoHandleExhibitsInTrialJudgeKathleenM.WhiteandJudgeDanielP.MaguireSuperiorCourtofCaliforniaYoloCounty Volume22013verdict11continuedonpage121Dontaskthejudgeorclerkbeorethehearinghowtheywantexhibitshandled.Paynoattentiontothecourtslocalrulesregardingexhibitsdontasktheclerkitheexhibitscanbepre-markedandaboveallappearveminutesbeoretrialwithvoluminousunmarkedexhibits.Besuretheyarenotintheorderyouwillusethemattrial.2Dontgivetheclerkanexhibitlogthatlistseachexhibitinorderhasadescriptionotheexhibitandacolumnormarkedadmittedandcomment.Dontaskitheclerkhasapreerredormatortheexhibitlog.Tisensuresthattheclerkwillhavedicultytrackingtheexhibitsandmakingaclearrecord.Tisalsoensuresthatyouwillnotbeabletotrackyourexhibitsduringtrialtoo.3Dontdescribeeachexhibitspecifcallyontheexhibitlogsotheclerkcannotdiscernoneexhibitromtheother.ForexampleiyouhaveseveraldeedsotrustjustmakemultipleentriesoDeedorustontheexhibitloganddontdistinguishthembydateorotheridentier.Tisensuresaconusingrecordandextendstheexaminationowitnessesasthejudgeandotherlawyerconstantlyinterruptyoutoaskwhichdeedotrustyouhaveplacedbeorethewitness.Tisisespeciallyhelpulormuddyingtherecordandlengtheningproceedingswhenthereisnocourtreporter.Therecomesamomentineverytrialorhearingwhenitisrevealedtothejudgewhetherthelawyerisaskilledtrialproessionalorabumblingtyro.Tatmomentisnotinthepretrialmotionsthetrialbrieortheopeningstatements.Itdoesntmatterwhetherthetrialiscriminalorcivil.Tatmomentinalltrialsisthepresentationotherstdocumentasanexhibit.Iyoualreadyknowhowtomarkorganizeandpresentexhibitswethankyou.Readnourther.Butiyouwanttoknowhowtoirritatetheclerkrustratethejudgebafeopposingcounselmuddytherecorddelaytheprocessandexasperateyourclientreadon 12verdictVolume22013HowNottoHandleExhibitsinTrialcontinuedfrompage114Aggregateexhibitssothereismorethanonephotographonapageormorethanonedocumentperexhibitandbesuretouseonlyoneexhibitnumberortheaggregatedexhibit.Tisguaranteesthatyouwillspendlotsotimeaskingthewitnesstoexaminethethirdpictureontheourthrowothesecondpageandexplainingtothejudgewhatdocumentyouareusing.Donotsimpliyitbyusingsub-numbersorsequentialpagenumberssothateachpageorimagehasauniquealphanumericidentier.5Whenyouintroducetheexhibittothewitnessdonotstateontherecordtheexhibitnumberorthatithasbeenmarkedorpre-markedoridentifcation.DonotsayIampresentingwhatsbeenpremarkedasExhibitAoridenticationtothewitness.Justaskthewitnesstolookatthepaperinyourhandwithoutreerencingwhatitisoritsexhibitnumber.Tiswillguaranteethatthejudgeandtheotherattorneywillhavenoideawhatyouaretalkingabouttheclerkwillnotnotetheintroductionothatexhibitandtherecordwillnotreectwhatthewitnesstestimonycovers.6Donothaveyourexhibitsorganizedintooldersbindersoranysystemthatallowstheorderlyintroductionoexhibits.Asthewitnessexaminestheoriginalexhibitdonotgivethecourtoropposingcounselcopiesotheexhibitsthatyouareusingonthestandeitherbeorehandinabinderopre-markedexhibitsoroneexhibitatatimeasyouintroducethem.Dontkeepacopyoryoursel.Againthiswillensuretheignoranceoallinthecourtroomastowhatyourexaminationcovers.7Iyouareusinganelmoorblow-upsoadocumentdontenlargeitenoughsothatjurorsandjudgeswhoneedreadingglassescanseeiteasily.Makethemsquint.8Whenyouarefnishedusingamarkedexhibitdontgiveitbacktotheclerk.Teclerkisresponsibleorthesaekeepingoallmarkedexhibits.Oncemarkedtheexhibitmustberetainedbytheclerkortherecord.Teclerkexpectsyoutoreturntheexhibittohimorheraferyounishusingtheexhibitwitheachwitness.Formaximumineciencydonotreturnthemarkedexhibitstotheclerkandremovethemromthecourtroomatrecesses.9Atthecloseoyourcaseinchieinotearlierdonotreviewontherecordtheexhibitsthatyouhaveintroducedandmovethemintoevidence.Tisshouldbeeasybecauseyoudidnotgivetheclerkoryourselanexhibitlogsoyouwillnotbeabletotracktheexhibitsyouusedanywayandyouwillnotensurethattheexhibitscriticaltoyourcasehavebeenadmitted.10SwapOutExhibitsDuringTrial.Changingoralteringexhibitsduringtrialisasure-rewaytoconuseeveryone.Sowhenyoudiscoverthatyourexhibitismissingapageorcontainspersonalinormationthatshouldhavebeenredactedorisadrafratherthanthenalversionthensimplybringthenewcorrectedexhibittocourtbutcontinueusingtheoldnumber.HavingtwodistinctexhibitswiththesameexhibitnumberwillspurinterestingwitnessexaminationotheWhosonFirsttypesuchasPleasereviewthenewversionoexhibit3whichactuallypre-datestheoldexhibit3andtellmewhichcamerstAferallnumbersarescarceandshouldberecycledratherthanwastedbygivingeachdistinctexhibititsownnumber.Followthesetenrulesandyouwilldevelopareputationinyourlocalcourtjustnottheoneyouwant. Volume22013verdict13WhatissuddenRelativetothehistoryotheuniversehumanevolutionissudden.Occurringovermillenniaitonlyregistersasamereblipontheuniversesoveralltimecontinuum.Bycontrasttheblinkoaneyeisanythingbutsuddencomparedtotheliespanocertainsubatomicparticles.WhenasmallcrackinadamappearsinstantlygrowinginsizeoveraperiodoyearsuntiltheentiredamslowlyerodesawaydoesthepresenceotheinitialsmallcrackmeanthedamailedsuddenlyTesephilosophicalmusingshavepracticalsignicancewhenitcomestointerpretinginsurancepolicieswhichofencoversuddenandaccidentalevents.Temeaningoaccidentalhasbeenthesubjectomuchjudicialinkthemeaningosuddenlessso.Eventhenthetermhasgenerallybeeninterpretedinthecontextoapollutionexclusionexception.Terethetypicalconstructionosuddenhasbeenaneventthatoccursimmediatelyquicklyorabruptly.Butthemeaningosuddenisequallyimportantinthemoremundanecircumstanceoleakingwaterpipes.AnewlyreporteddecisionbytheCaliorniaCourtoAppealSecondDistrictinBrownv.Mid-CenturyIns.Co.215Cal.App.4th8412013holdsthatawaterleakromahomesplumbingsystemisnotsuddenwhereitcontinuesconstantlyandgraduallyoveraperiodotimeevenitherstdripbeganatasinglemomentintime.Accordinglyaslowleakevenicommencinginamicroscopically-measurableinstantisnotcoveredbyarst-partyhomeownersinsurancepolicyprovidingwater-damagecoverageonlywherealeakiscausedbyasuddenandaccidentaldischargeromaplumbingsystem.Condensationmoldandapondofwaterunderthehouse.InBrowntheinsuredhomeownersbegannoticingcondensationthroughouttheinteriorwallsandwindowsotheirhouseandsoonthereafermold.215Cal.App.4that844847.Everydayoramonththeytriedtowipethemoistureobutitcontinuouslyreappeared.Id.at844.Eventuallytheyhiredaplumbertoinvestigate.Id.at845.Helookedunderthehouseanddiscoveredasignicantpondowater2eetdeepandabout4to5eetwideand10to15eetlong.Id.at844-45.Healsooundthesourceotheleakahotpressurizedwaterpipehadcorrodedoverdecadesduetobeingimproperlyencasedinthehousesconcrete-slaboundationandeventuallyormedoneortwosmallholesnolargerthan18x132.Id.at845848-49.Troughthesetinyholeswaterhadleakedorsprayedoveraperiodotimeeventuallyaccumulatingenoughwatertoormthesub-oundationpond.Id.at847-50.Tehomeownersstandardinsurancepolicycoverssuddenandaccidentalwaterdischargesbutnotslowcontinuouswaterleaks.TestandardhomeownerspolicyatissuecovereddamagecausedbyasuddenandaccidentaldischargeowaterromaTeMetaphysicalMomentWhenaPipeBeginstoLeakIsNotaSuddenDischargeWhereDamageOnlyResultsFromaGradualorContinuousProcessByGaryJ.WaxandRobertA.Olsoncontinuedonpage14 14verdictVolume22013plumbingsystembutexpresslydidnotcoverdamageoccurringoveraperiodotimeromanyconstantorrepeatinggradualintermittentorslowdischargeseepageleakagetricklecollectinginltrationoroverowowaterromanysource.Id.at846.Tecarrierdeniedcoverage.Teinsuredsclaimthateverypipeleakstartssuddenly.TehomeownerssuedorbreachocontractandbadaithallegingthatthehomewasdamagedwhenaplumbingpipeburstcausingPlaintissubstantialloss.Id.at848emphasisadded.Inopposingsummaryjudgmentthehomeownersdidnotdisputethatcorrosionslowlyworeawayatthepipecausingtheleakorthatthepipecontinuouslyleakedoveraperiodomonthsunderneaththeirhousealthoughtheyarguedthatthepipeleakedor1to2monthsversusthecarriers5-monthestimate.Id.at849.Insteadtheyreliedontheinvestigatingplumberscolloquialuseothewordburstandontheirexpertsdeclarationopiningthatthepipeburstsuddenlyinanano-secondsprayingwaterinthecrawlspaceandthereorethewater-dischargeeventcouldbebestdescribedasasuddenbreachothepipe.Id.at845n.1849851emphasisadded.Intheexpertsviewitwouldhavetakenamereractionoasecondi.e.anano-secondbetweenthewatertightandnon-watertightconditionothepipeandthereoretheleakmusthaveoccurredsuddenly.Id.at849-50.Tetrialcourtrejectedtheexpertstheoryconcludingthattherewasnocoverageasamatterolawandenteredsummaryjudgmenttothateect.Id.at850.TeCaliorniaCourtoAppealrejectingplaintifsmetaphysicalmomentargumentholdsthataleakthatonlycausesdamagethroughagradualorongoingprocessisnotsudden.Onappealthehomeownersagainreliedontheirexpertsconclusionthatthepipeburstsuddenlyinanano-secondwhenitchangedromawater-tighttoaleakingcondition.Id.at851emphasisadded.TeCaliorniaCourtoAppealrejectedthatargument.Id.at851-54.RelyingonthreedecisionsromexasSaintPaulSurplusLinesIns.Co.v.GeoPipeCo.25S.W.3d900905ex.Ct.App.2000SnyderGeneralCorp.v.CenturyIndem.Co.907F.Supp.9911001N.D.ex.1995MesaOperatingCo.v.Cal.UnionIns.Co.986S.W.2d749757exCt.App.1999andoneromNewYorkAm.Ins.Co.v.FairchildIndus.Inc.852F.Supp.11731182n.18E.D.N.Y.1994thecourtrejectedwhatitlabeledthehomeownersmetaphysicalmomenttheoryatermitborrowedromthosecases.Id.at853-54.Itacknowledgedthattheremaybesomemicro-analyzedinstantintimewhenapipegoesromawater-tighttonon-water-tightconditionAgradualprocessviewedthroughanelectronmicroscopethatcanshowphysicalchangesoccurringinnanosecondscanappearsuddenatcertainpointsintime.Givenasmallenoughtimeintervalevenaslowgradualleakissudden.Id.at854.Butitrejectedtheuseosuchphilosophicalspeculationinthecontextoinsurancepolicylanguageinterpretation.Underthelogicotheinsuredstheoryeveryeventorconditionnotexistingromthedawnotimewouldbeconsideredsuddenbecauseatonemomentitdidnotexistandthenextmomentitdid.Id.at853.Interpretingsuddeninsuchawaywouldimpermissiblyreadthetemporalcomponentothetermoutothepolicy.Id.at853-54.ForthemathematicallyinclinedthecourtoeredanequationtoexplainwhythehomeownersargumentailedTereisalwaysatimet1beoretherstwatermoleculebreachesthesuraceoacorrodingpipeandatimet2afertherstwaterbreachesthesuracesuchthatthebreachcanappearsuddenit2-t1issmallenough.Suchacalculushoweverdoesnotmakeagradualreleaseowatersudden.Id.at854.TeMetaphysicalMomentcontinuedfrompage13continuedonpage15 Volume22013verdict15Brownsholdingsuggeststhattheinitialsuddendischargemustcauseassociateddamagebyitselratherthangraduallyovertime.Iasmallleaksfrstdroporspraydoesnotcausedamageoverarelativelyshorttimeinthecontextohumanexperiencebutonlythebuild-upodischargedwateroveraperiodotimecausesdamagethatsnotacoveredsuddendischargeunderthesuddenandaccidentalprovision.Seeid.at852-54.BycontrastBrownnotedadishwaterhosebreakinginmid-cycleawaterheatergivingoutandoodingaroomoranoverowingtoiletwouldbeasuddendischarge.Id.at853.Ineachotheseexamplestheinitialwaterdischargecausesasubstantialamountowatertoescapeenoughwatertocauseimmediatedamage.OntheotherhandaprocessthatoccursslowlyandincrementallyoverarelativelylongtimebeorecausingdamageliketheonedescribedinBrowncannotreasonablybecalledsudden.Id.at852.Itdoesntmatteriaplumberlabelsthepipeleakasaburstoranexpertdeclaresthattheleakbegansuddenlyinanano-second.Whatmattersiswhetherinthecontextocommonhumanexperiencethedamagingquantumowaterdischargedgraduallyorcontinuouslyoveranextendedperiodotimecausingdamage.Brownandtherestofthecountry.ManyhomeownerspoliciesincludelanguagesimilartothatinBrowneitherinarestrictedcoveragegrantorbywayoexclusionoranexceptiontoanexclusion.Althoughitmaysurprisemanyhomeownersandjudgesmoststandardhomeownerspoliciessimplydonotcoverslowwaterleaks.SurprisinglythereisadearthoreporteddecisionsaddressingcoverageorslowwaterpipeleaksnotjustinCaliorniabutacrossthecountry.BrownappearstocomeupwiththecorrectruleIdamagedoesnotresultunlesswaterleaksoveranextendedperiodotimethereisnocoveragenomatterhowsuddenthefrstdropmightbeconceptualized.TatatleastistheanswerinCaliorniaornow.Anyotherrulenonsensicallywouldsuggestthatallpipeleaksarecoveredortherewillalwaysbeamomentintimeimeasuredinsmallenoughincrementswhenapipegoesromawatertighttoanon-watertightcondition.GaryWaxjoinedthecivilappealsrmGreinesMartinSteinRichlandLLPin2010aferadecade-longcareerasanexecutiveinthelmindustry.GaryspecializesinbriengandarguingcivilappealsinCaliorniaandederalcourts.RobertOlsonisapartnerinthecivilappealsrmGreinesMartinSteinRichlandLLP.HeistheAssociationoSouthernCaliorniaDeenseCounselsPresidentElectco-chairotheAssociationsamicuscommitteeandalong-timepresenterotheYearinReviewprogramattheAssociationsAnnualSeminar.TeMetaphysicalMomentcontinuedfrompage14 16verdictVolume22013 Volume22013verdict17ThereseemstobeasurgeintradesecretlitigationinCaliorniawithplaintifsseekingextensivemonetaryandinjunctiverelie.Howeverundertheheadstartdoctrinetherecoveryonplaintifsclaimsshouldbelimitedtotherelieneededtoeliminateanyheadstartincompetitionthatthedeendantsgainedbymisappropriatingtradesecrets.Tatistherelieavailableshouldnotallowtheplaintiftorecoverbasedontheassumptionthatallcompetitionbythedeendantiswrongulbutshouldinsteadreectnomorethantheprotslostbytheplaintifortheunjustenrichmentgainedbythedeendantduringthetimeitwouldhavetakenthedeendanttodiscoverordevelopthetradesecretindependentlybypropermeans.Unortunatelyneitherthelanguageotherelevantstatutesnorthestandardjuryinstructionsontradesecretmisappropriationclaimsclearlyreecttheheadstartlimitationonthescopeoavailablerelie.Accordinglycounseldeendingagainsttradesecretmisappropriationclaimsshouldunderstandandasserttheheadstartdoctrineasalimitationonanycourt-imposedinjunctiverelieandproposejuryinstructionstailoredtoaccountorthislimitationonthescopeoanydamagesaward.AssertingtheheadstartdeensetolimittherelieavailableormisappropriationTradeSecretMisappropriationDamagesandeUnderusedHeadStartDoctrineDefenseH.TomasWatsonandKarenM.BrayotradesecretsisimportantbecauseCaliorniasstatutorycauseoactionpreemptscommonlawclaimsthatarebasedonthesamenucleusoactsasthetradesecretmisappropriationclaimorrelieincludingbreachocondenceintererencewithcontractandunaircompetitionK.C.MultimediaInc.v.BankofAmericaechnologyOperationsInc.2009171Cal.App.4th939954957-960anditalsopreemptsothergeneralstatutorycausesoactionsuchasaclaimunderBusinessandProessionsCodesection17200basedonthemisappropriationoatradesecretDigitalEnvoyInc.v.GoogleInc.N.D.Cal.2005370F.Supp.2d10251034-1035applyingCaliornialaw.SeeChinetal.Cal.PracticeGuideEmploymentLitigationTeRutterGroup20121481.5to1481.7p.14-10.AccordinglyicertainclaimeddamagesorinjunctiverelieisunavailableunderCaliorniasstatutorycauseoactionormisappropriationotradesecretsthatreliecannotbeobtainedsimplybyassertingadiferentlegaltheory.Testatutorybackdrop.In1979theCommissionersonUniormStateLawsapprovedtheUniormradeSecretsActUSA.14WestsU.LawsAnn.1998U.radeSecretsActwith1985Amendments.In1984CaliorniaenacteditsversionotheUSACUSAwhichiscodiedatCivilCodesections3426etseq.See13WitkinSummaryoCal.Law10thed.2005Equity86-90pp.382-389summarizingthehistoryoprovisionsotheCUSA.TeCUSAcloselytrackstheUSA.UTSACUTSADEFINITIONOFTRADESECRETUTSA1subd.4Civ.Code3426.1subd.dINJUCTOVERELIEFUTSA2Civ.Code3426.2DAMAGESUTSA3Civ.Code3426.3TeCUSAallowsplaintifstorecoverseveraltypesodamagesnoneowhichareexpresslylimitedbytheheadstartdoctrine.FirsttheCUSAallowsplaintifstorecoverdamagesortheactuallosscausedbymisappropriationandortheunjustenrichmentcausedbymisappropriationthatisnottakenintoaccountincomputingdamagesoractualloss.Civ.Code3426.3subd.a.Whereneitherdamagesnorunjustenrichmentcausedbymisappropriationareprovablethecourtmayorderpaymentoareasonableroyaltyornolongerthantheperiodotimetheusecouldhavebeenprohibited.Civ.Code3426.3subd.b.Finallywherewillulandmaliciousmisappropriationexiststhecourtmayawardexemplarydamagesinanamountnotexceedingtwiceanyawardmadeundertheaboveprovisions.Ibid.Atthetimethecontinuedonpage18 18verdictVolume22013CUSAwasenactedtheUSAsimilarlyallowedplaintistorecoveroractuallossesunjustenrichmentandexemplarydamagesandin1985theUSAwasamendedtoalloworrecoveryoareasonableroyaltywhereactuallossorunjustenrichmentcouldnotbeestablished.14U.L.A.1985U.radeSecretsAct3pp.455-456.TeCUSAdoesnotexpresslymentiontheheadstartdoctrineasalimitationonthescopeoavailablerelieorthemisappropriationotradesecretsandthereisscantlegislativehistoryonCaliorniasenactmentotheCUSA.TestandardjuryinstructionsgoverningrelieavailableorthemisappropriationotradesecretsCACINos.3903N44094410arelikewisesilentregardingtheheadstartdoctrine.HoweverbecausetheCUSAwascloselymodeledontheUSAhistoryregardingtheenactmentotheUSAprovidesguidanceregardingthemeaningotheCUSA.SeeHoechstCelaneseCorp.v.FranchiseTaxBd.200125Cal.4th508519WheretheLegislatureadoptsauniormactthehistorysurroundingthecreationandadoptionothatuniormactisalsorelevant.AndthehistoryotheUSAclearlyreectsaheadstartlimitationonthescopeorelieavailableinactionsbasedonthemisappropriationotradesecrets.TeUSAincorporatestheheadstartlimitationonrelief.TattheheadstartdoctrinelimitstherelieavailableorthemisappropriationoatradesecretisdemonstratedintheocialcommentontheadditionotheUSAtotheUniormLaws.Withrespecttoinjunctiverelieftheocialcommentstatesthatthisactadoptsthepositionothetrendoauthoritylimitingthedurationoinjunctiverelietotheextentothetemporaladvantageovergoodaithcompetitorsgainedbyamisappropriator.Seee.g.K-2SkiCo.v.HeadSkiCo.Inc.9thCir.1974506F.2d471K-2SkiCo.maximumappropriatedurationobothtemporaryandpermanentinjunctiverelieisperiodotimeitwouldhavetakendeendanttodiscovertradesecretslawullythrougheitherindependentdevelopmentorreverseengineeringoplaintisproducts.14U.L.A.1985U.radeSecretsAct2cmt.p.450seeK-2SkiCo.atp.474WearesatisedthattheappropriatedurationortheinjunctionshouldbetheperiodotimeitwouldhavetakenHeadeitherbyreverseengineeringorbyindependentdevelopmenttodevelopitsskilegitimatelywithoutuseotheK-2tradesecretsaccordLamb-WestonInc.v.McCainFoodsLtd.9thCir.1991941F.2d970974AninjunctioninatradesecretcaseseekstoprotectthesecrecyomisappropriatedinormationandtoeliminateanyunairheadstartthedeendantmayhavegainedWinstonResearchCorp.v.MinnesotaMiningMfg.Co.9thCir.1965350F.2d134142injunctionproperlylimitedtotheapproximateperioditwouldrequirealegitimate...competitortodevelopthetradesecretaferpublicdisclosureothesecretinormationseealsoortsReviewof1984SelectedCaliforniaLegislation198416PacicL.J.725733n.19Temoderntrendistoissuealimitedinjunctionortheapproximateperiodacompetitorwouldrequiretolegitimatelyproduceacopyaferpublicdisclosureothesecret.Withrespecttomonetaryrelieftheocialcommentstatesthatlikeinjunctiverelieamonetaryrecoveryortradesecretmisappropriationisappropriateonlyortheperiodinwhichinormationisentitledtoprotectionasatradesecretplustheadditionaltimeianyinwhichamisappropriatorretainsanadvantageovergoodaithcompetitorsbecauseomisappropriation.Actualdamagestoacomplainantandunjustbenettoamisappropriatorarecausedbymisappropriationduringthistimealone.14U.L.A.MasterEd.com.to3p.456citingConmarProductsCorp.v.UniversalSlideFastenerCo.2dCir.1949172F.2d150CarbolineCo.v.JarboeMo.1970454S.W.2d540.InadditiontotheUSAocialcommentthetranscriptothecommissionersdiscussionsattheNationalConerenceoCommissionersonUniormStateLawsrevealthecommissionersintenttoadoptaheadstartlimitationontheavailableremedies.Forexamplethecommissionersidentiedthelimitednatureotradesecretprotection.Duringtheinitialconerencein1972acommissionerexplainedthatthetentativeproposalotheSpecialCommitteeistolimittheremediesavailableagainstsuchamisappropriatortothosewhichwilldeprivehimothebenetothetimeandexpensesavedbyhismisappropriation.1972R22.Whereyouhaveamisappropriationsosomeonehasashortcutoverhiscompetitorsintermsobeingabletopracticethetradesecret...whatisofendoneinthissituationisaso-calledleadtimeinjunction...sotheinjunctionwouldbeorthe...periodtotakeawaythisleadtime.1972R23.hedeenseexistsromthattimethatatradesecretbecomesreadilyascertainablebypropermeansbypersonsotherthanapriormisappropriator.1972R24.hekindoremedythatisgiveninthiskindocaseisaninjunctionagainstleadtimeinthedevelopmentoaproductromatradesecretsaybecauseomisappropriation.1972R38.Similarlyduringthenextconerencein1978commissionersexplainedthattheUSAseekstoeliminatewhatevercommercialadvantagehadbeenacquiredthroughthemisappropriationwhichinvolvestheconceptothelead-timeinjunctionbutthatnopermanentinjunctionmayissue.1978R7-8.Insteadtheinjunctionshouldbelimitedtotheperiodoreverseengineering.1978R37.Inotherwordstheperiodotimerequiredorreverseengineeringwouldbethedurationothereliethehead-startperiodyougainthroughmisappropriation.1978R40-41.Tenduringthenalconerencein1979acommissionersaidtheUSAproposedocialcommentwasintendedtoindicatethatthedamagescausedbymisappropriationwhichisalimitationonbothdamagesandprotsistiedtothesectionlimitingthedurationotheinjunctiveremedy.1979R66.AnothercommissionerquestionedwhetherorpurposesoarrivingatanunjustenrichmentrecoverywouldthereverseengineeringperiodthatsreerredtoinSection2beusedtoprovideacut-oothatrecoveryperiod1979R68.Teresponsewasinthearmative.1979R68.TesameTeHeadStartDoctrineDefensecontinuedfrompage17continuedonpage19 Volume22013verdictgreensheetsiLisaPerrochetTheGreenSheetsalthoughpublishedlaterthanmostcurrentadvancesheetsbecauseocopydeadlinesshouldserveasauseulrevieworecentimportantdecisions.ReadersareinvitedtosuggestsignicantdecisionsorinclusioninthenextGreenSheetsedition.PleasecontactLPerrochethorvitzlevy.comomaketheGreenSheetsauseultooltodeensecounseltheyareprintedingreenandinsertedinthemiddleoVerdictmagazineeachissue.Teycanbeeasilyremovedandledorurtherreerence.OcoursetheGreenSheetsarealwaysoneattorneysinterpretationothecaseandeachattorneyshouldthoroughlyreadthecasesbeorecitingthemorrelyingonthisdigest.Careulcounselwillalsochecksubsequenthistorybeoreciting.greensheetsNOTESONRECENTDECISIONScontinuedonpageiiCIVILPROCEDURETrialcourtabusesitsdiscretionbypermittingplaintifftoamendcomplaintabsentshowingofexcusefordelaywheredelayprejudiceddefendantstrialpreparation.Duchrowv.Forrest2013215Cal.App.4th359Inthisactionbyanattorneyagainsthisormerclientalsoanattorneytheplaintiattorneyclaimedhisclienthadcausedhim44000indamages.Atthecloseotrialhemovedtoamendtoconormtoprooclaimingdamagesoover300000basedonanewliabilitytheorythatturnedonaretaineragreementprovisionthathadnotbeenpleadedinthecomplaint.Tejudgeallowedtheamendmentandthejuryawarded140000.TeCourtoAppealSecondDistrictDivisionOnereversedobservingthatplaintioerednoreasonorthedelayinseekingtheamendmenttheamendmentchangedtherelevantactsandthetheoryoliabilitysignicantlyincreasingthedamagesrequestedwarrantingadditionaldiscoveryandtheuseoanexpertwitnessonattorneyeeawardsmakingrepresentationbycounselallthemoreimportantandrequiringresearchtodeterminetheenorceabilityoparagraph9andtheamendmentresultedinprejudice.Whereapartyfailstoobtainajudgmentmorefavorablethaneitheroftwosection998settlementoffersexpertwitnessfeesmayberecoveredfromthedateoftherstoffer.Martinezv.BrowncoConstructionCo.201356Cal.4th1014UnderCodeoCivilProceduresection998aprevailingpartymayrecovertheeesoitsexpertwitnesseswhichordinarilyarenotrecoverableascostsibeoretrialtheprevailingpartymadeasection998settlementoerthatwasnotacceptedbytheothersideandthepartylaterobtainsabetterresultattrial.Tequestioninthiscasewashowthisruleworkswhenapartymadetwopretrialoersbothowhichweremoreavorabletotheothersidethantheresultthepartyreachedattrial.TeSupremeCourtheldthattheoeringpartymayrecoveritsexperteesincurredromthedateotheearlierothetwomoreavorablesettlementoers.Tecourtreasonedthatusinganearlierdateorcost-shifingwouldosterthegoaloencouragingthemakingandacceptingosettlementoers.Tecourtlefinplacepriorlowercourtdecisionsholdingthatwhereapartymakesaninitialoerollowedbyasecondoerandtheprevailingpartyobtainsajudgmentthatismoreavorablethanthesecondoerbutnottherstthesecondoerextinguishestherstoerorpurposesosection998.SeeWilsonv.Wal-MartStoresInc.199972Cal.App.4th382Distefanov.Hall1968263Cal.App.2d380.Voume22013erictgreenseetsierrocetTheGreenSheetsalthoughpublishedlaterthanmostcurrentadvancesheetsbecauseocopydeadlinesshouldserveasauseulrevieworecentimportantdecisions.ReadersareinvitedtosuggestsignicantdecisionsorinclusioninthenextGreenSheetsedition.PleasecontactLPerrochethorvitzlevy.comomaketheGreenSheetsauseultooltodeensecounseltheyareprintedingreenandinsertedinthemiddleoVerdicmagazineeachissue.Teycanbeeasilyremovedandledorurtherreerence.OcoursetheGreenSheetsarealwaysoneattorneysinterpretationothecaseandeachattorneyshouldthorouhlyreadthecasesbeorecitinthemorrelyinonthisdiest.Careulcounselwillalsochecksubsequenthistorybeorecitin.rnNTEREETDEIIcontnueonpageIEracourtausestsscretonermttnlaintifftoamendcomlaintabsentshowinofexcusefordelawheredelareudicedefendantstrialrearation.Duchrowv.Forrest2013215al.A.4th359nthisactionbyanattorneyagainsthisormerclientalsoanattorneytheplaintiattorneyclaimedhisclienthadcausedhim44000indamages.Atthecloseotrialhemovedtoamendtoconormtoprooclaimingdamagesoover300000basedonanewliabilitytheorythatturnedonaretaineragreementprovisionthathadnotbeenpleadedinthecomplaint.Tejudgeallowedtheamendmentandthejuryawarded140000.TeCourtoAppealSecondDistrictDivisionOnereversedobservingthatplaintioerednoreasonorthedelayinseekingtheamendmenttheamendmentchangedtherelevantactsandthetheoryoliabilitysignicantlyincreasingthedamagesrequestedwarrantingadditionaldiscoveryandtheuseoanexpertwitnessonattorneyeeawardsmakingrepresentationbycounselallthemoreimportantandrequiringresearchtodeterminetheenorceabilityoparagraph9andtheamendmentresultedinprejudice.Whereapartfailstoobtainajudgmentmrfvrlhnihrfwinsettlementoffersexpertwitnessfeesmaberecoveredfromthedateoftherstoffer.Martinezv.BrowncoConstructionCo.2013l.4h114nderCodeoCivilProceduresection998aprevailingpartymayrecovertheeesoitsexpertwitnesseswhichordinarilyarenotrecoverableascostsibeoretrialtheprevailinpartymadeasection998settlementoerthatwasnotacceptedbytheothersideandthepartylaterobtainsabetterresultattrial.Tequestioninthiscasewashowthisruleworkswhenapartymadetwopretrialoersbothowhichweremoreavorabletotheothersidethantheresultthepartyreachedattrial.TeSupremeCourtheldthattheoerinpartymayrecoveritsexperteesincurredromthedateotheearlierothetwomoreavorablesettlementoers.Tecourtreasonedthatusinanearlierdateorcost-shifinwouldostertheoaloencourainthemakinandacceptinosettlementoers.Tecourtlefinplacepriorlowercourtdecisionsholdinthatwhereapartymakesaninitialoerollowedbyasecondoerandtheprevailinpartyobtainsajudmentthatismoreavorablethanthesecondoerbutnotherstthesecondoerextinuishestherstoerorpurposesosection998.Seeilsonv.Wal-MartStoresInc.199972Cal.App.4th382Distefanov.Hal1968263Cal.App.2d380. iiverdictgreensheetsVolume22013SeealsoMonChongLoongTradingCorp.v.SuperiorCourt2013218Cal.App.4th87SecondDist.Div.Treeavoluntarydismissalconstitutestheconclusionotheactionandisthereoreanappropriateprecipitatingeventtriggeringthetrialcourtsdiscretionastotheassessmentoexpertwitnesseesundersection998.selngparemayrelveprmarydpuewhavlunarydmalfheanbyplanffwhlereervngprevalngparyaufrlaerdeermnanbyheurmakeaauryfeeaward.KhavarianEnterprisesInc.v.CommlineInc.2013216Cal.App.4th310PlaintisuedortradesecretmisappropriationaerwhichthepartiesenteredintoasettlementagreementthatallowedplaintitomovepursuanttoCivilCodesection3426.4orattorneyeesandtoleamemorandumocostspursuanttoCodeoCivilProceduresection1033.5.TepartiesagreedthattheSuperiorCourtwouldretainjurisdictionpursuanttoCodeoCivilProceduresection664.6toenorcethesettlementagreement.Finallythepartiesagreedtomutualdismissalothecaseinitsentiretyandtomutualreleases.TeythenledajointnoticeocompletesettlementreservingonlytheissueoPlaintiscostsandattorneyseeswhichshallbesubmittedtotheCourt.TepartiesdismissedtheactionnotingPlaintitoseparatelyseekrecoveryoeesandcostssubjecttoopposition.Plaintiledamemorandumocostsandeemotion.Tetrialcourtdeniedthemotionandgrantedthedeendantsmotiontostrikethecostmemondingthatthecourtcouldnotproperlydecideeithermotionbecausethematterwasresolvedbysettlementagreementpriortotrial.TeCourtoAppealSecondDistrictDivisionFourreversedconcludingthatpartiestoasettlementagreementcanvalidlyspeciythatonepartyispotentiallyaprevailingpartyandreserveorlaterdeterminationbythetrialcourtwhetherthatpartydidprevailaswellasotheractualmattersinvolvedinmakinganawardostatutoryattorneyees.Tecourtremandedtothetrialcourttoconsiderthemotions.tralurgaekeeperauhryexludeexperpnnfferednppnummaryjudgmenmrelmedhanaral.Garrettv.HowmedicaOsteonicsCorp.2013214Cal.App.4th173.Inthispersonalinjuryactionassertingaproductliabilityinaprostheticdevicethedeendantmovedorsummaryjudgmentduetolackocompetentevidenceoanydeect.Plaintiopposedthemotionwiththedeclarationoametallurgicalexpertwhoopinedthatthedevicehadracturedbecausethedeendantmanuacturerusedmaterialsthatailedtomeetunspeciedindustrystandardsbuttheexpertdidnotexplainthebasisorthatopinionasideromrecountinggenericnamesotestsperormed.Tetrialcourtrejectedportionsotheexpertsdeclarationandgrantedsummaryjudgment.TeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.Treereversed.Tecourtheldthattrialcourtsauthoritytoexcludeexpertopinionsismorelimitedinconnectionwithamotionorsummaryjudgmentthanitisattrial.InourviewKasharsailuretodescribetheparticulartestingprocessesthatheusedtoarriveathisconclusions...andhisailuretomoreparticularlydescribetheresultsothattestingdonotinanymannerindicatethathisconclusionsarespeculativeconjecturalorlackareasonablebasis.Whatevershortcomingsthatcross-examinationmayormaynotrevealinKasharstestingmethodsandopinionwebelievethattheabsenceomorespecicinormationastothetestingmethodsusedandtheresultsobtainedwouldnotprovideanygroundsorthetrialcourttoconcludethattherewasnoreasonablebasisorKasharsopinion.TecourtacknowledgedtherecentCaliorniaSupremeCourtdecisioninSargonEnterprisesInc.v.UniversityofSouthernCalifornia201255Cal.4th747whichcalledupontrialcourttoexerciseagreatergatekeepingroleinexcludingunoundedexpertopinions.HoweverthecourtrestrictedSargonittoitsproceduralposturewhichconcernedanEvidenceCodesection402hearinginthecontextoatrial.Paremayhallengeurreprerraefrdepnranrpbumuakeapprpraeepnhependnganavdwaverfhahallenge.LasCanoasCo.v.Kramer2013216Cal.App.4th96TeplaintiinthiscasehadbeenapartyinearlierlitigationandinthisputativeclassactioncontendedthecourtreportingservicehadoverchargedordepositiontranscriptsinviolationoGovernmentCodesection2025.510andtheUnairCompetitionLawUCL.Teplaintihadnothoweverraisedtheoverchargingclaimbeorethecourtinwhichthepriorlitigationwaspending.Tetrialcourtsustainedthedeendantsdemurreronthegrounditlackedsubjectmatterjurisdictionoverthecontroversy.eCourtoAppealSecondDistrictDivisionSixafrmed.Tecourtconrmedthatatrialcourthasstatutoryauthoritytodeterminethereasonablerateacourtreportermaychargeanon-noticingpartyorcopiesodepositiontranscriptsinapendingaction.SeeSerranov.StefanMerliPlasteringCo.Inc.2008162Cal.App.4th1014.Howeverthecourtruledanon-noticingpartywhodoesnotmoveorsuchanorderinthependingactionmaynotbringasubsequentactiontoobtainrestitutionorunreasonablecopychargesorobtaininjunctivereliesettingareasonableratetobechargedbythatcourtreporterinallutureactions.PRoDUctLiABiLitYsrprdulablydependnhefreeeablyfrkfnjurywhuregardwheherheurefherkuhaarmnalabyahrdparyfreeeable.Collinsv.NavistarInc.2013214Cal.App.4th1436.Tisproductliabilityactionarisesromaninjurysustainedwhenachunkoconcretethrownoanoverpasscrashedthroughthewindshieldoabigrigtruckandstruckthedriversheadleadingtohisdeath.Tejuvenilewhothrewtheconcretepleadedguiltytoassaultwithadeadlyweaponandreceivedaprisonsentence.TedriverswidowsuedthetruckmanuacturerarguingthewindshieldcouldhavebeendesignedinawaythatwouldhavemadeitlessnnuedfrmpagennuednpageiierictgreenseetsVoume22013SeealsoMonChongLoongTraingCorp.v.SuperiorCourt2013218Cal.App.4th87SecondDist.Div.Treeavoluntarydismissalconstitutestheconclusionotheactionandisthereoreanappropriateprecipitatingeventtriggeringthetrialcourtsdiscretionastotheassessmentoexpertwitnesseesundersection998.selngparemayrelveprmarydpuewhavlunarydmalfheanbyplanffwhlereervngprevalngparyaufrlaerdeermnanbyheurmakeaauryfeeaward.KhavarianEnterrisesInc.v.ommlineInc2013216al.A.4th310PlaintisuedortradesecretmisappropriationaerwhichthepartiesenteredintoasettlementagreementthatallowedplaintitomovepursuanttoCivilCodesection3426.4orattorneyeesandtoleamemorandumocostspursuanttoCodeoCivilProceduresection1033.5.TepartiesagreedthattheSuperiorCourtwouldretainjurisdictionpursuanttoCodeoCivilProceduresection664.6toenorcethesettlementagreement.Finallythepartiesagreedtomutualdismissalothecaseinitsentiretyandtomutualreleases.TeythenledajointnoticeocompletesettlementreservingonlytheissueoPlaintiscostsandattorneyseeswhichshallbesubmittedtotheCourt.TepartiesdismissedtheactionnotingPlaintitoseparatelyseekrecoveryoeesandcostssubjecttoopposition.Plaintiledamemorandumocostsandeemotion.Tetrialcourtdeniedthemotionandgrantedthedeendantsmotiontostrikethecostmemondingthatthecourtcouldnotproperlydecideeithermotionbecausethematterwasresolvedbysettlementagreementpriortotrial.TeCourtoAppealSecondDistrictDivisionFourreversedconcludingthatpartiestoasettlementagreementcanvalidlyspeciythatonepartyispotentiallyaprevailingpartyandreserveorlaterdeterminationbythetrialcourtwhetherthatpartydidprevailaswellasotheractualmattersinvolvedinmakinganawardostatutoryattorneyees.Tecourtremandedtothetrialcourttoconsiderthemotions.tralurgaekeeperauhryexludeexperpnnfferednppnummaryjudgmenmrelmedhanaral.arrettv.Howmedicasteonicsor.2013214al.A.4th173.nthispersonalinjuryactionassertingaproductliabilityinaprostheticdevicethedeendantmovedorsummaryjudgmentduetolackocompetentevidenceoanydeect.Plaintiopposedthemotionwiththedeclarationoametallurgicalexpertwhoopinedthatthedevicehadracturedbecausethedeendantmanuacturerusedmaterialsthatailedtomeetunspeciedindustrystandardsbuttheexpertdidnotexplainthebasisorthatopinionasideromrecountinggenericnamesotestsperormed.Tetrialcourtrejectedportionsotheexpertsdeclarationandgrantedsummaryjudgment.TeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.Treereversed.Tecourtheldthattrialcourtsauthoritytoexcludeexpertopinionsismorelimitedinconnectionwithamotionorsummaryjudmentthanitisattrial.InourviewKasharsailuretodescribetheparticulartestingprocessesthatheusedtoarriveathisconclusions...andhisailuretomoreparticularlydescribetheresultsothattestingdonotinanymannerindicatethathisconclusionsarespeculativeconjecturalorlackareasonablebasis.Whatevershortcomingsthatcross-examinationmayormaynotrevealinKasharstestingmethodsandopinionwebelievethattheabsenceomorespecicinormationastothetestingmethodsusedandtheresultsobtainedwouldnotprovideanygroundsorthetrialcourttoconcludethattherewasnoreasonablebasisorKasharsopinion.TecourtacknowledgedtherecentCaliorniaSupremeCourtdecisioninSargonEnterprisesInc.v.UniversityofSouthernCalifornia201255Cal.4th747whichcalledupontrialcourttoexerciseagreatergatekeepingroleinexcludingunoundedexpertopinions.HoweverthecourtrestrictedSargonittoitsproceduralposturewhichconcernedanEvidenceCodesection402hearinginthecontextoatrial.Paremayhallengeurreprerraefrdepnranrpbumuakeapprpraeepnhependnganavdwaverfhahallenge.Lasanoaso.v.Krame2013216al.A.4th96TeplaintiinthiscasehadbeenapartyinearlierlitiationandinthisputativeclassactioncontendedthecourtreportinservicehadovercharedordepositiontranscriptsinviolationoGovernmentCodesection2025.510andtheUnairCompetitionLawUCL.Teplaintihadnothoweverraisedtheovercharinclaimbeorethecourtinwhichthepriorlitiationwaspendin.Tetrialcourtsustainedthedeendantsdemurrerontherounditlackedsubjectmatterjurisdictionoverthecontroversy.eCourtoAppealSecondDistrictDivisionSixafrmed.Tecourtconrmedthatatrialcourthasstatutoryauthoritytodeterminethereasonablerateacourtreportermaychareanon-noticinpartyorcopiesodepositiontranscriptsinapendinaction.SeeSerranov.StefanMerliPlasteringCo.Inc.2008162Cal.App.4th1014.Howeverthecourtruledanon-noticinpartywhodoesnotmoveorsuchanorderinthependinactionmaynotbrinasubsequentactiontoobtainrestitutionorunreasonablecopychargesorobtaininjunctivereliesettingareasonableratetobechargedbythatcourtreporterinallutureactions.PRoDUctLiABiLitYsrprdulablydependnhefreeeablyfrkfnjurywhuregardwheherheurefherkuhaarmnalabyahrdparyfreeeable.ollinsv.NavistarInc2013214al.A.4th1436.Tisproductliabilityactionarisesromaninjurysustainedwhenachunkoconcretethrownoanoverpasscrashedthroughthewindshieldoabigrigtruckandstruckthedriversheadleadingtohisdeath.Tejuvenilewhothrewtheconcretepleadedguiltytoassaultwithadeadlyweaponandreceivedaprisonsentence.Tedriverswidowsuedthetruckmanuacturerarguingthewindshieldcouldhavebeendesignedinawaythatwouldhavemadeitlessnnuedfrmpagennuednpage Volume22013verdictgreensheetsiiivulnerabletopenetrationbyfyingdebrisanditwasthereoredeectivelydesigned.Tetrialcourtinstructedthejurytodetermineasathresholdissuewhetherthejuvenilescriminalconductwasanunoreseeablesuperveningcauseothedriversinjury.Tejuryansweredyestothatquestionandthereorereachedadeenseverdictwithoutevaluatingtheelementsostrictproductsliability.TeCourtoAppealTirdDistrictreversedholdingthetrialcourtimproperlyinstructedthejuryonwhetherthemanuacturerwouldhaveoreseenthejuvenilescriminalconduct.Tecourtreasonedthatstrictproductsliabilitydoesnotdependonthecriminalornoncriminalnatureothesourceotheriskbutonitsoreseeability.Tecourtexplainedthatfyingdebrisisanordinaryandoreseeableroadhazardandthatthepurposeoawindshieldistoprotectvehicleoccupantsagainsttheriskobeinghitbysuchdebris.Amanuacturerthereorehasadutytodesignitswindshieldstobereasonablycapableoperormingthatintendedunction.Itwasimmaterialthattherockwhichpenetratedthewindshieldinthisparticularcasewasthrownintentionally.Tecourtremandedthecaseoranewtrial.Rulbarrngrcprduclablyclamaganmanufacurrwhprduccaudnjurywhnudncnjuncnwhanhrmanufacurrprducbaraclamfrnjurycauddurngunnnddufprducvnfplanffallgdhdgnwuldalhavcaudnjuryfudnannnddmannr.Sanchezv.HitachiKokiCo.Ltd.2013217Cal.App.4th948.Teplaintitriedtocutanautomobiletireusingagrindermanuacturedbythedeendantandaseparatelypurchasedsawbladetousewiththegrindercontrarytothesaetyinstructionsandmanualorthegrinderwarningthatsawbladesshouldneverbeusedwiththegrinder.Whenthesawbladecameintocontactwiththetireplaintilostcontrolandthesawbladecutplaintishand.TedeendantmovedorsummaryjudgmentrelyingonONeilv.CraneCo.201253Cal.4th335inwhichtheCaliorniaSupremeCourtheldthataproductmanuacturermaynotbeheldliableinstrictliabilityornegligenceorharmcausedbyanothermanuacturersproductunlessthedeendantsownproductcontributedsubstantiallytotheharmorthedeendantparticipatedsubstantiallyincreatingaharmulcombineduseotheproducts.Tetrialcourtgrantedsummaryjudgment.TeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.Fourarmed.LiketheplaintiinONeilSanchezsuedonemanuacturerortheharmcausedbyanothermanuacturersproduct.AndasinONeilSanchezsinjuriesarosewhentheproductusedwiththedeendant-manuacturersproductcausedhimharm.TemanuacturerothegrinderwasnotliablebecauseaSanchezwasnotinjuredbyanyintendeduseothegrinder...Imposingliabilityunderthecircumstancesherewouldconvertstrictliabilityintoabsoluteliabilityorproductmanuacturersbnoevidencesuggeststhatthegrinderwouldinevitablycausepersonalinjurywhenusedasdirectedcnoevidenceshowsthatrespondentsspecicallydesignedthegrindertobeusedinproximitytoorincombinationwithsawbladesanddrespondentswereundernodutytowarnotheconsequencesoattachingtothegrinderanaccessorywithwhichitwasneverintendedtobeused....Itdidnotmatterthatplaintiallegedthegrinderwasdangerousevenwhenusedproperlyplaintimaynotpredicatehisclaimsonthespeculativeharmthatmighthavebeallensomeoneelseputtingthegrindertoitsintendeduse.PRoFessioNALResPoNsiBiLitYAttorneydisqualifcationorderisanabusefdcrnabnahwnghaprrarny-clnrlanhpwhppngparynmlarlganxpdarnytoconfdencesthatwouldbematerialtotheprnlgan.Khaniv.FordMotorCo.2013215Cal.App.4th916.InthisLemonLawcasethedeendantsuccessullymovedtodisqualiytheplaintisattorneyonthegroundthattheattorneyhadpreviouslyrepresentedthedeendantin150mattersincludingsimilarLemonLawcases.Tedeendantscounseloeredevidencetosupportaplaybooktheoryodisqualicationi.e.thattheattorneywasprivytocondentialclientcommunicationsandinormationrelatingtothedeenseosuchcasesaswellastopre-litigationstrategiestacticsandcasehandlingproceduresandthatheprovidedunspeciedinputtodeendantsOceoGeneralCounselandConsumerAairsandcommunicatedregularlywithdeendantaboutlemonlawcases.Teattorneyappealedthedisqualicationorder.TeCourtoAppealSecondDistrictDivisionFourreversed.ApplyingthesubstantialrelationshiptestorassessingaclaimoanattorneysbreachothedutyocondentialitybasedonsuccessiverepresentationthecourtheldthedeendantsbarebonesshowingwasinsucientinthatitdoesnotshowthatFordhadanypoliciespracticesorproceduresgenerallyapplicabletotheevaluationsettlementorlitigationoCaliorniaLemonLawcasesatthetimetheattorneyrepresenteddeendantorthatanysuchpoliciespracticesorprocedurescontinuedinexistenceunchangedbetween2007and2011.NordoesitshowthatthesamedecisionmakersthatwereinvolvedincasesdeendanthandledorFordareinvolvedinthiscase.Tetrialcourtabuseditsdiscretioninconcludingthatthepriorcasesweresubstantiallyrelatedtothecurrentcasejustbecausetheyinvolvedclaimsunderthesamestatute.Tesubstantialrelationshiptestdoesnotsubjectanattorneytoautomaticdisqualicationonthisgroundalone.Underthisanalysisaplaybooktheoryodisqualicationwouldprevailiamoredetailedshowingasoutlinedbythecourtweremade.cnnudfrmpagVoume22013erictgreenseetsiiivulnerabletopenetrationbyfyingdebrisanditwasthereoredeectivelydesigned.Tetrialcourtinstructedthejurytodetermineasathresholdissuewhetherthejuvenilescriminalconductwasanunoreseeablesuperveningcauseothedriversinjury.Tejuryansweredyestothatquestionandthereorereachedadeenseverdictwithoutevaluatingtheelementsostrictproductsliability.TeCourtoAppealTirdDistrictreversedholdingthetrialcourtimproperlyinstructedthejuryonwhetherthemanuacturerwouldhaveoreseenthejuvenilescriminalconduct.Tecourtreasonedthatstrictproductsliabilitydoesnotdependonthecriminalornoncriminalnatureothesourceotheriskbutonitsoreseeability.Tecourtexplainedthatfyingdebrisisanordinaryandoreseeableroadhazardandthatthepurposeoawindshieldistoprotectvehicleoccupantsagainsttheriskobeinghitbysuchdebris.Amanuacturerthereorehasadutytodesignitswindshieldstobereasonablycapableoperormingthatintendedunction.Itwasimmaterialthattherockwhichpenetratedthewindshieldinthisparticularcasewasthrownintentionally.Tecourtremandedthecaseoranewtrial.Rulbarrngrcprduclablyclamaganmanufacurrwhprduccaudnjurywhnudncnjuncnwhanhrmanufacurrprducbaraclamfrnjurycauddurngunnnddufprducvnfplanffallgdhdgnwuldalhavcaudnjuryfudnannnddmannr.anchezv.HitachiKokio.Ltd2013217al.A.4th948.Teplaintitriedtocutanautomobiletireusingagrindermanuacturedbythedeendantandaseparatelypurchasedsawbladetousewiththegrindercontrarytothesaetyinstructionsandmanualorthegrinderwarningthatsawbladesshouldneverbeusedwiththegrinder.Whenthesawbladecameintocontactwiththetireplaintilostcontrolandthesawbladecutplaintishand.TedeendantmovedorsummaryjudgmentrelyingonNeilv.CraneCo.201253Cal.4th335inwhichtheCaliorniaSupremeCourtheldthataproductmanuacturermaynotbeheldliableinstrictliabilityornegligenceorharmcausedbyanothermanuacturersproductunlessthedeendantsownproductcontributedsubstantiallytotheharmorthedeendantparticipatedsubstantiallyincreatingaharmulcombineduseotheproducts.Tetrialcourtgrantedsummaryjudgment.TeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.Fourarmed.LiketheplaintiinONeilSanchezsuedonemanuacturerortheharmcausedbyanothermanuacturersproduct.AndasinONeilSanchezsinjuriesarosewhentheproductusedwiththedeendant-manuacturersproductcausedhimharm.TemanuacturerothegrinderwasnotliablebecauseaSanchezwasnotinjuredbyanyintendeduseotherinder...Imposinliabilityunderthecircumstancesherewouldconvertstrictliabilityintoabsoluteliabilityorproductmanuacturersbnoevidencesuggeststhatthegrinderwouldinevitablycausepersonalinjurywhenusedasdirectedcnoevidenceshowsthatrespondentsspecicallydesignedthegrindertobeusedinproximitytoorincombinationwithsawbladesanddrespondentswereundernodutytowarnotheconsequencesoattachingtothegrinderanaccessorywithwhichitwasneverintendedtobeused....Itdidnotmatterthatplaintiallegedthegrinderwasdangerousevenwhenusedproperlyplaintimaynotpredicatehisclaimsonthespeculativeharmthatmighthavebeallensomeoneelseputtingthegrindertoitsintendeduse.PRoFessioALResPoNsiBiLitYAttorneydisqualifcationorderisanabusefdcrnabnahwnghaprrarny-clnrlanhpwhppngparynmlarlganxpdarnytoconfdencesthatwouldbematerialtotheprnlgan.Khaniv.FordMotoro.2013215al.App.4th916.InthisLemonLawcasethedeendantsuccessullymovedtodisqualiytheplaintisattorneyontheroundthattheattorneyhadpreviouslyrepresentedthedeendantin150mattersincludinsimilarLemonLawcases.Tedeendantscounseloeredevidencetosupportaplaybooktheoryodisqualicationi.e.thattheattorneywasprivytocondentialclientcommunicationsandinormationrelatintothedeenseosuchcasesaswellastopre-litiationstrateiestacticsandcasehandlinproceduresandthatheprovidedunspeciedinputtodeendantsOceoGeneralCounselandConsumerAairsandcommunicatedreularlywithdeendantaboutlemonlawcases.Teattorneyappealedthedisqualicationorder.eCourtoAppealSecondDistrictDivisionFourreversed.ApplyinthesubstantialrelationshiptestorassessinaclaimoanattorneysbreachothedutyocondentialitybasedonsuccessiverepresentationthecourtheldthedeendantsbarebonesshowinwasinsucientinthatitdoesnotshowthatFordhadanypoliciespracticesorproceduresgenerallyapplicabletotheevaluationsettlementorlitigationoCaliorniaLemonLawcasesatthetimetheattorneyrepresenteddeendantorthatanysuchpoliciespracticesorprocedurescontinuedinexistenceunchangedbetween2007and2011.NordoesitshowthatthesamedecisionmakersthatwereinvolvedincasesdeendanthandledorFordareinvolvedinthiscase.Tetrialcourtabuseditsdiscretioninconcludingthatthepriorcasesweresubstantiallyrelatedtothecurrentcasejustbecausetheyinvolvedclaimsunderthesamestatute.Tesubstantialrelationshiptestdoesnotsubjectanattorneytoautomaticdisqualicationonthisgroundalone.Underthisanalysisaplaybooktheoryodisqualicationwouldprevailiamoredetailedshowingasoutlinedbythecourtweremade.cnnudfrmpag ivverdictgreensheetsVolume22013Attorneydisqualicationorderisanabuseofdirinabnvidnhaharnyprirrlainhipwihppingparyxprexposedattorneytocondencesthatwouldbemarialhprnliigain.DeLucav.StateFishCo.Inc.2013217Cal.App.4th671.Aertheplaintiinthisbusinessdisputedisclosedanexpertwitnesstobecalledattrialthedeendantsuccessullymovedtodisqualiyplaintiscounselonthegroundthatcounselhadobtainedcondentialinormationromanexpertwhohadtestiedonbehalothedeendantinapriortrialinthissamelitigationandwhopossessedcondentialattorney-clientandworkproductinormationlearnedwhenretainedonbehalothedeendant.Plaintiscounselappealed.TeCourtoAppealSecondDistrictDivisionTreereversed.Firstinormationobtainedbyanexpertretainedtotestifyattrialisnotcondential.WhiletestimonythatmayhavebeenobtainedatatimewhentheexpertwasretainedinaconsultingcapacitymayhavebeencondentialthecourtoundthosetwocategoriesoinormationcouldnotbeseparatedoncetheexpertwasdesignatedtotestiyOncethatoccurredanycondentialitywithrespecttobothcategoriesoinormationwaswaived.Moreoverthecourtoundthatevenisomeinormationobtainedbytheexpertwerecondentialsuchinormationcouldonlyprovideabasisoradisqualicationmotioniitwasmateriallyrelatedtothependingproceedings.Attorneydisqualicationorderbasedonimulanurprnainfpariwihpotentiallyconictinginterestsisanabuseofdiscretionabsentanyactualconictorreasonablelikelihoodsuchaconictwouldari.HavasuLakeshoreInvestmentsLLCv.Fleming2013217Cal.App.4th770.Tetrialcourtdisqualiedalawrmromsimultaneouslyrepresentingalimitedliabilitycompanyitsmanagingmemberapartnershipandthepersonwhomanagedthatpartnershipwhowasnothimselamemberothecompanyasplaintisinalawsuitagainsttwoothecompanysminoritymembers.Tecourtoundthattheinterestsothecompanyandthenonmemberindividualpotentiallyconfictedandconcludedthelawrmcouldnotjointlyrepresentthecompanyandthenonmemberindividualagainstthecompanysminoritymembers.Tecourtbaseditsrulingonrule3-310CotheStateBarRulesoProessionalConductwhichconcernslawyersdutyoloyaltytoexistingclients.TeCourtoAppealFourthDistrictDivisionTreereversedndingnoactualconfictointerestexistedbetweenthecompanyandtheindividualwhomanagedthecompanysmanagingmemberandtherewasnoreasonablelikelihoodsuchaconfictwouldarise.Tecourtnotedthatrule3-600Eexpresslypermitscounseltorepresentanorganizationanditsconstituentsinappropriatecircumstancesanddistinguishedtheactsothiscaseromauthoritythatorbidsdualrepresentationinaderivativesuitallegingraudbytheprincipalsbecausetheprincipalsandtheorganizationhaveadverseconfictinginterests.Teopposingpartyarticulatedwhatthecourtdescribedasariskthatthermmayspreaditseltoothinbecomedistractedorprioritizeonematterovertheother.Tisisnotthetypeoconfictaddressedbyrule3-310C.EveniitweredeendantlacksstandingtoraisethisconcernashecannotshowanylegallycognizableinterestthatwasharmedbyHKCsjointrepresentationotheFlemingsadversaries.SeealsoCastlemanv.Sagaser2013216Cal.App.4th481FihDist.claimbyormerclientagainstattorneythatattorneybreacheddutiesoloyaltyandcondentialitydidnotimplicateattorneysreespeechrightssotrialcourtproperlydeclinedtodismissactionunderanti-SLAPPstatute.otHeRtoRtsANDDAMAGesPrimaryaumpinfrikdrinbaruibyplainiffinjurdinwighrmaidnwhilngagdinrrainalpurui.Cannv.Stefanec2013217Cal.App.4th462petitionforreviewpending.Tisnegligenceactionarisesoutoaninjurysustainedwhenduringweighttrainingexercisesoracollegeswimteamthedeendantlostherbalanceanddroppedtheweightshewasliing.Herteammateplaintiwasdoingpush-upsnearbyandallegedinthisactinthattheweighthitherinthehead.Plaintisuedorpersonalinjuriesallegingdeendantwasnegligent.Tetrialcourtgrantedsummaryjudgmentorthedeendantonthegroundoprimaryassumptionorisk.TeCourtoAppealSecondDistrictDivisionFivearmed.Tecourtheldthatbyparticipatinginstrengthtrainingtogetherwithdeendantplaintiassumedtheriskobeinginjuredbyadroppedweighteventhoughshewasengagedinadierentexerciseatthetimeotheaccident.Tecourtrejectedplaintisargumentthatshewasnotaco-participantinasportconcludingthatitisonomomentwhethertheweighttrainingischaracterizedasasportorrecreationasthedoctrineoprimaryassumptionotheriskappliestobothtypesoactivity.ciyinildauryimmuniyfrinjurynarrainalrailvnifhrailwamimudandwaudbyplainiffahimfinjuryfrnn-rrainalaiviy.Montenegrov.CityofBradbury2013215Cal.App.4th924.Aplaintiwhotrippedoveraprotrudingtreetrunkonacitypathwaysuedonapremisesliabilitytheory.TetrialcourtgrantedsummaryjudgmentorthecityonthegroundthatthepathwaywasarecreationaltrailwithinthemeaningoGovernmentCodesection831.4subdivisionawhichprovidesthatpublicentitiesarenotliableorinjuriescausedbytheconditionotrailsusedorcertainrecreationalpurposesincludinghikingandridingincludinganimalandalltypesovehicularridingororaccesstosuchrecreation.TeCourtoAppealSecondDistrictDivisionFourarmed.AlthoughplaintidisputedthatthepathwayonwhichsheellwasarecreationaltrailarguingitwasessentiallyasidewalkthatdidnotcreateatriableissueoacttodeeattheCitysshowingninudnpagviverictgreenseetsVoume22013Attorneydisqualicationorderisanabuseofdirinabnvidnhaharnyprirrlainhipwihppingparyxprexposedattorneytocondencesthatwouldbemarialhprnliigain.DeLucav.tateFisho.Inc.2013217al.App.4th671.Aertheplaintiinthisbusinessdisputedisclosedanexpertwitnesstobecalledattrialthedeendantsuccessullymovedtodisqualiyplaintiscounselonthegroundthatcounselhadobtainedcondentialinormationromanexpertwhohadtestiedonbehalothedeendantinapriortrialinthissamelitigationandwhopossessedcondentialattorney-clientandworkproductinormationlearnedwhenretainedonbehalothedeendant.Plaintiscounselappealed.TeCourtoAppealSecondDistrictDivisionTreereversed.irstinormationobtainedbyanexpertretainedtotestifyattrialisnotcondential.WhiletestimonythatmayhavebeenobtainedatatimewhentheexpertwasretainedinaconsultingcapacitymayhavebeencondentialthecourtoundthosetwocateoriesoinormationcouldnotbeseparatedoncetheexpertwasdesinatedtotestiyOncethatoccurredanycondentialitywithrespecttobothcategoriesoinormationwaswaived.Moreoverthecourtoundthatevenisomeinormationobtainedbytheexpertwerecondentialsuchinormationcouldonlyprovideabasisoradisqualicationmotioniitwasmateriallyrelatedtothependingproceedings.Attorneydisqualicationorderbasedonimulanurprnainfpariwihpotentiallyconictinginterestsisanabuseofdiscretionabsentanyactualconictorreasonablelikelihoodsuchaconictwouldari.HavasuLakeshoreInvestmentsLLv.Flemin2013217al.A.4th770.Tetrialcourtdisqualiedalawrmromsimultaneouslyrepresentingalimitedliabilitycompanyitsmanagingmemberapartnershipandthepersonwhomanagedthatpartnershipwhowasnothimselamemberothecompanyasplaintisinalawsuitaainsttwoothecompanysminoritymembers.Tecourtoundthattheinterestsothecompanyandthenonmemberindividualpotentiallyconfictedandconcludedthelawrmcouldnotjointlyrepresentthecompanyandthenonmemberindividualaainstthecompanysminoritymembers.Tecourtbaseditsrulinonrule3-310CotheStateBarRulesoProessionalConductwhichconcernslawyersdutyoloyaltytoexistinclients.TeCourtoAppealFourthDistrictDivisionTreereversedndinnoactualconfictointerestexistedbetweenthecompanyandtheindividualwhomanaedthecompanysmanainmemberandtherewasnoreasonablelikelihoodsuchaconfictwouldarise.Tecourtnotedthatrule3-600Eexpresslypermitscounseltorepresentanoranizationanditsconstituentsinappropriatecircumstancesanddistinuishedtheactsothiscaseromauthoritythatorbidsdualrepresentationinaderivativesuitalleinraudbytheprincipalsbecausetheprincipalsandtheoranizationhaveadverseconfictininterests.Teopposinpartyarticulatedwhatthecourtdescribedasariskthatthermmayspreaditseltoothinbecomedistractedorprioritizeonematterovertheother.Tisisnotthetypeoconfictaddressedbyrule3-310C.EveniitweredeendantlacksstandintoraisethisconcernashecannotshowanylegallycognizableinterestthatwasharmedbyHKCsjointrepresentationotheFlemingsadversaries.SeealsoCastlemanv.Sagase2013216Cal.App.4th481FihDist.claimbyormerclientagainstattorneythatattorneybreacheddutiesoloyaltyandcondentialitydidnotimplicateattorneysreespeechrightssotrialcourtproperlydeclinedtodismissactionunderanti-SLAPPstatute.otHeRtoRtsANDDAMAGesPrimaryaumpinfrikdrinbaruibyplainiffinjurdinwighrmaidnwhilngagdinrrainalpurui.annv.tefane2013217al.App.4th462petitionforreviewpending.Tisnelienceactionarisesoutoaninjurysustainedwhendurinweihttraininexercisesoracolleeswimteamthedeendantlostherbalanceanddroppedtheweihtshewasliin.Herteammatelaintiwasdoinpush-upsnearbyandalleedinthisactinthattheweihthitherinthehead.Plaintisuedorpersonalinjuriesalleindeendantwasnelient.Tetrialcourtrantedsummaryjudmentorthedeendantontheroundoprimaryassumptionorisk.TeCourtoAppealSecondDistrictDivisionFivearmed.Tecourtheldthatbyparticipatininstrenthtrainintoetherwithdeendantplaintiassumedtheriskobeininjuredbyadroppedweihteventhouhshewasenaedinadierentexerciseatthetimeotheaccident.Tecourtrejectedplaintisarumentthatshewasnotaco-participantinasportconcludinthatitisonoomentwhethertheweihttraininischaracterizedasasportorrecreationasthedoctrineoprimaryassumptionotheriskappliestobothtypesoactivity.ciyinildauryimmuniyfrinjurynarrainalrailvnifhrailwamimudandwaudbyplainiffahimfinjuryfrnn-rrainalaiviy.Montenerov.itofBradbur2013215al.A.4th924.Aplaintiwhotrippedoveraprotrudingtreetrunkonacitypathwaysuedonapremisesliabilitytheory.TetrialcourtgrantedsummaryjudgmentorthecityonthegroundthatthepathwaywasarecreationaltrailwithinthemeaningoGovernmentCodesection831.4subdivisionawhichprovidesthatpublicentitiesarenotliableorinjuriescausedbytheconditionotrailsusedorcertainrecreationalpurposesincludinghikingandridingincludinganimalandalltypesovehicularridingororaccesstosuchrecreation.TeCourtoAppealSecondDistrictDivisionFourarmed.AlthoughplaintidisputedthatthepathwayonwhichsheellwasarecreationaltrailarguingitwasessentiallyasidewalkthatdidnotcreateatriableissueoacttodeeattheCitysshowingninudnpagv Volume22013verdictgreensheetsvthatthetrialwasrecreationalTeactthatatrailhasadualuserecreationalandnon-recreationaldoesnotunderminesection831.4subdivisionbimmunity.SeealsoRybickiv.Carlson2013216Cal.App.4th758SecondDist.Div.FourCivilCodesection1714socialhostimmunityappliestopassengersincarwhoallegedlyhadprovidedalcoholtotheunderagedriverandwhowerelatersuedbybicyclistwhowasinjuredbyactionsothecarsdriverstatutoryexceptionallowingliabilityagainstthosewhosupplyalcoholtominorsinthesuppliershomedidnotapplybecauseherethealcoholwasprovidedbydeendantpassengerswhiletheywereinsomeoneelseshome.SeealsoFreenyv.CityofSanBuenaventura2013216Cal.App.4th1333SecondDist.Div.Sixpublicemployeestortimmunityorlegislativedecision-makingappliesevenwhenthatdecision-makingisalsoallegedtoinvolvethemakingomisrepresentationsmotivatedbyactualraudcorruptionoractualmalice.822.2Forthisreasonandotherswearmthedismissaloplaintissuitagainstacityandvecitycouncilmembersornearly2millionincompensatorydamagespluspunitivedamagesorvotingagainstanapplicationorbuildingpermitsandvariances.HospitalMdialexutivcommittsdlgationofrtainauthorityrlatingtostaffprivilgsvnifinviolationofhospitalbylawsdosnotnssarilyprovidgroundstoannuldisiontowithholdstaffprivilgs.El-Attarv.HollywoodPresbyterianMedicalCenter201356Cal.4th976.Adoctorledapetitionoradministrativemandamuschallengingthedeendanthospitallsdecisiontodenyhisapplicationorreappointmenttothemedicalsta.HeclaimedthatthehospitaldidnotprovideanappropriatehearingbecausethehospitalitselappointedthehearingocerandthemembersotheJudicialReviewCommitteewhowouldconducttheinternalreviewothedenialothedoctorsapplication.TehospitalbylawsatthetimerequiredthoseappointmentstoinsteadbemadebythehospitalmedicalstasmedicalexecutivecommitteeMECwhichdelegateditsauthoritytothehospitalsGoverningBoard.TetrialcourtdeniedthepetitionndingnoviolationothebylawsbuttheCourtoAppealreversedndingthattheintegrityothehearingprocesswasjeopardizedandthatanewjudicialreviewhearingwasrequired.TeCaliorniaSupremeCourtreversed.TeCourtassumedwithoutdecidingthattheCourtoAppealwascorrectinconcludingthattheMECwasnotauthorizedtodelegateitsauthoritybutheldsuchanactnonethelessdoesnotnecessarilymeanthedoctorisentitledtorelie.Noteveryviolationoahospitalsinternalproceduresprovidesgroundsorjudicialintervention.Tecourtappliedtheprinciplethatdeparturesromanorganizationsproceduralruleswillbedisregardedunlesstheyproducedsomeinjustice.Italsosaidthatattimesthegoverningbodymayassumetherolenormallyplayedbythemedicalstainthepeerreviewprocesswithoutnecessarilyviolatingbasicnormsoairprocedure.TecourtdidnotholdthatthedoctoractuallyreceivedaairhearingbutheldonlythattheCourtoAppealerredinconcludingthattheMECsdelegationothepowertoselecttheparticipantsinthehearingandtheGoverningBodysexerciseothispowerbyitseldeprivedDr.El-Attaroaairhearing.TedoctorsurtherargumentsorchallengingtherulingagainsthimwereremandedorconsiderationbytheCourtoAppeal.evidnofmdialsrviprovidrsnominallybilldbutunpaidxpnssisnotadmissibltoprovplaintiffsfuturmdialdamagsornon-onomidamagsCorenbaumv.Lampkin2013215Cal.App.4th1308.Plaintissueredinjuriesinanautoaccidentandsuedtheotherdriverinvolved.TejuryawardeddamagesaerthetrialcourtadmittedevidenceoamountsbilledorplaintismedicalcareratherthantheamountsactuallypaidandacceptedasullpaymentbyplaintismedicalprovidersDeendantappealedraisingquestionsleopenbytheCaliorniaSupremeCourtinHowellv.HamiltonMeatsProvisionsInc.201152Cal.4th541whichrenedthemeasureodamagesormedicalexpensesinapersonalinjurycase.Howellheldaninjuredplaintiwhosemedicalexpensesarepaidthroughprivateinsurancemayrecoveraseconomicdamagesnomorethantheamountspaidbytheplaintiorhisorherinsurerorthemedicalservicesreceivedorstillowingatthetimeotrial.Howelldidnotdecidewhetherevidenceoamedicalservicesprovidersbillrefectingamountsneverpaidbytheplaintiortheplaintishealthinsurercouldbeadmissibleorotherpurposesincludingutureeconomicdamagesandnon-economicdamages.TeCourtoAppealSecondDistrictDivisionTreereversedandremandedoranewtrialholdingasollows1Teso-calledbilledamountisinadmissibletoproveuturemedicalexpenses.Teullamountbilledorpastmedicalservicesisnotrelevanttotheamountouturemedicalexpensesorthatpurpose.2Amountsbilledbutnotpaidcannotormthebasisorexperttestimonyonthatissue.Becausetheullamountbilledorpastmedicalservicesprovidedtoplaintisisnotrelevanttothevalueothoseserviceswebelievethattheullamountbilledorthosepastmedicalservicescanprovidenoreasonablebasisoranexpertopiniononthevalueouturemedicalservices.3Evidenceoamountsbilledbutnotpaidisnotrelevanttotheissueonon-economicdamages.Suchevidenceisnotadmissibleorthepurposeoprovidingplaintiscounselanargumentativeconstructtoassistajuryinitsdiculttaskodeterminingtheamountonon-economicdamages.ontinudfrompagivVoume22013erictgreenseetsthatthetrialwasrecreationalTeactthatatrailhasadualuserecreationalandnon-recreationaldoesnotunderminesection831.4subdivisionbimmunity.SeealsoRybickiv.Carlson2013216Cal.App.4th758SecondDist.Div.FourCivilCodesection1714socialhostimmunityappliestopassengersincarwhoallegedlyhadprovidedalcoholtotheunderagedriverandwhowerelatersuedbybicyclistwhowasinjuredbyactionsothecarsdriverstatutoryexceptionallowingliabilityagainstthosewhosupplyalcoholtominorsinthesuppliershomedidnotapplybecauseherethealcoholwasprovidedbydeendantpassengerswhiletheywereinsomeoneelseshome.Seealsoreenyv.CityofSanBuenaventura2013216Cal.App.4th1333SecondDist.Div.Sixpublicemployeestortimmunityorlegislativedecision-makingappliesevenwhenthatdecision-makingisalsoallegedtoinvolvethemakingomisrepresentationsmotivatedbyactualraudcorruptionoractualmalice.822.2Forthisreasonandotherswearmthedismissaloplaintissuitagainstacityandvecitycouncilmembersornearly2millionincompensatorydamagespluspunitivedamagesorvotingagainstanapplicationorbuildingpermitsandvariances.HospitalMdialexutivcommittsdlgationofrtainauthorityrlatingtostaffprivilgsvnifinviolationofhospitalbylawsdosnotnssarilyprovidgroundstoannuldisiontowithholdstaffprivilgs.El-Attarv.HollywoodPresbyterianMedicalente2013l.4h7.Adoctorledapetitionoradministrativemandamuschallengingthedeendanthospitallsdecisiontodenyhisapplicationorreappointmenttothemedicalsta.HeclaimedthatthehospitaldidnotprovideanappropriatehearingbecausethehospitalitselappointedthehearingocerandthemembersotheJudicialReviewommitteewhowouldconducttheinternalreviewothedenialothedoctorsapplication.TehospitalbylawsatthetimerequiredthoseappointmentstoinsteadbemadebythehospitalmedicalstasmedicalexecutivecommitteeMECwhichdelegateditsauthoritytothehospitalsGoverningBoard.TetrialcourtdeniedthepetitionndingnoviolationothebylawsbuttheCourtoAppealreversedndingthattheintegrityothehearingprocesswasjeopardizedandthatanewjudicialreviewhearingwasrequired.TeCaliorniaSupremeCourtreversed.TeCourtassumedwithoutdecidingthattheCourtoAppealwascorrectinconcludingthattheMECwasnotauthorizedtodelegateitsauthoritybutheldsuchanactnonethelessdoesnotnecessarilymeanthedoctorisentitledtorelie.Noteveryviolationoahospitalsinternalproceduresprovidesroundsorjudicialintervention.Tecourtappliedtheprinciplethatdeparturesromanorganizationsproceduralruleswillbedisregardedunlesstheyproducedsomeinjustice.Italsosaidthatattimesthegoverningbodymayassumetherolenormallyplayedbythemedicalstainthepeerreviewprocesswithoutnecessarilyviolatingbasicnormsoairprocedure.TecourtdidnotholdthatthedoctoractuallyreceivedaairhearingbutheldonlythattheCourtoAppealerredinconcludingthattheMECsdelegationothepowertoselecttheparticipantsinthehearingandtheGoverningBodysexerciseothispowerbyitseldeprivedDr.El-Attaroaairhearing.TedoctorsurtherargumentsorchallengingtherulingagainsthimwereremandedorconsiderationbytheCourtoAppeal.evidnofmdialsrviprovidrsnominallybilldbutunpaidxpnssisnotadmissibltoprovplaintiffsfuturmdialdamagsornon-onomidamagsorenbaumv.Lamki2013215al.App.4th1308.Plaintissueredinjuriesinanautoaccidentandsuedtheotherdriverinvolved.TejuryawardeddamaesaerthetrialcourtadmittedevidenceoamountsbilledorplaintismedicalcareratherthantheamountsactuallypaidandacceptedasullpaymentbyplaintismedicalprovidersDeendantappealedraisinquestionsleopenbytheCaliorniaSupremeCourtinHowellv.HamiltonMeatsProvisionsInc.201152Cal.4th541whichrenedthemeasureodamaesormedicalexpensesinapersonalinjurycase.Howellheldaninjuredplaintiwhosemedicalexpensesarepaidthrouhprivateinsurancemayrecoveraseconomicdamaesnomorethantheamountspaidbytheplaintiorhisorherinsurerorthemedicalservicesreceivedorstillowinatthetimeotrial.Howelldidnotdecidewhetherevidenceoamedicalservicesprovidersbillrefectinamountsneverpaidbytheplaintiortheplaintishealthinsurercouldbeadmissibleorotherpurposesincludinutureeconomicdamaesandnon-economicdamaes.TeCourtoAppealSecondDistrictDivisionTreereversedandremandedoranewtrialholdinasollows1Teso-calledbilledamountisinadmissibletoproveuturemedicalexpenses.Teullamountbilledorpastmedicalservicesisnotrelevanttotheamountouturemedicalexpensesorthatpurpose.2Amountsbilledbutnotpaidcannotormthebasisorexperttestimonyonthatissue.Becausetheullamountbilledorpastmedicalservicesprovidedtoplaintisisnotrelevanttothevalueothoseserviceswebelievethattheullamountbilledorthosepastmedicalservicescanprovidenoreasonablebasisoranexpertopiniononthevalueouturemedicalservices.3Evidenceoamountsbilledbutnotpaidisnotrelevanttotheissueonon-economicdamages.Suchevidenceisnotadmissibleorthepurposeoprovidingplaintiscounselanargumentativeconstructtoassistajuryinitsdiculttaskodeterminingtheamountonon-economicdamages.ontinudfrompagiv viverdictgreensheetsVolume22013HowellmaurfdamagnmdalxpndamagapplprludrvryfrfullblldamunhapadaardudrabyMdarandapapplbfrdamagarrdudfrplanffnrburynglgn.Luttrellv.IslandPacifcSupermarketInc.2013215Cal.App.4th196.Aplaintisuedasupermarketorpersonalinjuryaeranautomaticdoormalunctionedcausinghimtoall.AerthejuryassessedtheamountomedicalexpensedamagesthetrialcourtreducedtheawardtoconormtotheHowellrulethatthedamagescouldnotexceedtheamountactuallyacceptedaspaymentinullorthemedicalservices.Tejudgethenreducedtheawardurthertoaccountorplaintiscomparativeaultasoundbythejury.PlaintiappealedarguingthejuryawardshouldbereinstatedwithoutreductionandthattheamountoaMedicarelienorservicesshouldbeaddedtotheaward.TeCourtoAppealFirstDistrictDivisionFivearmedholdingrstthattheHowelldecisionisnotlimitedtopaymentsmadebyprivatehealthinsuranceMedicareandMedi-Calhadpre-existingcontractualrelationshipswithLuttrellsmedicalprovidersbywhichtheprovidersagreedtoacceptasumlessthantheirusualandcustomarychargesaspaymentinullortheirservices.ToseprovidersmaynotseekreimbursementovertheamountthatMedicareandMedi-Calwascontractuallyobligatedtopay.CitationBecauseLuttrellsliabilitytomedicalprovidersortheirpastmedicalservicesislimitedtotheamountsMedicareandMedi-CalactuallypaidLuttrellsrecoveryromIslandPacicorpastmedicalservicesmustbelimitedtothoseamountsactuallypaid.TecourturtherheldthattheHowellamount-paidcaponmedicalexpensedamagesappliesbeorethosedamagesareurtherreducedtoaccountortheplaintiscontributorynegligence.HpalannprvhamunflnundrhHpalLnAbyrfrnfullamunblldfrrv.StateFarmMutualAutomobileIns.Co.v.Huff2013216Cal.App.4th1463.Inthisinterpleaderactionahospitalthatprovidedmedicalservicestoaplaintiwhoinitiatedapersonalinjuryactionagainstthirdpartiessoughttoenorceitslienagainstanyeventualjudgmentorplainti.Teinsurerorthedeendantdepositedtheamountotheclaimedlienwiththetrialcourttoallowtheconfictingclaimsotheplaintiandthehospitaltobeadjudicated.InassertingitsrightsundertheHospitalLienActthehospitalpresentedevidenceoitsso-callullbilledchargesratherthanevidenceromwhichajurycouldassessthereasonableandnecessarychargesortheinjuredpersonstreatment.Tetrialcourtapprovedthismethodoestablishingdamagesandtheplaintiwhosedamageswerethusreducedbytheamountothelienappealed.TeCourtoAppealFourthDistrictDivisionOnereversedholdingthatahospitalassertingarightundertheActmustproveitsclaimedeeswerereasonableandnecessary.AhospitalcannotestablishthatamountbyintroducingevidenceoitsullbilledchargesbecausethosechargesarenotanaccuratemeasureothevalueomedicalserviceswithinthemeaningotheSupremeCourtsdecisioninHowellv.HamiltonMeatsProvisionsInc.201152Cal.4th541.UNFAiRcoMPetitioNcoNsUMeRLAWAUcLlammaybbadnvlanfafdralauafrcngrharpaldaprvnfhaauauhrzngvlanfrdamaglngacngrhamadplanhaalawnnwhhfdralauarnuprdd.Rosev.BankofAmericaN.A.201357Cal.4th390TeplaintiinthisputativeclassactionundertheUnairCompetitionLawUCLBus.Pro.Code17200etseq.allegedthatthedeendantbankhadengagedinunlawulconductinsoarasitviolatedtheederalruthinSavingsActISA.TeederalstatutoryschemehadatonetimeallowedaprivaterightoactionbuttheActwaslateramendedtoomitthatprovision.RelyingonthatlegislativehistorytheBankdemurredarguingthatCongresshadexpresslyprohibitedprivaterightsoactionunderISA.Tetrialcourtsustainedthedemurrerwithleavetoamendwhichplaintisdeclined.OnappealtheCourtoAppealarmedreasoningthatCongresssrepealoormersection4310refecteditsintenttobaranyprivateactiontoenorceISA.TeCaliorniaSupremeCourtreversedagreeingwiththeplaintithattheCourtoAppealerroneouslyailedtoconsidertheeectoISAssavingsclause.ByleavingISAssavingsclauseinplaceCongressexplicitlyapprovedtheenorcementostatelawsrelatingtothedisclosureoyieldspayableortermsoraccounts...excepttotheextentthatthoselawsareinconsistentwiththeprovisionsothissubtitleandthenonlytotheextentotheinconsistency.Citation.TeUCLissuchastatelaw.TeCourtdistinguishedcasesinwhichCongressadoptedacomprehensiveremedialschemethatsuggestsanintendedexclusivityortheederallydenedenorcementmechanism.TeSupremeCourtdidnotaddresstrialcourtsdiscretiontosustainademurrerunderthedoctrineojudicialabstentionwherethecourtbelievestheconsumersclaimisnotsuitableoradjudicationinthecourtseventhoughtheclaimislegallycognizableundertheUCL.AsonetreatiseontheUCLexplainsEveniederalorstatelawisnotsucientlyparamountastopreemptaUCLclaimcourtsmaystillabstainindeerencetoanadministrativeagencysenorcementpowers.Anunfarmpnlammaybbadnannurrbadfahlamhandlngrgardlwhhrhhallngdndualavlanfhinurancd.Zhangv.SuperiorCourt201357Cal.4th364.TeplaintiinthiscaseclaimedthathisinsurerviolatedtheUnairCompetitionLawUCLBus.Pro.Code17200etseq.bypromisingtoprovidetimelycoverageintheeventoacompensablelosswhenitallegedlydidnotintendtopaythetruevalueoitsinsuredscoveredclaims.TeinsurercontendedplaintisclaimwasanimpermissibleattempttopleadaroundMorardi-Shalalv.FiremansFundIns.Companies198846Cal.3d287whichheldthataprivaterightoactioncouldnotbebasedonviolationotheUnairInsurancePracticesActUIPAInsuranceCodesection790etseq.nnudnpagvierictgreenseetsVoume22013wmaurfdamagnmdalxpndamagapplprludrvryfrfullblldamunhapadaardudrabyMdarandapapplbfrdamagarrdudfrplanffnrburynglgn.Luttrellv.IslandPacifcSupermarketInc.2013215Cal.A.4th196.Aplaintisuedasupermarketorpersonalinjuryaeranautomaticdoormalunctionedcausinghimtoall.AerthejuryassessedtheamountomedicalexpensedamagesthetrialcourtreducedtheawardtoconormtotheHowellrulethatthedamaescouldnotexceedtheamountactuallyacceptedaspaymentinullorthemedicalservices.Tejudgethenreducedtheawardurthertoaccountorplaintiscomparativeaultasoundbythejury.PlaintiappealedarguingthejuryawardshouldbereinstatedwithoutreductionandthattheamountoaMedicarelienorservicesshouldbeaddedtotheaward.TeCourtoAppealFirstDistrictDivisionFivearmedholdingrstthttheHoweldecisionisnotlimitedtopaymentsmadebyprivatehealthinsuranceMedicareandMedi-Calhadpre-existingcontractualrelationshipswithLuttrellsmedicalprovidersbywhichtheprovidersagreedtoacceptasumlessthantheirusualandcustomarycharesaspaymentinullortheirservices.ToseprovidersmaynotseekreimbursementovertheamountthatMedicareandMedi-Calwascontractuallyobliatedtopay.CitationBecauseLuttrellsliabilitytomedicalprovidersortheirpastmedicalservicesislimitedtotheamountsMedicareandMedi-alactuallypaidLuttrellsrecoveryromIslandPacicorpastmedicalservicesmustbelimitedtothoseamountsactuallypaid.TecourturtherheldthattheHowelamount-paidcaponmedicalexpensedamaesappliesbeorethosedamaesareurtherreducedtoaccountortheplaintiscontributorynegligence.HpalannprvhamunflnundrhHpalLnAbyrfrnfullamunblldfrrv.tateFarmMutualAutomoileIns.o.v.Huff2013216al.A.4th1463.Inthisinterpleaderactionahospitalthatprovidedmedicalservicestoaplaintiwhoinitiatedapersonalinjuryactionaainstthirdpartiessoughttoenorceitslienagainstanyeventualjudgmentorplainti.Teinsurerorthedeendantdepositedtheamountotheclaimedlienwiththetrialcourttoallowtheconfictinclaimsotheplaintiandthehospitaltobeadjudicated.InassertingitsrihtsundertheHospitalLienActthehospitalpresentedevidenceoitsso-callullbilledchargesratherthanevidenceromwhichajurycouldassessthereasonableandnecessarycharesortheinjuredpersonstreatment.Tetrialcourtapprovedthismethodoestablishindamaesandtheplaintiwhosedamaeswerethusreducedbytheamountothelienappealed.TeCourtoAppealFourthDistrictDivisionOnereversedholdingthatahospitalassertingarightundertheActmustproveitsclaimedeeswerereasonableandnecessary.AhospitalcannotestablishthatamountbyintroducingevidenceoitsullbilledchargesbecausethosechargesarenotanaccuratemeasureothevalueomedicalserviceswithinthemeaningotheSupremeourtsdecisioninHowellv.HamiltonMeatsProvisionsInc.201152Cal.4th541.UNFAiRcoMPetitioNcoNsUMeRLAWAUcLlammaybbadnvlanfafdralauafrcngrharpaldaprvnfhaauauhrzngvlanfrdamaglngacngrhamadplanhaalawnnwhhfdralauarnuprdd.Rosev.BankofAmericaN.A201357al.4th390eplaintiinthisputativeclassactionundertheUnairCompetitionLawUCLBus.Pro.Code17200etseq.allegedthatthedeendantbankhadengagedinunlawulconductinsoarasitviolatedtheederalruthinSavingsActISA.TeederalstatutoryschemehadatonetimeallowedaprivaterightoactionbuttheActwaslateramendedtoomitthatprovision.RelyingonthatlegislativehistorytheBankdemurredarguingthatCongresshadexpresslyprohibitedprivaterihtsoactionunderISA.Tetrialcourtsustainedthedemurrerwithleavetoamendwhichplaintisdeclined.OnappealtheCourtoAppealarmedreasoninthatConresssrepealoormersection4310refecteditsintenttobaranyprivateactiontoenorceISA.eCaliorniaSupremeCourtreversedareeinwiththeplaintithattheCourtoAppealerroneouslyailedtoconsidertheeectoISAssavinsclause.ByleavinISAssavinsclauseinplaceConressexplicitlyapprovedtheenorcementostatelawsrelatintothedisclosureoyieldspayableortermsoraccounts...excepttotheextentthatthoselawsareinconsistentwiththeprovisionsothissubtitleandthenonlytotheextentotheinconsistency.Citation.eUCLissuchastatelaw.TeCourtdistinuishedcasesinwhichConressadoptedacomprehensiveremedialschemethatsuestsanintendedexclusivityortheederallydenedenorcementmechanism.TeSupremeCourtdidnotaddresstrialcourtsdiscretiontosustainademurrerunderthedoctrineojudicialabstentionwherethecourtbelievestheconsumersclaimisnotsuitableoradjudicationinthecourtseventhouhtheclaimisleallyconizableundertheUCL.AsonetreatiseontheUCLexplainsEveniederalorstatelawisnotsucientlyparamountastopreemptaUCLclaimcourtsmaystillabstainindeerencetoanadministrativeagencysenorcementpowers.Anunfarmpnlammaybbadnannurrbadfahlamhandlngrgardlwhhrhhallngdndualavlanfhinurancd.Zhanv.uperiorour201357al.4th364.eplaintiinthiscaseclaimedthathisinsurerviolatedtheUnairCompetitionLawUCLBus.Pro.Code17200etseq.bypromisingtoprovidetimelycoverageintheeventoacompensablelosswhenitallegedlydidnotintendtopaythetruevalueoitsinsuredscoveredclaims.TeinsurercontendedplaintisclaimwasanimpermissibleattempttopleadaroundMorardi-Shalalv.FiremansFundIns.Companies198846Cal.3d287whichheldthataprivaterightoactioncouldnotbebasedonviolationotheUnairInsurancePracticesActUIPAInsuranceCodesection790etseq.nnudnpagv Volume22013verdictgreensheetsviiTeCaliorniaSupremeCourtheldthatwhileMorardi-ShalalremainsgoodlawinbarringprivateactionsorviolationotheUIPAincludingUCLclaimsdirectlybasedontheUIPAitdoesnotprecluderstpartyUCLactionsbasedongroundsindependentotheUIPAevenwhentheinsurersconductmayalsoviolatetheUIPA.PnalharmmmbrfalafnumrwllnuppraUcLanwhrhnamdplanffndvduallyuffrdnaualharm.Schwartzv.ProvidentLifeAccidentIns.Co.2013216Cal.App.4th607Teplaintiinthisactionboughtdisabilityinsurancein1988.AerhisinsurerssettledadisputewiththeInsuranceCommissionerregardingchargesthattheyhadwrongullydeniedbenetstosomeinsuredstheplaintiinthisactionwhohadnevermadeaclaimorbenetssuedhisinsurersallegingdeceptiveclaimshandlingpracticesinviolationotheUnairCompetitionLawUCLBus.Pro.Code17200etseq..Hesoughtapartialreturnopremiumspaid.TetrialcourtoundthattheinsuredwhowasneverdeniedbenetslackedstandingtopursueaUCLcauseoactionbecausetheinsuredhadnotsueredinjuryinactnorlostmoneyorpropertyasaresultotheunaircompetition.17204.TetrialcourtgrantedsummaryadjudicationinavorotheinsurersontheUCLcauseoactionandplaintiappealed.TeCourtoAppealFirstDistrictDivisionTreeafrmed.Schwartzhasailedtoraiseamaterialtriableissueoactthathesueredeconomicinjuryoanykind.Schwartzpaidaxedpremiumorapromiseodisabilitycoveragethatwasneverdenied.Hedidnotlosemoneyorpropertybytheallegedwronguldenialobenetstootherpolicyholdersusingunairclaimpracticesthatarenowenjoinedbythecommissioner.Rejectingplaintiseconomistsmethodorcalculatingclass-wideharmthecourtexplainedTepositedharmispotentialnotactualbecauseonlythosepolicyholdersdeniedbenetsactuallylostmoney.Adisabledpolicyholderwronglydeniedincomebenetswoulddisputethesuppositionthathisorhereconomicinjurywascomparabletotheabstracteconomicinjuryoanable-bodiedpolicyholderwhoneverneededorsoughtbenets.AnumrhaandngundrhUcLufrmladngadvrmnrgardngaprdupr-alprnvlanfaspecifcstatestatutebarringthatpracticewhrhnumrallghwuldnhavpurhadhprdubufrhmrprnan.Hinojosv.KohlsCorporation2013718F.3d1098.TeplaintiinthisputativeclassactionsuedKohlsdepartmentstoreunderthetheUnairCompetitionLawUCLFairAdvertisingLawFALandConsumerLegalRemediesActCLRAallegingthatKohlsmisleadinglymarkedupregularororiginalproductpricesinadvanceoasalesoastorepresentthatsalemark-downsweregreaterthantheyactuallywere.Tetrialcourtdismissedtheactionndingthatplaintihadnostandingbecausehelostneithermoneynorpropertyheacquiredthemerchandisehewantedatthepricethatwasadvertisedevenitheadvertisedpricewasalselyrepresentedasasale.Te9thCircuitCourtoAppealsreversed.ApplyingtheCaliorniaSupremeCourtsholdinginKwiksetCorp.v.SuperiorCourt246P.3d877Cal.2011theederalcourtheldthatwhenaconsumerpurchasesmerchandiseonthebasisoalsepriceinormationi.e.thatthegoodshadsoldatasubstantiallyhigherpriceatKohlsorintheprevailingmarketintherecentpastandwhentheconsumerallegesthathewouldnothavemadethepurchasebutorthemisrepresentationhehasstandingtosueundertheUnairCompetitionLawandFairAdvertisingLawbecausehehassueredaneconomicinjury.TecourtconcludedthatmisinormationaboutaproductsnormalpriceissignicanttomanyconsumersinthesamewayasaalseproductlabelwouldbewhichocourseiswhyretailerslikeKohlshaveanincentivetoadvertisealsesales.ItisalsowhytheCaliornialegislaturehasprohibitedthemromdoingso.cAsesPeNDiNGiNtHecALiFoRNiAsUPReMecoURtAddrngwhhrhprmaryaumpnfrkdrnapplyaargvrunganAlzhmrpanfrnjuraudbyhpan.Gregoryv.Cottcaseno.S209125formerlypublishedat213Cal.App.4th41.Tisisanactionbyanin-homecaregiveragainstanAlzheimerspatientornegligencebatteryandpremisesliabilityagainstapatientwithAlzheimersdiseaseandagainstthepatientshusband.AdividedCourtoAppealheldthattheprimaryassumptionoriskdoctrineappliedtobartheclaimbyacaregiverhiredtoprovidecareandsupervisioninaprivatehometoanAlzheimerspatientknowntobeviolent.TeCaliorniaSupremeCourtgrantedreviewonApril102013toaddresstheollowingissueDidthedoctrineoprimaryassumptionotheriskbarthecomplaintordamagesbroughtbyanin-homecaregiveragainstanAlzheimerspatientandherhusbandorinjuriesthecaregiverreceivedwhenthepatientlungedatherAddrngwhhradphphadpurhardrnaadfnafalur--warnlamnaprdulablyan.Webbv.SpecialElectricCompanycaseno.S209927formerlypublishedat214Cal.App.4th595.Inthisproductsliabilityactiontheplaintishusbandandwiesuedthedeendantaerthehusbandwasdiagnosedwithmesotheliomawhichheattributedtoasbestosexposure.HeblamedsomeohisexposuresonSpecialElectricwhichsuppliedrawasbestostoJohns-Manvillewhichinturnmanuacturedpipeswithwhichthehusbandlaterworked.TetrialcourtailedtoruleondispositivemotionsbroughtbySpecialElectricduringtrialandthejuryawardedover5millionorwhichitattributed18percentaultnnudnpagvnnudfrmpagvVoume22013erictgreenseetsviiTeCaliorniaSupremeCourtheldthatwhileMorardi-ShalalremainsgoodlawinbarringprivateactionsorviolationotheUIPAincludingUCLclaimsdirectlybasedontheUIPAitdoesnotprecluderstpartyUCLactionsbasedongroundsindependentotheUIPAevenwhentheinsurersconductmayalsoviolatetheUIPA.PnalharmmmbrfalafnumrwllnuppraUcLanwhrhnamdplanffndvduallyuffrdnaualharm.chwartzv.ProvientLifeAccientIns.o.2013216al.A.4th60Teplaintiinthisactionboughtdisabilityinsurancein1988.AerhisinsurerssettledadisputewiththeInsuranceCommissionerregardingchargesthattheyhadwrongullydeniedbenetstosomeinsuredstheplaintiinthisactionwhohadnevermadeaclaimorbenetssuedhisinsurersallegingdeceptiveclaimshandlingpracticesinviolationotheUnairCompetitionLawUCLBus.Pro.Code17200etseq..Hesoughtapartialreturnopremiumspaid.TetrialcourtoundthattheinsuredwhowasneverdeniedbenetslackedstandingtopursueaUCLcauseoactionbecausetheinsuredhadnotsueredinjuryinactnorlostmoneyorpropertyasaresultotheunaircompetition.17204.TetrialcourtgrantedsummaryadjudicationinavorotheinsurersontheUCLcauseoactionandplaintiappealed.TeCourtoAppealFirstDistrictDivisionTreeafrmed.Schwartzhasailedtoraiseamaterialtriableissueoactthathesueredeconomicinjuryoanykind.Schwartzpaidaxedpremiumorapromiseodisabilitycoveragethatwasneverdenied.Hedidnotlosemoneyorpropertybytheallegedwronguldenialobenetstootherpolicyholdersusingunairclaimpracticesthatarenowenjoinedbythecommissioner.Rejectingplaintiseconomistsmethodorcalculatingclass-wideharmthecourtexplainedTepositedharmispotentialnotactualbecauseonlythosepolicyholdersdeniedbenetsactuallylostmoney.Adisabledpolicyholderwronglydeniedincomebenetswoulddisputethesuppositionthathisorhereconomicinjurywascomparabletotheabstracteconomicinjuryoanable-bodiedpolicyholderwhoneverneededorsoughtbenets.AnumrhaandngundrhUcLufrmladngadvrmnrgardngaprdupr-alprnvlanfaspecifcstatestatutebarringthatpracticewhrhnumrallghwuldnhavpurhadhprdubufrhmrprnan.Hinoosv.Kohlsorporatio2013718F.3d1098.TeplaintiinthisputativeclassactionsuedKohlsdepartmentstoreunderthetheUnairCompetitionLawUCLFairAdvertisingLawFALandConsumerLegalRemediesActCLRAallegingthatKohlsmisleadinglymarkedupregularororiginalproductpricesinadvanceoasalesoastorepresentthatsalemark-downsweregreaterthantheyactuallywere.Tetrialcourtdismissedtheactionndingthatplaintihadnostandingbecausehelostneithermoneynorpropertyheacquiredthemerchandisehewantedatthepricethatwasadvertisedevenitheadvertisedpricewasalselyrepresentedasasale.Te9thCircuitCourtoAppealsreversed.ApplyingtheCaliorniaSupremeCourtsholdinginKwiksetCorp.v.SuperiorCourt246P.3d877Cal.2011theederalcourtheldthatwhenaconsumerpurchasesmerchandiseonthebasisoalsepriceinormationi.e.thatthegoodshadsoldatasubstantiallyhigherpriceatKohlsorintheprevailingmarketintherecentpastandwhentheconsumerallegesthathewouldnothavemadethepurchasebutorthemisrepresentationhehasstandingtosueundertheUnairCompetitionLawandFairAdvertisingLawbecausehehassueredaneconomicinjury.TecourtconcludedthatmisinormationaboutaproductsnormalpriceissignicanttomanyconsumersinthesamewayasaalseproductlabelwouldbewhichocourseiswhyretailerslikeKohlshaveanincentivetoadvertisealsesales.ItisalsowhytheCaliornialegislaturehasprohibitedthemromdoingso.cAsesPeNDiNGiNtHecALiFoRNiAsUPReMecoURtAddrngwhhrhprmaryaumpnfrkdrnapplyaargvrunganAlzhmrpanfrnjuraudbyhpan.reorv.ottcaseno.209125formerlublishedat213al.A.4th41.isisanactionbyanin-homecareiveraainstanAlzheimerspatientorneliencebatteryandpremisesliabilityaainstapatientwithAlzheimersdiseaseandaainstthepatientshusband.AdividedCourtoAppealheldthattheprimaryassumptionoriskdoctrineappliedtobartheclaimbyacareiverhiredtoprovidecareandsupervisioninaprivatehometoanAlzheimerspatientknowntobeviolent.eCaliorniaSupremeCourtrantedreviewonApril102013toaddresstheollowinissueDidthedoctrineoprimaryassumptionotheriskbarthecomplaintordamagesbroughtbyanin-homecaregiveragainstanAlzheimerspatientandherhusbandorinjuriesthecaregiverreceivedwhenthepatientlungedatherAddrngwhhradphphadpurhardrnaadfnafalur--warnlamnaprdulablyan.Webbv.pecialElectricompancaseno.209927formerlublishedat214al.A.4th595.Inthisproductsliabilityactiontheplaintishusbandandwiesuedthedeendantaerthehusbandwasdiagnosedwithmesotheliomawhichheattributedtoasbestosexposure.HeblamedsomeohisexposuresonSpecialElectricwhichsuppliedrawasbestostoJohns-Manvillewhichinturnmanuacturedpipeswithwhichthehusbandlaterworked.TetrialcourtailedtoruleondispositivemotionsbroughtbySpecialElectricduringtrialandthejuryawardedover5millionorwhichitattributed18percentaultnnudnpagvnnudfrmpagv viiiverdictgreensheetsVolume22013toSpecialElectric49percenttoJohns-Manvilleand33percenttothirdparties.TetrialcourtthengrantedSpecialElectricspost-verdictmotionorjudgmentontwogroundsFirstitwouldbeunreasonabletoobligateSpecialElectrictorequireJohns-ManvilletoprovidewarningsonitsproductsalternativelythebagsinwhichtheasbestoswastransportedtoJohns-Manvilleboresatisactorywarnings.TecourtreliedinpartonJohnsonv.AmericanStandardInc.200843Cal.4th56inwhichtheSupremeCourtheldthatsophisticatedusersoaproductneednotbewarnedaboutdangersowhichtheyareorshouldbeaware.TeCourtoAppealreversedholdingthatthetrialcourtsposttrialrulingwasprocedurallyandsubstantivelydeectivealthoughthecourtsuggestedanasbestossuppliersdutytowarnusersoitsasbestosmightondierentactsbeobviatedbyproothattheusersneedednowarningandthatitsdutymaybedischargedbyashowingoreasonableeortstoprovidewarningsorbyreasonablerelianceuponotherstodoso.TeCaliorniaSupremeCourtgrantedreviewonApril222013toaddresstheollowingissues1Shouldadeendantthatsuppliedrawasbestostoamanuactureroproductsbeoundliabletotheplaintisonaailuretowarntheory2Wasthetrialcourtsdecisiontotreatdeendantspre-trialmotionsornonsuitandoradirectedverdictasapost-trialmotionorjudgmentnotwithstandingtheverdictprocedurallyimproperandisowasitsucientlyprejudicialtowarrantreversalAddressngwhetherMicRAapplestoatonsregardngunsafehosptalpremses.Floresv.PresbyterianIntercommunityHospitalcaseno.S209836formerlypublishedat213Cal.App.4th1368.Plaintisuedthehospitalwhereshewasbeingtreatedallegingshesustainedinjurieswhenabedrailcollapsed.Tetrialcourtsustainedthehospitalsdemurreronstatuteolimitationsgroundsndingtheactionaroseoutoaclaimomedicalnegligenceandthuswasbarredtheone-yearlimitationsperiodsetorthinCaliorniasMedicalInjuryCompensationReormActMICRA.TeCourtoAppealreversedholdingtheclaimsproperlyrestedatleastinpartonconductthatisnotproessionalnegligencewithinthemeaningoMICRA.TecaseinvolvesMICRAsone-yearstatuteolimitationsCodeCiv.Proc.340.5buttheissueimplicatesotherMICRAprovisionsaswellincludingthestatutelimitingmedicalmalpracticeplaintistoarecoveryo250000ornoneconomicdamages.MICRAappliesinanactionorinjuryordeathagainstahealthcareproviderbaseduponsuchpersonsallegedproessionalnegligenceandproessionalnegligenceisdenedinpartasanegligentactoromissiontoactbyahealthcareproviderintherenderingoproessionalservices.TeFlorescourtdiscussedtheconfictingdecisionsaboutMICRAsapplicabilitytopatientallsromhospitalbedsanddistinguishedthosethatresultedromtheailuretoproperlysecureorsupervisethepatientwhileonahospitalbedorgurneyandthoseresultingromanequipmentailure.Tecourtconcludedthattheplaintisactioninthelattercategorysoundsinordinarynegligencebecausethenegligencedidnotoccurintherenderingoproessionalservices.TeCaliorniaSupremeCourtgrantedreviewonMay222013toaddresstheollowingissues1Doestheone-yearstatuteolimitationsorclaimsundertheMedicalInjuryCompensationActCodeCivilProc.340.5orthetwo-yearstatuteolimitationsorordinarynegligenceCodeCivilProc.335.1governanactionorpremisesliabilityagainstahospitalbasedonnegligentmaintenanceohospitalequipment2Didtheinjuryinthiscaseariseoutoproessionalnegligenceasthattermisusedinsection340.5orordinarynegligenceAddressngwhetherelderabuselammaybestatedagansttreatngdotorsevenfarewasprovdedoutsdeofaustodalnpatentsettng.Winnv.PioneerMedicalGroupInc.caseno.S211793formerlypublishedat216Cal.App.4th875.Aerthedeathotheir83-year-oldmotherplaintissueddeendantphysiciansorelderabusebasedondeendantsrepeateddecisionsnottoreertheirmothertoavascularspecialistoveratwo-yearperiodduringwhichherdiminishingvascularfowworsenedwithouttreatment.Deendantsarguedtheycannotbeliableorelderabusebecausetheytreateddecedentasanoutpatientandliabilityorelderabuserequiresassumptionocustodialobligations.Teyalsocontendedtheconductplaintisallegeconstitutedonlyproessionalnegligenceandasamatterolawdoesnotamounttotherecklessneglectrequiredoraclaimoelderabuse.Tetrialcourtagreedandsustaineddeendantsdemurrer.TeCourtoAppealreversedinadividedopinionTeelderabusestatutedoesnotlimitliabilitytohealthcareproviderswithcustodialobligationsandthequestionwhetherdeendantsconductwasrecklessratherthanmerelynegligentisorajurytodecide.OnejusticedissentedexpressingtheviewthatthemajorityhasblurredthelinebetweentheElderAbuseandDependentAdultCivilProtectionActtheActandproessionalnegligencedespitetheactthattheCaliorniaSupremeCourthasrepeatedlynotedthedistinctandmutuallyexclusivenatureothetwo.TeCaliorniaSupremeCourtgrantedreviewonAugust142013toaddresstheollowingissueDoesneglectwithinthemeaningotheElderAbuseandDependentAdultCivilProtectionActWel.Inst.Code15657includeahealthcareprovidersailuretoreeranelderpatienttoaspecialistithecaretookplaceonanoutpatientbasisormustanactionorneglectundertheActallegethatthedeendanthealthcareproviderhadacustodialrelationshipwiththeelderpatientontnuedfrompageviiierictgreenseetsVoume22013toSpecialElectric49percenttoJohns-Manvilleand33percenttothirdparties.TetrialcourtthengrantedSpecialElectricspost-verdictmotionorjudgmentontwogroundsFirstitwouldbeunreasonabletoobligateSpecialElectrictorequireJohns-ManvilletoprovidewarningsonitsproductsalternativelythebagsinwhichtheasbestoswastransportedtoJohns-Manvilleboresatisactorywarnings.TecourtreliedinpartonJohnsonv.AmericanStandardInc.200843Cal.4th56inwhichtheSupremeCourtheldthatsophisticatedusersoaproductneednotbewarnedaboutdangersowhichtheyareorshouldbeaware.TeCourtoAppealreversedholdingthatthetrialcourtsposttrialrulingwasprocedurallyandsubstantivelydeectivealthoughthecourtsuggestedanasbestossuppliersdutytowarnusersoitsasbestosmightondierentactsbeobviatedbyproothattheusersneedednowarningandthatitsdutymaybedischargedbyashowingoreasonableeortstoprovidewarningsorbyreasonablerelianceuponotherstodoso.TeCaliorniaSupremeCourtgrantedreviewonApril222013toaddresstheollowingissues1Shouldadeendantthatsuppliedrawasbestostoamanuactureroproductsbeoundliabletotheplaintisonaailuretowarntheory2Wasthetrialcourtsdecisiontotreatdeendantspre-trialmotionsornonsuitandoradirectedverdictasapost-trialmotionorjudgmentnotwithstandingtheverdictprocedurallyimproperandisowasitsucientlyprejudicialtowarrantreversalAddressngwhetherMicRAapplestoatonsregardngunsafehosptalpremses.oresv.resyteranntercommuntyosptan.209836formerlypublishedat213al.App.4th1368.laintisuedthehospitalwhereshewasbeingtreatedallegingshesustainedinjurieswhenabedrailcollapsed.Tetrialcourtsustainedthehospitalsdemurreronstatuteolimitationsgroundsndingtheactionaroseoutoaclaimomedicalnegligenceandthuswasbarredtheone-yearlimitationsperiodsetorthinCaliorniasMedicalInjuryCompensationReormActMICRA.TeCourtoAppealreversedholdingtheclaimsproperlyrestedatleastinpartonconductthatisnotproessionalnegligencewithinthemeaningoMICRA.TecaseinvolvesMICRAsone-yearstatuteolimitationsCodeCiv.roc.340.5buttheissueimplicatesotherMICRAprovisionsaswellincludingthestatutelimitingmedicalmalpracticeplaintistoarecoveryo250000ornoneconomicdamages.MICRAappliesinanactionorinjuryordeathagainstahealthcareproviderbaseduponsuchpersonsallegedproessionalnegligenceandproessionalnegligenceisdenedinpartasanegligentactoromissiontoactbyahealthcareproviderintherenderingoproessionalservices.TeFlorescourtdiscussedtheconfictingdecisionsaboutMICRAsapplicabilitytopatientallsromhospitalbedsanddistinuishedthosethatresultedromtheailuretoproperlysecureorsupervisethepatientwhileonahospitalbedorgurneyandthoseresultingromanequipmentailure.Tecourtconcludedthattheplaintisactioninthelattercategorysoundsinordinarynegligencebecausethenegligencedidnotoccurintherenderingoproessionalservices.eCaliorniaSupremeCourtgrantedreviewonMay222013toaddresstheollowingissues1Doestheone-yearstatuteolimitationsorclaimsundertheMedicalInjuryCompensationActCodeCivilProc.340.5orthetwo-yearstatuteolimitationsorordinarynegligenceCodeCivilProc.335.1governanactionorpremisesliabilityagainstahospitalbasedonnegligentmaintenanceohospitalequipment2Didtheinjuryinthiscaseariseoutoproessionalnegligenceasthattermisusedinsection340.5orordinarynegligenceAddressngwhetherelderabuselammaybestatedagansttreatngdotorsevenfarewasprovdedoutsdeofaustodalnpatentsettng.Winnv.PioneerMedicalrouInc.aseno.211793formerlublishedat216al.A.4th875.Aerthedeathotheir83-year-oldmotherplaintissueddeendantphysiciansorelderabusebasedondeendantsrepeateddecisionsnottoreertheirmothertoavascularspecialistoveratwo-yearperioddurinwhichherdiminishinvascularfowworsenedwithouttreatment.Deendantsaruedtheycannotbeliableorelderabusebecausetheytreateddecedentasanoutpatientandliabilityorelderabuserequiresassumptionocustodialobliations.Teyalsocontendedtheconductplaintisalleeconstitutedonlyproessionalnelienceandasamatterolawdoesnotamounttotherecklessnelectrequiredoraclaimoelderabuse.Tetrialcourtareedandsustaineddeendantsdemurrer.TeCourtoAppealreversedinadividedopinionTeelderabusestatutedoesnotlimitliabilitytohealthcareproviderswithcustodialobliationsandthequestionwhetherdeendantsconductwasrecklessratherthanmerelynelientisorajurytodecide.OnejusticedissentedexpressintheviewthatthemajorityhasblurredthelinebetweentheElderAbuseandDependentAdultCivilProtectionActtheActandproessionalnegligencedespitetheactthattheCaliorniaSupremeCourthasrepeatedlynotedthedistinctandmutuallyexclusivenatureothetwo.TeCaliorniaSupremeCourtgrantedreviewonAugust142013toaddresstheollowingissueDoesneglectwithinthemeaningotheElderAbuseandDependentAdultCivilProtectionActWel.Inst.Code15657includeahealthcareprovidersailuretoreeranelderpatienttoaspecialistithecaretookplaceonanoutpatientbasisormustanactionorneglectundertheActallegethatthedeendanthealthcareproviderhadacustodialrelationshipwiththeelderpatientontnuedfrompagev Volume22013verdict19continuedonpage20commissionerexplainedthateventhoughyouareamisappropriatorithetradesecretlaterceasestoexisttheinjunctionshouldbedissolved.1979R42.Wepermitreverseengineering.Oncethatreverseengineeringhasoccurredthetradesecretswouldnolongerexist.Evenamisappropriatorcouldobtainterminationotheinjunction.1979R43.TeheadstartlimitationisalsoexpressedintheRestatementotheLawwhichexplainsthatinjunctiverelieshouldordinarilycontinueonlyuntilthedeendantcouldhaveacquiredtheinormationbypropermeans.Rest.3dUnairCompetition44com..Monetaryremedieswhethermeasuredbythelosstotheplaintiorthegaintothedeendantareappropriateonlyortheperiodotimethattheinormationwouldhaveremainedunavailabletothedeendantintheabsenceotheappropriation.Id.45com.h.TusboththelegislativehistoryleadingtotheenactmentotheUSAbytheNationalConerenceoCommissionersonUniormStateLawandtheRestatementotheLawrmlysupporttheimpositionoaheadstartlimitationonthescopeorelieavailableintradesecretmisappropriationactions.MoreoversuchaheadstartlimitationisconsistentwiththeUSAgoaloencouragingwidespreaduseonewinnovations.WhenenactingtheUSAtheNationalCommissionersexplainedthattheUSAwasnotdesignedtoprotecttradesecretsAtradesecretisnotprotectedorwithheldromthepublic.Whatisprotectedhereisthetradesecretrommisappropriationandthatsallthatsbeingprotected.Youcanlearnothetradesecretanduseitbypropermeanswhichisnotthecaseinpatentlaw.Youhaveanabsoluterightduringthepatentperiodinthepatentcase.Iyoushoulddiscoverindependentlythepatentedprocessyoucantuseit.Intradesecrecyyoucan.Allthatsbeingprotectedagainsthereisthemisappropriationunderthistorttheory.1979R21.Tecommissionersexpressedconcernaboutthechillingeectotradesecretlitigationandtheneedtoencouragewidespreaduseonewinnovationsthatbenetthepublicstatingiyoudontwanttogounderthepatentorcopyrightlawthenyoudoruntheriskthatsomebodyisliabletondoutaboutthisinormationandthatswhatwewant.Wewantpeopletoknowaboutthings.1979R17emphasisadded.Everytimeweprotectatradesecretweregivingacosttotheconsumer.1978R12seeAmericanCanCo.v.Mansukhani7thCir.1984742F.2d314329Teprimarypurposeotradesecretlawistoencourageinnovationanddevelopmentandthelawshouldnotbeusedtosuppresslegitimatecompetition.Citation.Broaderprotectionwouldstielegitimatecompetitionbyprohibitingcompetitorsromusingtheirownindependentdiscoveriespublicinormationandreverseengineering.TeNationalCommissionersconsciousdecisiontolimitthescopeorelieavailableintradesecretlitigationtoavoidchillinginnovationanddrivingupconsumercostsisconsistentwithCaliorniapublicpolicyinavoroopencompetitionandemployeemobility.In1872Caliorniasettledpublicpolicyinavoroopencompetition....Edwardsv.ArthurAndersenLLP200844Cal.4th937945.TelawprotectsCaliorniansandensuresthateverycitizenshallretaintherighttopursueanylawulemploymentandenterpriseotheirchoice.Id.atp.946.Itprotectstheimportantlegalrightopersonstoengageinbusinessesandoccupationsotheirchoosing.Ibid.OneaspectoCaliorniaspolicyinavoronurturingopencompetitionistheruleolawprotectingemployeemobility.SeeSilguerov.CreteguardInc.2010187Cal.App.4th6069theinterestsotheemployeeinhisownmobilityandbettermentaredeemedparamounttothecompetitivebusinessinterestsotheemployerswhereneithertheemployeenorhisnewemployerhascommittedanyillegalactaccompanyingtheemploymentchange.Caliornialawostersemployeesabilitytocompetewiththeirormeremployersusingtheskillsandthegeneralknowledgegainedromtheirprioremployment.E.g.Rest.3dUnairCompetition42coms.d.ApplyingtheheadstartdoctrineisconsistentwithCaliorniasstrongpublicpolicyinavorocompetitionandemployeemobility.FinallytheheadstartdoctrineisconsistentwiththebasictortprincipleinCaliorniathataplaintiisnotentitledtobeplacedinabetterpositionthanheorshewouldhavebeeninhadthewrongnotbeendone.6WitkinSummaryoCal.Lawsupraorts1548p.1022accordMetzv.Soares2006142Cal.App.4th12501255.Bydenitiontheheadstartdoctrineisdesignedtoeliminateonlytheunairadvantagegainedbyapersonwhohasmisappropriatedatradesecret.Oncethatadvantageiseliminatedopencompetitionisallowedandevenencouraged.Awardingdamagesorinjunctivereliebasedontheplaintisneedtocompetewiththedeendantafertheheadstartperiodhaselapsedwouldprovidetheplaintiwithanunwarrantedwindallbyplacingtheplaintiinabetterpositionthantheplaintiwouldhaveenjoyedhadnomisappropriationtakenplace.Assertingtheheadstartdoctrineasadefense.Iaplaintiintradesecretmisappropriationlitigationseeksdamagesorlossoincomespanningmanyyearsorinjunctiverelieseekingtoprohibittheallegedmisappropriatorromengaginginthecompetingbusinessdeensecounselshouldasserttheheadstartdoctrineasadeensethatlimitsthescopeotheavailablemonetaryandinjunctiverelie.TeHeadStartDoctrineDefensecontinuedfrompage18 20verdictVolume22013Firstitprobablyisprudentbutnotnecessarytopleadtheheadstartlimitationasanafrmativedeenseintheanswer.Ageneraldenialothedamagesandotherrelieclaimedbytheplaintistowhichtheplaintibearstheburdenoprooshouldbeadequatetopreservetheissue.Icounselpleadstheheadstartdoctrineasanarmativedeensecounselshouldbecareulnottosuggestthattheburdenisonthedeensetodisprovethedamagesorotherrelietheplaintiisseeking.SecondbecauseCaliorniasstatutorycauseoactionormisappropriationotradesecretsgenerallypreemptsallothercausesoactionbasedonthesamenucleusoactsseeChinetal.Cal.PracticeGuideEmploymentLitigationsupra1481.5to1481.7p.14-10deensecounselshouldleademurrertoanyothercausesoactionorseeksummaryadjudicationothembasedonstatutorypreemption.Tirdcounseldeendingagainsttradesecretmisappropriationclaimsshouldbymotioninlimineobjecttoanyevidenceorargumentthatsuggestsdamagesmaybeextrapolatedintotheuturewithoutregardtotheactthatatsomepointthedeendantwillhavegainedaccesstotheclaimedsecretsthroughpropermeans.Fourthdeensecounselshouldpresentevidencethroughthetestimonyodeensewitnessesandthecross-examinationoplaintiswitnessesestablishinghowlongitwouldhavetakenthedeendanttodiscoverthetradesecreteitherbyreverseengineeringorotherpropermeans.Counselalsoshouldeducatetheirexpertwitnessesontheheadstartdoctrinetoensurethatintheeventtheplaintiprevailsontheissueoliabilitythetestimonyprovidesanadequatebasisorthejurysdeterminationodamagesandorthescopeothecourtsinjunctionconsistentwiththeheadstartlimitation.FinallycounselshouldproposeeitherspecialjuryinstructionsormodicationstothestandardCACIinstructionsmodeledafertheRestatementslimitationondamagesundertheheadstartdoctrine.ForexampleCACINos.4409and4410couldbemodiedasindicatedinboldacebelow4409.RemediesorMisappropriationoTradeSecretInameoplaintifprovesthatnameodeendantmisappropriatedhisheritstradesecretsthennameoplaintifisentitledtorecoverdamagesithemisappropriationcausednameoplaintiftosueranactuallossornameodeendanttobeunjustlyenriched.Howeveryourawardodamageswhethermeasuredbythelosstotheplaintiforthegaintothedeendantarelimitedsolelytothetimethattheinormationwouldhaveremainedunavailabletothedeendantintheabsenceothemisappropriation.Damagescannotbeawardedtocompensateorlossestotheplaintiforenrichmentbythedeendantthatwouldhaveoccurredaterthedeendantcouldhavediscoveredorobtainedtheinormationbypropermeans.Inameodeendantsmisappropriationdidnotcausenameoplaintiftosueranactuallossornameodeendanttobeunjustlyenrichednameoplaintifmaystillbeentitledtoareasonableroyaltyornolongerthantheperiodotimetheusecouldhavebeenprohibited.HoweverIwillcalculatetheamountoanyroyalty.4410.UnjustEnrichmentNameodeendantwasunjustlyenrichedihisheritsmisappropriationonameoplaintifstradesecretscausednameodeendanttoreceiveabeneftthathesheitotherwisewouldnothaveachieved.Todecidetheamountoanyunjustenrichmentfrstdeterminethevalueonameodeendantsbeneftthatwouldnothavebeenachievedexceptorhisheritsmisappropriation.Thensubtractromthatamountnameodeendantsreasonableexpensesincludingthevalueothespeciycategoriesoexpensesinevidencesuchaslabormaterialsrentsinterestoninvestedcapital.Incalculatingtheamountoanyunjustenrichmentdonottakeintoaccountanyamountthatyouincludedindetermininganyamountodamagesornameoplaintifsactualloss.Alsodonotawardunjustenrichmentdamagesoranyperiodaterthedeendantcouldhavediscoveredorobtainedtheinormationbypropermeans.SeeRest.3dUnairCompetition45com.h.ConclusionInsumthehistoryotheUSAclearlysupportsaheadstartlimitationonthescopeorelieavailableintradesecretmisappropriationactionsbothintheormoaninjunctionandmonetarydamages.Butunlessdeensecounselasserttheheadstartdoctrinethatvaluabledeensewillbewaived.H.TomasWatsonandKarenM.BrayarepartnersatHorvitzLevyLLPanappellateboutiquethatspecializesinhandlingcivilappealsandwritproceedingsinjurisdictionsacrossthenationandwhoconsultregularlywithtrialcounseloncutting-edgelegalissuestoenhancetheoddsoprevailingattrialandtopreserveissuesoreventualappellatereview.TeHeadStartDoctrineDefensecontinuedfrompage19 Volume22013verdict21N.DeniseaylorisaspassionateabouttheAssociationoSouthernCaliorniaDeenseCounselASCDCassheisaboutherlawpractice.aylorcreditstheorganizationorplayingapivotalroleinher30-yearcareerasasuccessulcivildeenseattorney.BybeingactiveinASCDCandservingontheBoardoDirectorsIbecamebetterknownasalawyer.IwasabletostartmyownrminpartbecauseothenetworkingIdidwithASCDCmemberssaidayloroneotwooundingpartnersotheLosAngelesmedicalmalpracticermoaylorBlesseyLLP.aylorjoinedASCDCasanewattorneywiththedeensermBonneJonesBridgesMuellerOKeee.ShejoinedthermaferreceivingherlawdegreeromPepperdineUniversityin1981andremainedthereuntil2006whensheormedherownrmwithlawpartnerRayBlessey.ItwasntlongaferjoiningtheBonnermthatIstartedattendingASCDCsAnnualSeminaroritseducationalvalueandtheopportunitytonetworkwithclients.In1998shewasaskedtoserveontheAssociationsBoardoDirectors.IvemadesomeomybestriendsinthelegalcommunitybybeingamemberotheAssociationandservingonitsBoard.ShetellsyoungattorneysIwaswhereyouare.Youhavetoputyourseloutthere.alktothepersonnexttoyou.Lookoropportunitiestonetworkwithattorneysandmeetjudges.ASCDCwillhelpopenthosedoors.Ithasorme.Imverybullishonthisorganization.WiththestrongsupportothisyearsBoardaylorisdeterminedtoincreasetheAssociationsmembershipnotonlyromtheranksothetraditionalmemberrmsbutromnon-traditionalrmsandcountiesoutsideLosAngeles.Terehasneverbeenabettertimethannowtobeapartothevoiceoallcivildeenseattorneys.Wehavetheopportunitytoworktogethertoadjusttothechangesinthecourtsinresponsetothestatebudgetcrisisshesaid.SinceassumingleadershipoASCDCatthe52thAnnualSeminarinMarchaylorhasbeenkeenlyawareothechallengescivildeenseattorneysareacingwiththenewstreamlinedPersonalInjuryPIcourts.WithLosAngelesCountyheaviesthittheresponsetothestatebudgetcrisishasgreatlyalteredthewaycivildeenseattorneyshandlePIcases.Wereallstilltryingtogureouthowthenewsystemwillworkexplainedaylorwhodeendsdoctorsandhospitalsinmedicalmalpracticecases.TemajorityoourmembersareaectedbythechangesbecauseothesheernumberocasesledinLosAngelesCounty.LookingonthebrightsideaylornotedPartieswhoreallywanttogettheirdayincourtarestillgoingtohaveitmaybeevenmoreecientlyiyoureapersonalinjuryattorneyinthenewPIsystem.Soaraferjustaewmonthseverycasethathasbeenreadytogototrialhasbeenassignedatrialcourt.Howeveriyouneedacontinuancebecauseyouoryourclientorexpertisntavailableorthepartiesagreethatmoretimeisneededorpre-trialdiscoveryatleastornowthejudgesarebeingmoreaccommodating.aylorcreditsJudgeDanBuckleyaormerASCDCmemberandsupervisingjudgeotheLosAngelescivilcourtsorhiseortsinspearheadingthenewsystemorsegregatingPIcases.Hesselectedverygoodjudgesorthepersonalinjurycourtrooms.Testaisalsoexcellenttheyareverycompetentandpositive.Everyoneisworkingtogethereventhoughthingsarestillincrisismode.Whiletheimpactisgreatestonpersonalinjurycasesattorneyswhohandleothertypesocasessuchasemploymentandconstructiondeectcasesarealsoeelingtheimpactothebudgetcuts.InadditiontostareductionsindependentcalendarcourtsImVeryBullishOnTisOrganizationASCDCPresidentDeniseTaylortalkscandidlyaboutthechangesinthecourtsbuildingmembershipandtheyearseventsByCarolA.Shermancontinuedonpage22 22verdictVolume22013arenolongerhandlingPIcasesandthereorehavehadtotakeonmoretime-consumingcases.aylorexplainedthattheideabehindthesegregationoPIcasesstemmedromthenotionthatPIlawyersdontleasmanymotionsdemurrersormotionsorsummaryjudgmentallrequiringcourtappearancesthatextendthelieothecaseandrequirecourtstafattention.Asaresultindependentcalendarjudgesareresponsibleorevenmoreothetime-consuminglabor-intensivecases.Delaysinthosecourtroomswillinevitablyhappen.Intermsowhetherthechangestothecourtswillimpactclientsaylorsaiditstoosoontotell.Itherearedelaystheyaddtothecostbyorcingtheattorneysandexpertstorepeatedlyhavetoprepareortrialonlytohavethetrialdatepushedback.Notonlytheexpenseolitigationbutalsotheuncertaintyinconvenienceandstressitcauseshaveaveryrealafectondeendants.AsapartohermissionasASCDCpresidentaylorisocusedonincreasingmembershipbydrawingromrmswhorepresentnon-insuranceclientsaswellasworkingonincreasingthemembershipranksodeenseattorneyspracticingincountiesoutsideLosAngeles.MostoourmembersareinLosAngelesCounty.ButourmembershipreachesasarsouthasSanDiegoandnorthtoBakerseld.AlwaystheoptimistshesthrilledwiththehighcaliberothisyearsBoard.Teymakemeveryoptimisticaboutthisorganization.Teyreveryproactiveandbringtonsoenthusiasm.Wehaveanincrediblegroupoleaderscomingupinthechairs.Teresnoonemagicbullettoincreasingmembershipsheadmitted.StrongleadershipisimportantalongwithanenergeticproactiveBoardthatdrawsromdiferentpracticeareasanddiferentcounties.TisyearwehaveaddedtwointellectualpropertylawyerstoparticipateonourBoard.Wehaveveryenthusiasticup-and-comingattorneysworkingonourmembershipcommitteeandwehaveayounglawyerscommitteetaskedwithattractingyoungmembers.WealsohaveaddedwellWhenDeniseaylorsaysshehasaveryinterestingamilystorysheisnotexaggerating.Inactherliehasplayedoutlikeamade-or-Vmovieaboutasmartambitioussinglecareerwomanwhohasitallasuccessullawpracticegreatriendsandamilyrst-classworld-widetraveladventuresexceptthatonespecialpersontoshareitwith.Likeallgoodromancesthisonehasaveryhappyending.WhatDenisecouldneverhavedreamedintherst25yearsoherlawcareerwashowshewouldmeetherhusbandandhowthelawplayedapart.AtanearlyageDeniseknewshewouldbecomealawyer.Iwasabigtalker.FromthetimeIwasalittlekidanyonewhoknewmesaidIwasgoingtobealawyerwhenIgrewup.Inmyamilyyouwereexpectedtobecomeaproessional.Mydadisasurgeonandmymotherwasanurse.Myauntsandunclesareallnursesdoctorsanddentists.SoocoursemedicinewassomethingIwasguidedtowardsbutIwasnevergoodatscienceandevenworseatmathandIhatedthesightoblood.TeoldestoourchildrenDenisehastwobrothersandasister.ShewasborninIndianapoliswhereheratherwascompletinghissurgicalresidency.WhenshewasthreeheramilymovedtoFortBenningGeorgiawhereheratheraCaptainintheArmywasstationed.HeramilythenmovedtoPhoenixArizonawheresheattendedelementaryandhighschool.AccordingtoDeniseherathertookcareothechimpanzeesduringProjectMercuryNASAsrsthumanspace-ightprogramthatusedanimalstotesthumanight.Heratherturns85thisyearhermotherpassedawayearlierthisyearaeralongillness.RaisedaSeventhDayAdventistsheattendedPacicUnionCollegeinNapaValley.Shelaughedrecallingthatduringherrstsemesterhermajorwassocialwork.Anyonewhoknowsmewilllaughatthis.IthinkIwasbeingalittlerebellious.AermyrstsemesterIchangedmymajortohistoryknowingIwasgoingtogotolawschool.AmemberoPepperdineLawSchoolsrstgraduatingclassthatcompletedallthreeyearsattheMalibucampusDeniseexcelledincivilprocedureandtorts.IdidntmuchcareorcriminallawcontractsorrealpropertysowhenIwaslookingormyrstjobIthoughtokayImgoodattortsandcivilprocedureandeverybodyinmyamilyisinthemedicaleldsomaybemedicalmalpracticermswouldbeaplacetostart.GrowingupDenisehadworkedinherathersoce.Ihaddonejustabouteverythingtherewastodoinadoctorsoceexceptseepatients.SherecalledtellingKenMuellerinherinterviewwithBonneJonesBridgesMuellerOKeeeIwanttodeenddoctorsinmalpracticecases.Shejoinedthermasalawclerkinherthirdyearolawschool.InNovember1981shestartedpracticingaerpassingthestatebar.ShesuccessullytriedherrstcasewithintherstninemonthsbecameashareholderinyearveandremainedwiththermuntilMay2006whenshestartedherownrm.OtherthanchoosingmedicalmalpracticedeenseasmyareaospecialtythebestproessionaldecisionIevermadewastostartmyownrmwithRayBlesseyasmylawpartner.In2006theyormedaylorBlesseyLLP.RayandIbothhaveahugeworkethicbutwerecompletelydiferentinwaysthatcomplementeachotherinourpractice.Iwasacareerwomanandalwaysarealgo-getterbutbythetimewestartedaylorBlesseyIhadgivenuponmarriagesaidDeniseadmittingthatshehadalwaysputhercareerrst.Whenshetalksaboutheramilyshelightsup.Ihaveanincredibleextendedamilyandwonderulriends.Bothmybrotherslivedwithmeatdiferenttimesasdidtwoomynephewsandtwoomynieces.RightnowIhaveoneomynieceslivingwithmeandworkingattheoce.Myyoungestnephewisthreeandmyoldestnephewis30andhehastwochildrennow.TeyallcallmeAuntieNise.Ivehadaverycloserelationshipwithallomysiblingskidsandhavetraveledwiththemthroughouttheworld.Asisoenthecaseinliegoodthingshappenwhentheyareleastexpected.Iwouldtellanysingleproessionalpersonthatitsimportanttobehappyandtobepositive.LookingbacktheturningpointinmyliecamewhenIstartedmyownrm.Tatgavemeareedomandcondencethatallowedmetobeopentomeetsomeonelikemyuturehusband.Inthelate1990sDeniseamemberotheAmericanBoardorialAdvocatesstartedgoingontheHappyEndingsByCarolA.Shermancontinuedonpage23continuedonpage23N.DeniseTaylorcontinuedfrompage21 Volume22013verdict23knownandrespecteddeenseattorneysromtheoutlyingcountiestotheBoardtogetourmessageouttoprospectivemembersintheirgeographicareas.OnthelegislativerontaylorpraisedtheeortsoCaliorniaDeenseCounselCDCanditslobbyistMikeBelote.MikecontinuestodoawonderuljoborusensuringthatourbestinterestsarerepresentedinthestateLegislatureespeciallynowthattheresasupermajorityomembersromoneparty.ItsparticularlyimportantasanorganizationthisyearthatwestandbyourinsuranceclientsintheeortsbeingmadeonthepartotheplaintisbartochangelimitssetorthintheMedicalInsuranceCompensationReormActo1975signedbyGovernorJerryBrownduringhisrstterm.Outsidethelegislativearenarelationswiththeplaintisbarremainpositive.ASCDCcontinuesthetraditionoreachingacrosstheaisletoconnectwithmembersotheConsumerAttorneysoLosAngeles.TerecentHalloFameDinnerisagreatexamplewithplaintiattorneyomGirardiincludedamongthehonorees.TeHalloFameheldattheMillenniumBiltmoreHotelindowntownLosAngeleshasbecomeoneoASCDCsmostpopularevents.Tisyearwehonoredour1989PresidentBobBakeraniconinthedeensecommunityinadditiontoomGirardiandtheHonorableBillMacLaughlin.aylorsaid.Itwasaantasticeveningattendedbythewhoswhointhelegalcommunity.aylorislookingorwardtoanotherSantaBarbaraSeminar.Sheservedaschairpersonorlastyearsseminaradjustingtheeventtokeepwhathadbeenworkinginthepastandchangewhatwasnt.TeseminarstartsonFridayafernoonwiththreehoursomeetingsollowedbyacocktailreception.MeetingsresumeSaturdaymorningollowedbyanoptionalwinetourandlunch.Weencouragememberstoinvitetheirclients.ItsagreatweekendandSantaBarbaraissuchawonderullocation.Teseminarisnotonlyeducationalbutitsanotherwaytobuildcamaraderieandjusthaveun.internationalABOAtrips.AsasinglewomanthiswasagreatwayormetotravelwithagroupopeopleIknew.ActiveinABOAaylorservedontheNationalBoardalongwithSanFranciscodeenseattorneyWillMcDowall.AwidowerWillwouldbringhisdaughterAmyontheABOAtrips.AmyissomuchunandWillisthesaltotheearth.Webecamegreatriends.LookingbackDeniserecallsaconversationwithAmythattookplacewhileonsaariinAricain2006.Denisesolelyocusedonherlawcareerdescribedherperectman.HewouldhavetobesomeonewhowasntalawyerandlivedanhourightawaysowecouldseeeachotheronweekendsandIcouldbringhimtomysocialunctions.Anditwouldbegreatihewasacontractor.Deniseownsa1920shomethatsheafectionatelyreerstoasthemoneypit.IronicallyDenisehadjustdescribedAmysbrotherDougacontractorwholivedinSacramentowhomDenisehadnevermet.TenextyearDeniseandDougmetonthe2007ABOAtrip.WemetattheAtlantaairportonourwaytoMilanandLakeComowhichwastherststoponthetrip.Althoughitshardtoadmittherewasasparkbetweenusrightromthestart.Sherememberedthatatthattimeheshoppedatusedclothingstoresandhadashoestringtiedtohisreadingglasses.Hewasakayakerandamansman.ShelaughedButhecleansupverynicely.BythemiddleotheMediterraneancruisewewereprettymuchanitem.BythetimewedockedinMonteCarlowewereinlove.Teyhadknowneachotherorallo10days.Overthenextyeartherelationshipblossomed.DougbegancommutingtoLosAngelesmostweekends.Atrstmyamilywasalittlesuspicious.MyatherbrothersandmanyomyriendswereveryprotectiveomebutwhentheymetWillDougsathertheyrelaxed.AndoncetheygottoknowDougtheyrealizedhowwellweweresuited.SoonDougrentedouthisSacramentohomeandmovedtoLosAngeles.TeyweremarriedonMay142011atherathershomeinParadiseValley.TeirgoodriendBobSavitthusbandoASCDCcolleagueLindaSavittociatedtheweddingceremony.Iwas49yearsoldwhenImetDoug.Wevebeenmarriedjustovertwoyears.HewasmarriedonceandIhavea24yearoldstepsonBlakewhoIlovetodeath.AndmyrelationshipwithDougsamilyisascloseasmyrelationshipwithmyownamily.Iamreallylucky.TeymaketheirhomeinHancockParkatawonderulolderhomethatDenisehasownedor20yearswiththeirtwodogs.OciallyDougsretiredbutheenjoysworkingwithhishandsdoingcarpentryandotherremodeling.Currentlyheisoverseeingtheremodelingothebackhouseonthepropertyhismancave.DenisesaidthattheyareperectoreachotherbutconessedIIhadmethim10yearsearlierweprobablywouldnthavemeshed.Wemetatareallygoodtimeorbothous.Likeeverygoodmovietheresalessontobeshared.Ibelievethatitshardtohaveitall.ForexampleIalwayswantedkidsomyown.ButlookingbackitsprobablygoodIdidntbecauseIamthatspecialpersontoallmyniecesandnephews.IthinkthatthatswhatIwasmeanttodo.Terearemanypathsthatwomenproessionalscantake.Ijusteelblessedthatbothmycareerandamilyhaveturnedoutsowell.continuedonpage24N.DeniseTaylorcontinuedfrompage22 24verdictVolume22013AnothereventthatwasbroughtbackthispastspringwasaBoardmeetingandretreatinOjaiwithspousesincludedwhichusedtobeamainstayotheASCDCBoardbutwasdiscontinuedaewyearsagountilthisyear.WhenIfrststarteddatingmyhusbandIinvitedhimtoOjaisoIhaveveryondmemoriesobeingthere.ItsagreatwayorourBoardmemberstobondatthebeginningotheyearespeciallynewmembers.TaylorwillremainatthehelmoASCDCthroughFebruary2014whentheleadershiprolepassestoVicePresidentRobertOlson.N.DeniseTaylorcontinuedfrompage23 Volume22013verdict25continuedonpage25Initsverylastdecisiono2012theCaliorniaSupremeCourtbroughtsomedesperatelyneededclaritytotheprimaryassumptionoriskdoctrinermlyestablishingthattheprimaryassumptionoriskdoctrineisnotlimitedtoactivitiesclassiedassportsbutappliesaswelltootherrecreationalactivitiesinvolvinganinherentriskoinjurytovoluntaryparticipants...wheretheriskcannotbeeliminatedwithoutalteringtheundamentalnatureotheactivity.Nalwav.CedarFairL.P.201255Cal.4th11481156.Nowthehighcourtispoisedtodeterminetheextenttowhichthedoctrineappliestoactivitiesbeyondsportsandrecreation.TeCourthasgrantedreviewinthecaseoGregoryv.CottCaseNo.S209125toaddresswhetherthedoctrineoprimaryassumptionotheriskbarstheclaimoanin-homecaregiveragainstanAlzheimerspatientandherhusbandorinjuriesthecaregiverreceivedwhenthepatientlungedather.PrimaryassumptionbecamelawinCaliorniain1992withtheSupremeCourtstwindecisionsoKnightv.Jewett19923Cal.4th296andFordv.Gouin19923Cal.4th339.TeCourtexplainedthatprimaryassumptionoriskinvolvesactivitieswherebyvirtueothenatureotheactivityandthepartiesrelationshiptotheactivitythedeendantowesnolegaldutytoprotectGregoryv.CottCaliforniaSupremeCourttoFurtherClarifythePrimaryAssumptionofRiskDoctrineJefreyM.LenkovandStevenJ.Renicktheplaintifromtheparticularriskoharmthatcausedtheinjury.Knightsupra3Cal.4th296314-315.Unortunatelythelowercourtsimmediatelybegandisagreeingaswhichtypesoactivitiesweresubjecttothenewdoctrine.wolinesoappellatecasesdevelopedonelimitingtheapplicationotheprimaryassumptionoriskdoctrinetoactivesportsseee.g.Recordv.Reason199973Cal.App.4th472andtheotherapplyingthedoctrinetoavarietyoactivitiesbeyondjustactivesportsthatpresentinherentriskstotheparticipants.Seee.g.Beninativ.BlackRockCityLLC2009175Cal.App.4th650.Tisissuewasconrontedhead-onbythejusticesotheSixthAppellateDistrictinthecaseoNalwav.CedarFairwhicharoseromaninjurytheplaintifsuferedwhileridingabumpercaratanamusementpark.Tetrialjudgehadgrantedthedeendantsummaryjudgmentundertheprimaryassumptionoriskdoctrine.Tetwo-judgemajorityreversedholdingthatridingabumpercarwasnotasportandthuswasnotsubjecttotheprimaryassumptionoriskdoctrine.IndissentJusticeWendyClarkDufyarguedthatthedoctrineappliestomorethanjustactivesportsandwasproperlyappliedtothisincident.TedeendantsoughtreviewintheCaliorniaSupremeCourtwhichagreedtohearthecase.TeSupremeCourtinNalwav.CedarFairL.P.201255Cal.4th1148reversedtheCourtoAppeal.WhiletheCourtdidnotexpandthedoctrinetoanyactivitywithaninherentriskid.at1157itdidconcludethattheprimaryassumptionoriskdoctrineisnotlimitedtoactivitiesclassiedassportsbutappliesaswelltootherrecreationalactivitiesinvolvinganinherentriskoinjurytovoluntaryparticipants...wheretheriskcannotbeeliminatedwithoutalteringtheundamentalnatureotheactivity.Id.at1156.TeCourtexplainedthatTepolicybehindprimaryassumptionoriskappliessquarelytoinjuriesromphysicalrecreationwhetherinsportsornonsportactivities.Allowingvoluntaryparticipantsinanactiverecreationalpursuittosueotherparticipantsorsponsorsorailingtoeliminateormitigatetheactivitysinherentriskswouldthreatentheactivitysveryexistenceandnature....Tedoctrinethusappliestobumpercarcollisionsregardlessowhetherornotonedeemsbumpercarsasport.Ibid. 26verdictVolume22013continuedonpage27TeSupremeCourthasnowdenitivelyputtorestthenotionthattheprimaryassumptionoriskdoctrineislimitedtoactivitiesthatcanbelabeledsports.ButwhileprovidingthissorelyneededclaritytothescopeothedoctrinetheCourtlefunresolvedthequestionowhetherthedoctrinecanapplytoactivitiesotherthansportsorrecreation.WhiletheCourtsopinioncannotbereadasexpresslyencouragingsuchanexpansionitalsodidnotprecludetheapplicationothedoctrinetonon-recreationalactivities.Inactthedoctrineinspecializedormshasalreadybeenappliedinnon-sportsorrecreationcontextsespeciallyintheoccupationalcontext.Wehaveexplainedthereghtersruleandveterinariansruleprecludingcertainsuitsbyworkersinthoseoccupationsorthenegligentcreationohazardsinherentintheirworkasapplicationsotheprimaryassumptionoriskdoctrine.Id.at1155n.1.TisveryquestionisattheheartoGregoryv.Cott.InGregoryMr.Cottcontractedwithahomecareagencytoprovidein-homecaretohiswiewhohadsueredromAlzheimersdiseaseoratleastnineyears.PlaintiGregorywasassignedtothedeendantshometoprovidethecontractedcaregiverservices.PlaintiacknowledgedthatshehadtrainingindealingwithclientssueringromAlzheimersdiseaseandhadprovidedservicesorAlzheimerspatientsinthepast.WhenplaintistartedworkingorthedeendantsshewasawarethatMrs.CotthadAlzheimersandknewthatAlzheimerspatientscouldbecomeviolent.GregoryhadbeeninjuredbyanAlzheimerspatientinthepastandwastoldbyMr.Cottattheoutsetthathiswiewascombativeandengagedinbitingkickingscratchingandarmailing.Gregoryv.Cott2013213Cal.App.4th4144supersededbygrantoreview.AstimewentonandasMrs.Cottsdiseaseprogressedshebecamemorecombative.Shewasaggressivewithotherpeopleandevenstrucksomebody.TeplaintiallegedthatMrs.CotthadviolenttendenciesandoccasionallysheinjuredtheplaintibutGregoryneveraskedheremployertoreassignherbecauseaccordingtotheplaintishecouldhandlethejob.Finallyin2008whiletheplaintiwaswashingdishesandhadaknieinherhandMrs.Cottmadecontactwithplaintiandreachedorakniethatplaintiwasholding.Teplaintiwascutonthewristbythekniesueringverysignicantinjuries.Ibid.TeplaintisuedMrs.Cottorbatterynegligenceandpremisesliabilityandsuedherhusbandornegligenceandpremisesliability.Tedeendantsmovedorsummaryjudgmentwhichmotionthetrialcourtgrantedholdingthattheplaintisclaimswerebarredbytheprimaryassumptionoriskdoctrine.Id.at4450.DivisionFiveotheSecondDistrictCourtoAppealinatwo-to-onedecisionarmed.Gregoryv.Cottcontinuedfrompage25 Volume22013verdict27Tetwo-judgemajoritynotedthattheSupremeCourtinNalwahadnotruledouttheapplicationoprimaryassumptionorisktonon-sportsandrecreationactivitiesid.at46andobservedthattheCaliorniacourtshadinactalreadyapprovedtheuseothedoctrineinrelationtoanumberosuchnon-sportsandrecreationactivitiesincludingthecareoAlzheimerspatientsHerrlev.EstateofMarshall199645Cal.App.4th1761.AlthoughinHerrleitwasanursesaideinaconvalescenthospitalwhowasinjuredbyanAlzheimerspatientthemajorityconcludedthatthereisnomeaninguldistinctionbetweenundertakingtocareoranAlzheimerspatientinaconvalescenthospitalorothercareacilityandundertakingtocareorsuchapatientinaprivateresidence.Id.at49citationomitted.HavingbeenacaretakerorMrs.Cottorseveralyearsplainticouldnothavebeenunderanyillusionsconcerningherconditionorthepremises.Id.at50.Accordinglythemajorityagreedthattheplaintisclaimswerebarredbythedoctrineoprimaryassumptionorisk.Ibid.Tedissentingjusticereachedtheoppositeconclusionconcludingthatthesimpleactthatplaintiwaspaidtoprovidein-homecaretoMrs.CottdoesnotbringthiscasewithintheholdingoHerrle.Id.at60.JusticeArmstrongarguedthatunlikeHerrletheplaintiherewasnottreatingapatientMrs.CottwasnotplacedinplaintiscarerstandoremostbecausehavingnomedicalornursinglicenseorcerticationplaintiwascompletelyunqualiedtoprovidemedicalcaretoMrs.Cott.RatherplaintiprovidedhousekeepingandpersonalcareservicestotheCottsdutieswhichrequiredvirtuallynotrainingorspecializedskillorknowledge.AndsheprovidedtheseservicesintheCottshomewhichaordednoneotheprotectionsavailableinaninstitutionalsettingsuchastheconvalescenthospitalinHerrle....GiventhisincreasedriskoharmtoMrs.Cottsin-homecaregiversairnessdemandsthatdeendantsbearresponsibilityorthatriskandnotshiftheburdenolosstothehaplessworkerwhohappenedtobeassignedtothehomeoonesueringromAlzheimersdiseaseratherthanorinstanceonerecoveringromootsurgery.Id.at59.NotethatJusticeArmstrongsdisagreementwiththemajoritywaswithmorethanjustitsconclusionthattherulelaiddowninHerrlecouldbeappliedtothepresentcase.HedidnotbelievethatHerrlereectedanappropriateexpansionotheprimaryassumptionoriskdoctrine.Hearguedthatthecasesinwhichprimaryassumptionhasbeenappliedtonon-sportsorrecreationalactivitiescanbegroupedtogetherunderthelabeloccupationalassumptionotherisk.Tesecaseshavetheirgenesisinthereghtersrule.Id.at53.Teundergirdinglegalprincipleothereghtersruleisassumptionotherisk....Fireghterswhoseoccupationbyitsverynatureexposesthemtoparticularrisksoharmcannotcomplainonegligenceinthecreationotheveryoccasionortheirengagement.hereghtersruleisbasedonaprincipleapplicabletoourentiresystemojusticeonewhohasknowinglyandvoluntarilyconrontedahazardcannotrecoverorinjuriessustainedthereby.Id.at53-54citationsandinternalquotationmarksomitted.JusticeArmstrongarguedthatthepolicyrationaleorthereghtersrulewasnotpresentinHerrle.Publicsaetyemployeesreceivespecialpubliccompensationorconrontingthedangersposedbythedeendantsnegligence....Asamatteroairnesspoliceocersandreghtersmaynotcomplainotheverynegligencethatmakestheiremploymentnecessary.Id.at57citationandinternalquotationmarksomitted.TeneedtoprovidecaretoAlzheimerssuererswhoareunabletocareorthemselvescanhardlybeequatedwiththepublicsaetyimperativetoextinguishres.Moreoverthepersonsemployedtoprovidethatcarearelikelylow-wageworkerswhoreceivenospecialpubliccompensationorcontinuedonpage28Gregoryv.Cottcontinuedfrompage26 28verdictVolume22013conrontingthedangersposedbynegligentindividuals.Nordoesairnessdemandthatthosewhoprovidethemostmundaneintimateandconsistentcaretoincapacitatedpatientsorderliesandaideswiththebarestomedicaltrainingwhobathedressandeedtheirchargesandprovideacleanandcomortablelivingspacesuertheconsequencessothatthosewhocausedthemharmcanavoidnancialresponsibility.Id.57-58citationandinternalquotationmarksomitted.WhentheSupremeCourttakesupGregoryitwillthusbeconrontedwithachoicetoeitherafrmthattheprimaryassumptionoriskdoctrinecanbeappliedinoccupationalassumptionotheriskcasesi.e.whenanemployeesuersaninjuryromariskinherentinaparticularoccupationoronlywhetherthedoctrinesapplicationintheemploymenteldisgenerallylimitedtocasesinvolvingtheuniquecircumstancesrelatingtopublicsaetyemployees.Arulinginavorotheplaintiinthiscasewillprobablysignaltothelowercourtsthatprimaryassumptionistobelimitedalmostexclusivelytothesportsandrecreationcontext.HoweverarulinginavorothedeendantswillindicatethattheSupremeCourtisopentoalogicalapplicationotheprimaryassumptionoriskdoctrineinallsituationsthattthebasicrationaleorthedoctrinewhetherthedeendantsconductatissueisaninherentriskotheactivitysuchthatliabilitydoesnotattachasamatterolaw.Id.at45citationsandinternalquotationmarksomitted.TeauthorsjointlyarguedNalwav.CedarFairL.P.onbehalothedeendantbeoretheCaliorniaSupremeCourt.JefreyM.LenkovchairsboththeSportsLawPracticeGroupandtheRetailRestaurantHospitalityPracticeGroupoManningKassEllrodRamirezresterLLP.StevenJ.RenickchairstheSupremeCourtPracticeGroupoManningKassEllrodRamirezresterLLPandiscertiedasanAppellateLawSpecialistbytheBoardoLegalSpecializationotheStateBaroCaliornia.Gregoryv.Cottcontinuedfrompage27 Volume22013verdict292013HallofFamePhotosCongratulationsJudgeWilliamMacLaughlinRecipientoftheJudgeoftheYearAwardPresentedbyWallyYokaCongratulationsTomGirardiRecipientoftheCivilAdvocateAwardPresentedbyDavidOKeefeCongratulationsBobBakerRecipientoftheHallofFameAwardPresentedbyPhilBaker 30verdictVolume22013continuedonpage31younglawyerssection10LegalWritingTipsfortheYoungAssociateByHannahL.MohrmanAsyoungassociatesweusuallyrelishtheopportunitytobeassignedalegalwritingproject.Weseeitasouropportunitytostandoutandtrulyshowourpotentialasattorneys.BelowarewritingtipsIhavelearned1KnowtheAssignmentmanyousareypeAattorneyswhowanttodothebestthatwecanatdeliveringonaprojectbutwearenotalwaysgoodataskingquestionsbeorewebeginthetask.rytonaildowntheassignmentthebestyoucan.Tismeanssittingdownwiththepersonwhoisoverseeingthewritingassignmentandaskingquestionsaboutwhatisexpected.Doesthatpersonhaveatargetpage-countorword-countinmindIthetaskistowriteanobjectivememorandumshoulditbewrittenorinternalrmuseassumingacertainamountoknowledgebythereaderorisitgoingtobesenttosomeonewhoneedsmorebackgroundandbasicinormationtounderstandtheconclusionsinthememoFindouthowmuchtimeyouareexpectedtospendyouwillnotscorepointsiyouproduceathoroughtreatisewiththeresultsonationwideresearchithatisnotwhattheclientreallyneedsandhaloyourtimehastobewritteno.2KnowtheTopicdoenoughdiggingtobecomortablethatyouunderstandthesubjectthebestyoucan.Knowingthetopicsbroadparametersisjustasimportantashavingthelawtobackupyourspecicarguments.Ivewrittenonawiderangeosubjectsrangingromgrocerystoresandsawmillstocars.JumpingrightintoabooleansearchonWestlawbasedonthephrasingotheassignmenthandedtoyoucancauseyoutomisstheperspectiveyouneedtoreallyunderstandtheimplicationsothehitsyoucomeupwith.Startoinsteadwithatourthroughsecondarysourcesthatprovideanoverviewoanyunamiliarsubjectsothatyoudontmisstheorestorthetrees.ForeachtopicItrytolearnasmuchasIreasonablycaninthetimeavailablebecausehavingagoodunderstandingowhatImwritingaboutmakesmebetterabletocrafanalogiesspotpracticalstrategiesandotherwisebeabetterwriter.3KeepItSimpleusinglegalesetechnicaljargonandobscuretermsdoesnotmakeyouabetterwriteranddoesnotmakeyousoundsmarter.rytokeepinmindthatthepersonreadingyourassignmentwhetheritsthepartnerorthejudgeisapersonjustlikeyouandwillappreciateyoumakingyourargumentsinasuccinctandclearwaythatconveyswhatyouaretrulytryingtosay.Stayawayromwordslikeaorementionedhereinaferandarguendo.Lookorwaystouseewerwordsbeoreandaferaremorestraightorwardthanpriortoandsubsequenttoorexample.Checkorsentenceswithtoomanydependentclausetheycanofenbeeasiertoollowiyoubreakthemupintoseparatesentences.Andsprinklinginaewcontractionsisusuallyacceptabletooiithelpsthereaderabsorbthepointyouaremaking.4DontOversellYourArgumentsarguingthatastatuteordecisionclearlysupportsyourpositionorthatalogicalpointobviouslyprovesthatyoushouldprevailaddslittlesubstancetoyourargumentsandcancomeoasdesperateandannoyingtothereader.Teorceoyourargumentwillsellitselipresentedinalinearcleanlyorganizedway Volume22013verdict31YoungLawyerscontinuedfrompage30withouttheextrasignalstellingthereaderwhatheorsheshouldthink.5HaveaGoodIntroductionandConclusiontheintroductionandconclusionshouldbeyourstrongestsectionsinyourwriting.Makesurethattheintroductionclearlyoutlinestheargumentthatyouwillberaisinginyourwritingandmakesurethattheconclusionclearlyidentiestherelieyouareseekingortheactionitemthatyoubelieveshouldbetakenbasedontheinormationyouhavepresented.Itsalwaysagoodideatogobacktothesesectionsaferyouhavenishedtheentiredraftocheckonelasttimethattheycapturethethemestructureandcontentotheanalysisinthemiddleothedocument.6DontIncludeTooManyFootnotesootnotesimpedetheowoyourwriting.Aferyouhavecompletedadrafgothroughitonemoretimewithacriticaleyeontheootnotes.Manyothemareoonlytangentialinterestsuchasthecompletetextoastatuteyouhaveexcerptedinthebodyparagraphorasnarkynoteaboutanopponentsposition.Iitsimportantenoughtoincludeputitinthebodyoyourwriting.7DoNotOveruseAcronymsdontturnyourwritingintoanalphabetsoup.Overusingacronymscanbeconusingorthereader.Ithetermissomethingthatyouaregoingtousethroughoutyourwritingndashorthandphrasethatisdescriptive.ForexampleinsteadocallingAcmeGeneralHospitalAGHcallitthehospital.IyouarereerringtotheUniormActDesignedoImproveAssociateWritingechniquesionlythereweresuchathingcallittheWritingActratherthantheUADIAW8StudyExamplesofGoodWritingweallknowwhothegoodwritersareintheoce.Studytheirworkandlearnromthem.Manytimesotherswillbehappytorunaneyeoveradrafevenionlytooerreactionstotheintroductionortableocontents.Teirreshlookcanbeenormouslyhelpulinspottinggapsoroeringconstructivecriticism.9Proofreadasayoungattorneythereisonlysomuchyoucancontrolinyourwritingassignment.Weknowonlywhatweknow.Wemaymissanargumentorapieceoevidenceoralegalauthoritythatsupportsyourargument.Howeverwecancontrolourspellingormattingandgrammar.Payattentiontothosedetails.Inlongsentencesitiseasytooverlookerrorsinsubject-verbagreement.Tereareothergrammardemonstowatchoutorsuchasthemisplacedonly.Andawordprocessorsspellcheckeatureisnotoolproowhichiswhyre-readingyourdrafaferputtingitasideorawhilecanbesoimportant.IoncehadapartnertellmeControlwhatyoucancontrol.Spellingormattingandgrammarissomethingthatayoungattorneycancontrol.akethetimetoprooreadsothatyoudontcreatetheimpressionthatyoudonotcareaboutthequalityoyourwork.10StartEarlymostousareexcellentprocrastinatorsbutawritingassignmentisagoodopportunityorayoungassociatetostandoutromthepackbydeliveringanassignmentontimeorevenbeoreitisdue.Tisisasignogoodteamworkasithelpsthesupervisingattorneyavoidatimecrunchwhenreviewingtheassignmentbeoreitneedstobeledorsenttotheclient.Sotakethetimedoagoodjobandstartearly. 32verdictVolume22013defenseverdictsmarchjulySeanBeattyBeattyMyersLLPBrandv.HyundaiMotorAmericaAllenUsedCarsnonsuitatcloseoplaintifsevidenceRaymondL.BlesseyTaylorBlesseyLLPAlexanderv.PaquetteChristopherE.FaenzaYokaSmithKinleyv.easersMDRStephenC.FraserFondaFraserLLPFigueroav.DowneyRegionalMedicalCenterRichardS.GowerInglisLedbetterGowerWarrinerLLPCrawfordv.MotikovMichaelG.HoganMichaelG.HoganAssociateseagardenv.TeIndependentaxiOwnersAssociationofLosAngelesetalJohnC.KellyCarrollKellyTrotterFranzenMcKennaManikav.TeRegentsJamesJ.KjarRebackMcAndrewsKjarWarordStockalperLLPSalazv.CannataLimorLehaviArcherNorrisFarmersInsuranceExchangev.Austinetaldeenseverdictoninsuredscross-complaintLaurenA.R.LofonYokaSmithKinleyv.easersMDRJosephJ.LooneyCarrollKellyTrotterFranzenMcKennaatev.ChegounchiDouglasK.MannWalkerMannLLPGomezv.KoudsiCurtMetzgarWadeLoweHernandezv.StateFarmGeneralIns.Co.MichaelODellClifordBrownGryskov.BerryPetroleumCompanyWilliamM.SlaughterSlaughterReaganLLPCrastzv.outantetalPatrickE.Stockalper2RebackMcAndrewsKjarWarordStockalperMooreLLPBorgoniav.NorwalkCommunityHospitalValenzuelav.FallasDanielR.SullivanSullivanBallogWilliamsLLPMezav.BoatengetalN.DeniseTaylorTaylorBlesseyLLPNicolasv.GoebeletalDoyouhaveadefenseverdictyoudliketosharewithyourcolleaguesSenditintodaysothatyournamewillappearinthenextissueofverdictE-mailthedetailsofyourverdicttoascdccamgmt.com Volume22013verdict33amicuscommitteereportcontinuedonpage34ASCDCsAmicusCommitteecontinuestoworkenergeticallyonbehalfofitsmembership.ASCDCsAmicusCommitteehassubmittedamicuscuriaebriefsinseveralrecentcasesintheCaliforniaSupremeCourtandCaliforniaCourtofAppealandhashelpedsecuresomemajorvictoriesforthedefensebar.RecentAmicusWinsTeAmicusCommitteehasrecentlyparticipatedasamicuscuriaeintheollowingcasesCorenbaumv.Lampkin2013215Cal.App.4th1308TeCourtoAppealCroskeyJ.issuedapublishedopinionholdingthatinlightoHowellv.HamiltonMeatsProvisionsInc.201152Cal.4th541evidenceoso-calledbilledbutnotpaidmedicalexpensesisinadmissibletoproveutureeconomicdamagesandnon-economicdamages.Tecourturtherheldthatplaintisexpertwitnessescannotrelyupontheallegedbilledbutunpaidamountsasthebasisortheiropinions.RobertOlsonGreinesMartinSteinRichlandandJ.AlanWareldMcKennaLongAldridgesubmittedanamicusbrieonthemeritsorASCDCwhichwasjoinedbytheAssociationoNorthernCaliorniaandNevadaDeenseCounsel.Malinv.Singer2013__Cal.App.4th__2013WL3717056TeCourtoAppealheldthatasettlementletterwrittenbyanattorneywasconstitutionallyprotectedspeechandpetitioningactivitysufcienttoinvoketheanti-SLAPPstatuteanddidnotconstituteextortionasamatterolaw.HarryChamberlainManattPhelpsPhillipsandMichaelColtonsubmittedanamicusbrieonthemeritsonbehaloASCDCwhichwaslaterjoinedbytheACLU.Tompsonv.AutomobileClubofSouthernCalifornia2013__Cal.App.4th__2013WL3233260TiswasaclassactionledagainsttheAutomobileClubchallengingitspracticeobackdatinglaterenewals.Tetrialcourtdeniedthemotionorclasscerticationwhichwasafrmedonappeal.J.AlanWareldsubmittedapublicationrequestonbehaloASCDCwhichwasgranted.Floresv.PresbyterianIntercommunityHospital2013213Cal.App.4th1386reviewgrantedMay222013TeCourtoAppealheldthataclaimthattheplaintiinjuredherkneewhileinahospitalwhenthebedrailcollapsedwasgovernedbythegeneraltwo-yearnegligencestatuteCodeCiv.Proc.335.1ratherthantheone-yearMICRAstatuteCodeCiv.Proc.340.5.DavidPruettCarrollKellyrotterFranzenMcKennasubmittedanamicusletterinsupportothedeendantspetitionorreviewwhichwasgrantedonMay222013andremainspending.PendingCasesAtTeCaliorniaSupremeCourtandCourtoAppealASCDCsAmicusCommitteehasalsosubmittedamicuscuriaebriesintheollowingcasespendingattheCaliorniaSupremeCourtorCaliorniaCourtoAppealointeresttoASCDCsmembership1.Sanchezv.ValenciaNo.S199119TiscaseincludestheollowingissueDoestheFederalArbitrationAct9U.S.C.2asinterpretedinAMobilityLLCv.Concepcion2011563U.S.__131S.Ct.1740preemptstatelawrulesinvalidatingmandatoryarbitrationprovisionsinaconsumercontractasprocedurallyandsubstantivelyunconscionableJ.AlanWareldsubmittedanamicusbrieonbehaloASCDC.2.Kesnerv.SuperiorCourtPnumoAbexLLC.Tiscaseinvolvestheissueowhetheraplainticanmaintainatakehomeasbestosclaimi.e.claimingthattheplaintiwasexposedtoasbestosthroughaamilymemberbringinghomeasbestosbersonclothing.TeCourtoAppealheldnoinCampbellv.FordMotorCo.2012206Cal.App.4th15.TetrialcourtinthiscaseollowedCampbellanddismissedtheplaintisclaims. 34verdictVolume22013AmicusCommitteeReportcontinuedfrompage33TeissueisnowpendingbeoreadiferentdistrictotheCourtoAppealinawritproceedingthecourthasissuedanalternativewritindicatingthatitmaydisagreewithCampbell.ASCDCjoinedtheamicusbriesubmittedbyDonWillenburgGordonReesonbehalotheAssociationoDeenseCounseloNorthernCaliorniaandNevada.HowTeAmicusCommitteeCanHelpYourAppealorWritPetitionAndHowoContactUsHavingthesupportotheAmicusCommitteeisoneothebenetsomembershipinASCDC.TeAmicusCommitteecanassistyourrmandyourclientinseveralways1.Amicuscuriaebriesonthemeritsincasespendinginappellatecourts.2.LettersinsupportopetitionsorrevieworrequestsordepublicationtotheCaliorniaSupremeCourt.3.LettersrequestingpublicationounpublishedCaliorniaCourtoAppealdecisions.InevaluatingrequestsoramicussupporttheAmicusCommitteeconsidersvariousissuesincludingwhethertheissueathandisointeresttoASCDCsmembershipasawholeandwouldadvancethegoalsoASCDC.IyouhaveapendingappellatematterinwhichyoubelieveASCDCshouldparticipateasamicuscuriaepleaseeelreetocontactanyBoardmemberorthechairsotheAmicusCommitteewhoareStevenS.FleischmanHorvitzLevy818-995-0800RobertOlsonGreinesMartinSteinRichlandLLP310-859-7811J.AlanWarfeldMcKennaLongAldridge213-243-6105andJoshuaTraverColePedroza626-431-2787YoumayalsocontactmembersotheAmicusLiaisonSubcommitteewhoareJeremyRosenHorvitzLevyHarryChamberlainManattPhelpsPhillipsReneeKoninsbergBowmanBrookeMichaelColtonMichaelA.ColtonLawyerCounseloratLawDavidPruettCarrollKellyrotterFranzenMcKennaJohnManierNassiriJungLLPSheilaWirkusGreinesMartinSteinRichlandSusanBrenneckeTompsonColegateChristianNagyCollinsCollinsMuirStewart 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36verdictVolume22013DianeMarWiesmannImmediatePastPresidenttheassociationofsoutherncaliforniadefensecounsel2520ventureoakswaysuite150sacramentoca95833800.564.6791www.ascdc.orgexecutivecommitteeN.DeniseTaylorPresidentRobertA.OlsonVicePresidentMichaelSchonbuchVicePresidentGlennT.BargerSecretary-TreasurerboardofdirectorsJamesB.ColeMichaelA.ColtonPeterS.DoodyThomasP.FeherClarkR.HudsonLisaJ.McMainsGaryT.MontgomeryLisaPerrochetLawrenceR.RamseyJohnW.ShawPatrickStockalperJeffreyA.WalkerStephenC.PasarowNinosP.SaroukhanioffJulianneDeMarcoChristopherE.FaenzaDanKramerEdwardR.Leonard theassociationofsoutherncaliforniadefensecounsel2520VentureOaksWaySuite150sacramentoca95833PRE-SORTFIRSTCLASSU.S.POSTAGEPAIDPERMIT1660SacramentoCASeptember20-212013SantaBarbaraSeminarSantaBarbaraDecember52013ConstructionDefectSeminarwCDClaimsManagersAssociationOrangeCountyDecember52013OrangeCountyJudicialReceptionOrangeCountyDecember172013JudicialandNewMemberReceptionJonathanClubLosAngelesFebruary27-282014ASCDC53rdAnnualSeminarMillenniumBiltmoreHotelLosAngeles