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associationofsoutherncaliforniadefensecounselVolume12014READABOUTHowellUpdatesProductSafetyWarrantyClaimsNewTrendsinCourt-orderedMediationandmore.... Volume12014verdict1verdicttheassociationofsoutherncaliforniadefensecounsel2520ventureoakswaysuite150sacramentoca95833Perino13Howell19SafetyAds28NoFreeLunch23features13PullingBacktheCurtainFormerPressSecretaryDanaPerinoSharesLessonsLearnedfromWorkingattheWhiteHouseCarolSherman19HowellTwoYearsLaterStrategiesforRespondingtoAttemptstoCircumventaLandmarkDecisionStevenS.FleischmanRobertH.Wright23NoFreeLunchTheTransformationofMediationintoMandatorySettlementConferencesDavidB.MadariagaMichaelLloyd27LongBeachCourtHouseWilliamO.Woodland28ExpressWarrantyClaimsBasedonProductSafetyAdsTheAdmissibilityofTradeUsageandComparativeProductPerformanceEvidenceMarkV.BerryJoyceM.Peimdepartments2IndextoAdvertisers3PresidentsMessagebyRobertA.Olson5CapitolCommentbyMichaelD.Belote6NewMembers7WhatWeDobyPatrickA.Long9TheQuarterinReviewbyCarolSherman32AroundtheCounties35DefenseSuccesses36AmicusCommitteeReport40ExecutiveCommitteeBoardofDirectors 2verdictVolume12014verdict2520ventureoakswaysuite150sacramentoca95833staffeditorLisaPerrochetexecutivedirectorJenniferBlevinsartdirectorJohnBerkowitzcontributorsMichaelD.BelotePatrickA.LongCarolA.ShermanprintingSig-1PrintingassociationofsoutherncaliforniadefensecounselofficerspresidentRobertA.Olsonpresident-electMichaelSchonbuchvicepresidentGlennT.Bargersecretary-treasurerClarkR.HudsonboardofdirectorsMichaelA.ColtonJulianneDeMarcoPeterS.DoodyChristopherE.FaenzaThomasP.FeherPatrickJ.KearnsDanielK.KramerEdwardR.LeonardDianaP.LytelLisaJ.McMainsGaryT.MontgomeryStephenC.PasarowLisaPerrochetLawrenceR.RamseyNinosP.SaroukhanioffEricSchwettmannPatrickStockalperJeffreyA.WalkerForadvertisinginformationcontacttheASCDCbelowexecutiveoffice2520VentureOaksWaySuite150SacramentoCA95833800-564-6791ascdccamgmt.comwww.ascdc.orgVerdictMagazineispublishedormembersoTheAssociationoSouthernCaliorniaDeenseCounselASCDC.TheopinionsandadviceinVerdictMagazinearethoseothesubmittingauthorsandarenotnecessarilythoseoASCDC.Allrightsarereservedinallcountries.NopartothismagazinemaybereproducedinanyormwithoutwrittenconsentromVerdictMagazine.EditorialproductionandadvertisingofcesatVerdictMagazine2520VentureOaksWaySuite150SacramentoCA95833.Telephone800564-6791.Returnpostagemustaccompanyanyunsolicitedmaterialiitistobereturned.VerdictMagazineassumesnoresponsibilityorsuchmaterials.indextoadvertisersADRServicesInc.30ARCCharlesRubin29ArrowheadEvaluationServicesIBCBiomechanicalAnalysis33BonneBridgesMuellerOKeefe22ExecutivePresentations24FieldsADR35FirstMediationCorp.31ForensisGroup8GreinesMartinSteinRichlandLLP11Ivams34JackDaniels37JudicateWest34KGAInc.31KusarCourtReportersInsideFrontCover26ProConsulInc.4RedlandsArbitration37RoughanAssociates18ThonBeckVanniCallahanPowell10 Volume12014verdict3RobertA.OlsonASCDC2014PresidentpresidentsmessageIamhonoredandexcitedtobeASCDCsnewPresident.Ineedyourhelp.IyouarereadingthisyoualreadyknowhowgreatASCDCis.Youknowthatitsmembersyouarethemostinterestingdedicatedinvolvedlawyersaroundlawyerswhocareaboutbeingthebestandlawyerswhoreallycareaboutachievingtherightandjustresultortheirclientsortheproessionorthejudicialsystemandorthepublicatlarge.Sharethewealth.Letyourcolleaguesknow.Getthemtojointoo.Yearsagoadeenselawyercolleaguegavemeagibyinvitingmetojoingiveyourcolleaguesagibyinvitingthem.AndIneedyourhelpinlettingusknowhowwecanimproveoryou.Wearetryingsomenewthingstoaddvalueorourmembersincludingalistservaerahecticrstdayitisoperatingsmoothlyorthoseoyouwhooptedoutitissaetocomebackinthewatertoallowourmemberstonetworkandtoobtaininormationthewaythatothersalreadyhave.Wearegoingtocontinuethetraditionomixersoryoungerlawyersandorotherlawyersseekingtomasqueradeasyoungerlawyers.Andatvirtuallyallooureducationalpresentationsthereisalsoanopportunitytosocialize.IndeedperhapsthegreatestbenetweoeristheopportunitytomeetnetworkwithandshareideaswithpeerswhoareamongthebestcivildeenselawyersinSouthernCaliornia.IknowthattimesandbudgetsrmandpersonalaretightandthedayswhenlawrmspaidbarassociationdueswillynillyaregonebuttheinvestmentmadeintheASCDCwillreturnitselmanytimesover.Itsthecostoasuit.Youbuyaniceproessionalwardrobesothatyoulookgoodtoclientstojudgestocolleagues.LikewiseyourASCDCinvestmentmakesyoulookgoodbyhelpingyoulearnpracticetipsromcolleaguesalertingyoutocuttingedgelegaldecisionsandlegislativedevelopmentsandidentiyingyouaspartoagroupthatactivelyworkstoshapethelegallandscapeordeenselawyers.AskaroundIthinkyouwillndthathappensnotjustoncebutmanytimesayear.WhenyouareaheadothecurveonanissuebecauseyoulearnedaboutitthroughASCDCyourinvestmentpayso.WhenASCDChasahandincraingahelpulruleorstatutorychangeorinpreventingonethatwouldunderminehowyoupracticelawyourinvestmentpayso.WhenASCDClendsitsvoicetothoseworkingwiththelegislatureandthegovernortokeepthelingwindowopenandtosecureacourtroomwithajudgeyourASCDCinvestmentpayso.ItpaysoinpersonalandproessionalgrowththroughVerdictmagazinewithtimelyarticlesandcaseupdatesthiseditionisyetanothergreatexample.Terearealsoallotheeducationalseminars.OurrecentAnnualSeminarwasagreatsuccesswithtopicsrangingromdeendingagainsttheplaintisreptilianbraintheorytothepsychologyonegotiations.WehavecontinuedoureducationaleortsthisyearwithanupdateonrecoverabledamagesaertheHowellandCorenbaumdecisionsandwewillhostaSeptembergeneralliabilityseminaratorreyPinesalongwithseminarsonotherhottopics.Wearegoingtocontinueasachanneloinormationabouttheongoingchangesthatourlocalcourtsaregoingthroughincopingwithdifcultbudgetarytimes.Ourrelationshipwiththecourtsisatwo-waystreet.TeactothematteristhatthisorganizationalongwithoursisterorganizationintheNorthisthevoiceothedeensebarwithcourtswhenitcomestorulechangesjuryinstructionsbudgetaryissuesandcourtrestructurings.AsamicuscuriaeASCDCisthevoiceothedeensebarintheappellatecourts.IyoudontthinkthatitmakesadierencelookatASCDCsinvolvementincaseslikeHowellandOliveros.TroughtheCaliorniaDeenseCounselandourlegislativeadvocateMikeBelotewearethevoiceandtheearsothedeensebarwhenitcomestolegislativeproposals.Wehaveworkedtirelesslyalongwithotherstokeepthebudgetwolatthecourthousedoorsomewhatatbay.ImlookingorwardtoagreatyearandImlookingorwardtoseeingeachandeveryoneoyouatanupcomingeventpleasecomeupandintroduceyourseltomeatone.HelpUsHelpYou 4verdictVolume12014 Volume12014verdict5MichaelD.BeloteLegislativeAdvocateCaliforniaDefenseCounselcapitolcommentCDCBillMovesIdeaForwardPeopleunamiliarwithCaliorniaslegislativeprocessoenaskwhereallthebillideascomerom.Whilesomearethebrainchildrenolegislatorsthemselvesinmanycasestheanswerreallyisromus.GroupsexactlyliketheCaliorniaDeenseCounselrequentlysuggestchangesinstatutesandactinCaliornialegislativenomenclatureasthesponsorothebill.SoitiswithAB1659Chauco-sponsoredbyCDCandtheConsumerAttorneysoCaliornia.SuggestedbyBobOlsoncurrentlyservingasbothASCDCPresidentandasaBoardmemberotheCaliorniaDeenseCounselthebillisdesignedtoreduceconusionandalignproceduraldeadlinesormotionsornewtrialmotionstovacatejudgmentandorjudgmentnotwithstandingtheverdict.AB1659ispartoanongoingeortwiththeplaintisbartojointlyworkonissuesocivilprocedurewhereconsensuscanbeachieved.Othernotableexampleshaveincludedproceduresorexpeditedjurytrialsandtheabilitytobringmotionsorsummaryadjudicationoissueswhichdonotcompletelydisposeocausesoactionwherebothsidesagreethattrialeconomycouldbeachieved.InordertoconormthevariousdeadlinesAB1659amendsCodeoCivilProcedureSections629650aand663a.imeperiodsapplicabletoJNOVandmotionstovacatewillbemadeconsistentwithmotionsornewtrial.TebillrecentlywasapprovedbytheAssemblyJudiciaryCommitteeandwillnextbeconsideredbytheullAssembly.AsthebillmovesorwardCDCwillcontinuediscussionswithCAOCaboutotherareasopotentialconsensus.Weplantodiscussdemurrerproceduresandvariousdiscoverydeadlines.PossibleadditionsmaybemadetothebillbeoreitisconsideredinthestateSenateinJune.BeyondissuesocivilproceduretheotherareawhereconsensushascertainlybeenachievedwiththeConsumerAttorneysisthatocourtunding.TetwoorganizationsaretheonlygroupsinSacramentoexclusivelyrepresentingcivilpractitionerswhichareadvocatingorjudicialbranchunding.Andtheissueisarromeasywithtaxrevenuesnallyincreasingandthebudgetheadingbackintopositiveterritoryeverymajorinterestgroupispushingitsparticularbudgetpriorities.MeanwhileGovernorBrownrepeatedlyhasexpressedadeterminationtobuildupreservesandnotover-committhenewrevenues.TeGovernorsJanuarybudgetproposalincluded105millioninincreasedundingorcourts.WhilethatsoundssubstantialtheJudicialCouncilindicatesthatapproximately300millionisnecessaryjusttomaintainthestatusquogivenvariouscostincreases.BoththeAssemblyandSenateareconductingbudgethearingsnowinanticipationoanalbudgetbymid-June.InthenalanalysisbudgetdecisionsareoenworkedoutamongtheBig3GovernorSpeakerotheAssemblySenatePresidentproemsoultimatedecisionsrestontheprioritiesotheleaders.BeyondtheCDC-sponsoredchangetotheCCPandthebudgetapproximately2000billsarewindingtheirwaythroughtheSacramentohearingprocess.EverybillandeveryamendmenttoabillisreadorpossibleimpactonADCmembers.Inallover100billsarebeingmonitored.LiterallyeverymajorareaodeensepracticeisimplicatedbysomebillwhetheritisproductsconstructionIPpublicentitymed-malemploymentorother.LawyersmoreaccustomedtokeepingupwithchangesincaselawoenaresurprisedwithboththesuddennessandsignicanceostatutorychangescomingoutoSacramento.TeASCDCwebsitelinkstotheelectronicoldercontainingeverybillointeresttoCDCalongwithawealthoanalyticalinormation.FinallyCDCBoardmembersworkveryhardinpreciousohourstoreviewpendinglegislationinSacramento.KeepingupwithandinfuencinglegislativeissuesisanotherclearexampleothevalueoASCDCmembership. 6verdictVolume12014newmembersjanuarymarchBlankRomeLLPHowardM.KneeSponsoringMemberLindaMillerSavittBoothLLPConnorJ.StinsonBradleyGmelichKathrynCanaleAmberD.EspositoJaimeeWellersteinSponsoringMemberTomasGmelichBullardBrownBealLLPPatrickE.NaughtonCarrollKellyrotterFranzenMcKennaPeabodyMercedesC.AdamsBenjaminIkutaMichaelJ.KentDeborahLacombeAllegraRineerSponsoringMemberDavePruettChapmanGlucksmanDeanRoebBargerKaceyRiccominiSponsoringMemberGlennBargerCitronCitronJamesC.LumsdenSponsoringMemberTomasCitronCollinsworthSpechtCalkinsMark.CollinsworthSponsoringMemberAdrienneCohenDummitBuchholzrappCherylP.RobertsonSponsoringMemberJanetrappEricksenArbuthnotAngelaKimSponsoringMemberMarkKieferFactorMediationArbitrationoddScherwinSponsoringMemberLindaMillerSavittFreeburgNettelsGregoryS.FreeburgSponsoringMemberTomasGmelichGordonReesRosemaryK.CarsonGrantGenoveseBarattaHenryAzizyanJamesP.BarattaTomasJ.MoranSponsoringMemberJamesM.BarattaGreinesMartinSteinRichlandDavidE.HackettSponsoringMemberRobertOlsonHaightBrownBonesteelLLPScottC.BriggsMelindaCarridoMaxGavronCristinaA.GuidoWhitneyL.StefoAntwoinD.WallSponsoringMemberS.ChristianStouderHawkinsParnellTackstonYoungEdwardR.UlloaHorvitzLevyEricS.BoorstinEmilyV.CuattoSponsoringMemberStevenFleischmanJeanM.DohertyKramerdeBoerKeaneLLPPhillipV.iberiSponsoringMemberJereyKramerLawBrandmeyerPackerCoreyKruegerSponsoringMemberRobertPackerLeBeauTelenLLPAmandaM.LucasChelsieL.MorganSponsoringMemberTomasFeherLewisBrisboisBisgaardSmithJohnBarberLitcheldCavoLLPMarcV.AllariaSponsoringMemberRobertOlsonMichelmanRobinsonMichaelW.CahillSponsoringMemberAnthonyKohrsMilaniAssociatesA.P.L.C.AnthonyR.MilaniMorrisPolichPurdyDiana.ChaoRichardH.NakamuraSponsoringMemberJohnShawOceofRiversideCountyCounselRaymondM.MisticaLeslieE.MuradSponsoringMemberAnitaWillisAnitaC.WillisOrlandLawGroupJamesOrlandSponsoringMemberJonerryPepperdineUniversitySchoolofLawShannonPagelProskauerRoseLLPHaroldM.BrodySponsoringMemberLindaMillerSavittRebackMcAndrewsKjarWarfordStockalperMooreLLPJasonN.ArgosBethAnnYounggren-NeriSponsoringMemberPatrickStockalperRippetoeLawP.C.GuillermoelloSponsoringMemberGregoryL.RippetoeRobieMatthaiLeighRobieSponsoringMemberEdithMatthaiRoseWalkerLLPJonathanHembreeSponsoringMemberMichaelerharRyanDatomiLLPimothyA.HodgeSponsoringMemberRichardRyanMartinSimsSponsoringMemberChristopherDatomiSchaerLaxMcNaughtonChenJaneE.CareySponsoringMemberRussellFranklinRichardP.DieenbachSponsoringMemberCliordSchaerKatrinaJ.ValenciaSponsoringMemberKevinMcNaughtonSekiNishimuraWataseJ.EdwinRathbunSponsoringMemberKennethWataseShaverKorCastronovoJohnShaverSponsoringMemberStephenPasarowSlaughterReaganLLPDianaPughLytelarleLawP.C.CynthiaP.arleaylorBlesseyLLPLesviaAlvaradoKatherineA.FitzgeraldAngelaParkBenjaminS.ragishSponsoringMemberN.DeniseaylorTompsonCoeOMearaJennyBurkeSponsoringMemberFrancesOMearaTompsonColegateMarkW.RegusSponsoringMemberGaryMontgomeryWeilDragerevorResurreccionWilsonurnerKosmoLLPJessicaChasinLoisM.KoschSponsoringMemberLindaMillerSavittWolfeWymanSaharS.PughYokaSmithAndyMendozaJennierK.WeinholdSponsoringMemberWalterYokaZimmermanKahanowitchRichardKahanowitch Volume12014verdict7PatrickA.LongwhatwedoAwomanisonlyawomanbutagoodcigarisasmoke.Baloneythatisbeyondmisogynisticandincorrectaswell.Cigarsmokershearthatquoteromtimetotimebutnotrommylipsexceptorpurposesothiscolumn.TeculpritwhoutteredthatbushwawasMr.RudyardKiplinganditsoneothelastewlinesohispoemTeBetrothed.WhatwecandeduceromthosewordsisthatcigarscanbeaveryimportantpartoapersonslieandyoullnoticeIusedthepersonlocutionratherthanman.Aswillbenotedurtheronwomencananddoenjoytheoccasionalcigar.Letmelaymypersonalcardsonthetable.Iveneversmokedcigarettesbutataprettyearlyagebegansmokingpipesandovertheyearsstartedsmokingcigarsaswell.odayIsmokeboth.TroughattendanceatASCDCeventsovertheyearsIvelearnedthatquitealargenumberoourmembershipenjoyaperiodicsmoke.Ascigarsmokerswillafrmsmokingbenetsourproession.Hereshow.ModernlyinCaliorniaittakesgreatcreativitytondaplacetolegallysitrelaxlightupacigarandlettensionsexitthebody.Tisneedorcreativitycarriesoverintoourpracticee.g.newtheoriesodeensenewkindsoexpertsakindogentlecross-examinationwhichcompletelyevisceratestheplaintiscaseetc.Yepthecreativitywemustdevelopinndingaspacetolightupalsohelpsusinourproessionallives.TatsmystoryandImstickingtoit.ArecentexampleothiscreativityoccurredattheASCDCAnnualSeminarattheBiltmoreHotelohexcusemetheMillenniumBiltmore.SomeooursmokersexploredmanypropertiessurroundingPershingSquareanddiscoveredanalleyonthesouthsideothehotelwhereconstructionworkwasunderway.Tisalleybecametheplacetolightuporadayortwo.Ocourseweshareditwiththecigaretteolks.WhydoagoodlynumberoourmemberssmokecigarsasideromimprovingtheircreativityIactuallyspokewithsixsuchsmokersallsixowhomarecurrentlyorwererecentlyinleadershippositionsinASCDC.Teirresponsestomyquestionswerequiteinteresting.Herearesomeotheirreasons.Itsnotjustlightingupitsthecircumstancessurroundingtheexperiencetherelaxationthealmostmeditativeatmospherethedissipationotensiontheopportunitytorelaxandlistentoothersandlearnthingsonedidntpreviouslyknow.Cigarolksdontinhalesotheyrenotasconcernedabouthealthissuesascigaretteolks.CigarssomehowdrawoutadesiretoconversediscusspondertheorizeandsometimesagreewithothersmokerssoourASCDCcigartypeswilloensetasidealittletimetovisitatobacconistwhomaintainsaloungewheresmokerscangathersitrelaxperhapssipanespressoandtalknotaboutlawbutaboutanythingelse.RegardlessowhatyoumayhaveseeninanoldEdwardG.Robinsonmovieitsdifculttoyellscreamandbemeanwithastogieinyourmouth.Tesemomentsocollegialinteractioncanbeahighpointotheirday.Tereisnoquestionthatmostcigarsmokersaremenbutthereareinactsomewomenwhoenjoytheoccasionalorevenregularcigar.SeveralarecustomersatmytobacconistandmyASCDCcolleaguesalsomentionedthattheyregularlyencounterwomendrainingstressbywayoacigar.ImaprettymiserablegolerbutIdbeevenworseiIplayedaroundwithastogieclampedbetweenmyteeth.StillthatshowmanyomyASCDCriendsplayanditsuredoesntseemtohurttheirgame.Ihavetosavemysmokeorrelaxingoutsidetheclubhouseaerwards.Sogollyletshanglooseaboutthatsizablepercentageoourmembershipthatseeksolacewiththeoccasionalcigarandrealizethattherearemuchmoredestructivewaystospendonesleisure.Idontcarehowgoodthescotchisalittlegoesalongway.AndKiplinghaditbackwardsacigarisonlyacigarbutagoodwomanaprizeaboveallothersandmywiedidntmakemewritethat.HerestothenextMacanudo.CanIborrowamatchPatrickA.Longpalongldlawyers.comSomeThoughtsOnFiringUpCreativity 8verdictVolume12014 Volume12014verdict9thequarterinreviewThehistoricMillenniumBiltmoreHotelindowntownLosAngeleswasonceagainthesettingorASCDCsAnnualSeminar.Tisyearseventmarkedits53rdyearandwashailedasoneothebestwithanoutstandinglineupoexpertspeakerswhoaddressedawiderangeotimelyandrelevanteducationaltopics.InkeepingwithtraditionseminarattendeeslledtheBiltmoreBowlballroomortheFridayluncheontowelcomeincomingPresidentRobertA.OlsonshowtheirappreciationtooutgoingPresidentN.DeniseaylororhereortsonbehalomembersoverthepastyearandhearromeaturedkeynotespeakerDanaPerinoormerPressSecretarytoGeorgeW.Bush.ForthesecondconsecutiveyeartheluncheonopenedwiththeNationalAnthembeautiullysungbyKaitlinOlson.KaitlinisthedaughteroourASCDCpresidentwhowelcomedmembersandguestsandacknowledgedtheBoardoDirectorsandCommitteeChairsalongwithPastPresidentsmembersothejudiciaryandDeenseCounseloNorthernCaliorniaandNevadawhowereinattendance.HealsointroducedspecialguestsPatriciaEganDaehnkePresidentoLosAngelesCountyBarAssociationStanBisseyExecutiveDirectoroCaliorniaJudgesAssociationLindaMillerSavittCDCPresidentandMikeBeloteASCDCslegislativeadvocate.MovingonOlsoninvitedtothepodiumPatLongPastPresidentoASCDCandDeenseResearchInstituteDRItopresentoutgoingPresidentaylorwithDRIsPresidentsAwardoroutstandingserviceorsupportingandimprovingtheinterestsothedeensebar.FollowingtheDRIawardOlsonhonoredaylorwiththepresentationotheASCDCspresidentsplaqueorherdedicatedservice.ShesetsveryhighstandardsandsheleadsbyexamplesaidOlson.aylortookaewmomentstoacknowledgethosewhohelpedcontributetothesuccessoASCDCoverthepastyearincludingtheseminarcommitteesAmicusCommitteeofcersandmembersotheBoardoDirectorsandASCDCExecutiveDirectorJennierBlevinsandmembersotheCAMSsta.OnapersonalnoteshethankedherhusbandDougandherlawrmpartnerRayBlesseyortheirsupport.Itsbeensuchaprivilegetobeyourpresidentshesaidgoingontonotethehighpointsotheyearincludinganearlyconcernovermeasurestoconsolidatecasesinresponsetothestatebudgetcrisis.Terstsixmonthsotheyearweredevotedtoeducatingourmembersaboutthechangesthetweaksandthenewnormalinthecourts.LastyearIaskedHowisthisallgoingtoworkoutItreallyhasntbeenquiteasbadaswethought.Tecourtsstillareinabudgetcrisisbutwere53rdSeminarLuncheonHighlightsbyCarolShermancontinuedonpage10Hon.J.StephenCzulegerMikeBeloteStanBisseyHon.MaryAnnMurphy 10verdictVolume12014gettingmotionsheardweregettingtrialsout.ShealsoremindedeveryoneoseveralotheASCDCsmanyeventsoverthepastyearnotingTishasbeenareallyunyearorme.aylorthenintroducedincomingPresidentOlsondescribinghimasagiedandhighlyeectiveappellateattorney.OlsonocusedhisremarksontheimportanceoASCDCtoallcivildeenselawyersanddescribedwhattheorganizationhasmeanttohimsincejoiningshortlyaerbeinginvitedsome19yearsagotoco-presentAYearinReviewattheAnnualSeminarwithChipFarrell.Tisorganizationhasinterestinganddedicatedlawyers.Ivelearnedromthisorganizationthatrealtriallawyersareinterestingpeople.Teyhavetobeitsajobrequirementhequipped.Inallseriousnesshereerredtotheworkthatmembersdoasimportantandhonorable.Hespokeaboutthereasonswhyhehasstayedamemberovertheyears.Formeitsbeentheopportunitytonetworkwithpeopleandlearnrompeers.DescribingASCDCasthevoiceothedeensebarhementionedoneotheimportantmessagesthatASCDChasbroadcastconcerningjudicialbranchundingWeveworkedtirelesslytokeepthewolatthecourthousebudgetarydoorsatbay.HealsospokeabouttheopportunitiesorpersonalandproessionaldevelopmentthroughASCDCandthemanybenetsomembership.Atitsheartthisorganizationisaboutitsmembers.ItsaboutadvancingandprotectingtheinterestsothecivildeensebarinSouthernCaliorniaanddoingwhatneedstobedonetokeepthecourtsopenandkeepyouinormed.OlsonacknowledgedtwoASCDCPresidentsortheirpositiveinfuenceLindaMillerSavittwhoinvitedhimtojointheBoardoDirectorsandDeniseaylorwhoseshoeswillbeimmenselyhardtoll.QuarterInReviewcontinuedfrompage10 Volume12014verdict11 12verdictVolume12014 Volume12014verdict13continuedonpage14Perinoco-hostoFoxNewsChannelsTeFivedeliveredthekeynoteaddresstothe53rdAnnualSeminarotheAssociationoSouthernCaliorniaDeenseCounselASCDConFridayFebruary282014attheMillenniumBiltmoreHotelinLosAngeles.WhenlearningthatcloseriendandormerWhiteHousecolleagueKarlRovedeliveredthekeynoteaddressthepreviousyearsheadmittedtohavingverybigshoesandadisheveledlooktoll.HeropeningremarkdrewappreciativelaughterromluncheonattendeeswhohadmanymoreopportunitiestosmileattheoenamusingbutalsodeeplythoughtulpresentationbytheenergeticMs.Perino.RefectingonherearlybackgroundPerinocreditedheratherorinstillinginheraninterestinjournalismandanappreciationortheFirstAmendment.IremembermydadstartedwhenIwasinthethirdgraderequiringmetoreadtheRockyMountainNewsandtheDenverPostbeorehegothomeeveryday.Ihadtochoosetwoarticlestodiscusswithhimbeoredinner.BeorejoiningtheWhiteHousestain2001asdeputytoPressSecretaryTonySnowPerinospentabrietimeintheJusticeDepartment.YouknowwhatDanaPerinomaymakelightotheactthatshesjustslightlyoverve-eettallonagooddaybutshestandsoutwhensharinglessonsonleadershipdrawnromservingasPressSecretarytoPresidentGeorgeW.Bush.PullingBacktheCurtainFormerPressSecretaryDanaPerinoSharesLessonsLearnedfromWorkingattheWhiteHousebyCarolSherman 14verdictVolume12014DanaPerinocontinuedfrompage13continuedonpage15youlearnasaspokespersonintheJusticeDepartmentsheaskedpausing.Ihadtolearntosaynocommentina101diferentways.OcoursePerinowascalledupontooferarmoresubstantivecommunicationsduringhergovernmentserviceandshegraciouslycomparedWhiteHousechallengesinthatregardwithchallengesacedbyASCDCmembers.ShejokedIntruthPresidentBushhadtodealwithalotoadversariesocoursetherestheamousVladmirPutinandarisingChina.Terewasthealiban.Youguyshavetheplaintifsbar.TeimportantworkbeingdonebyASCDCwasnotlostonPerinowhotoldmembersWhatyoudoensuringtheintegrityothecourtsystemisveryimportant.FiercelyloyaltoPresidentBushtowhomshereerredasWPerinorecountedstoriesbothhumorousanddeeplyemotionaldrawnromtimeswhenthenewscameraswerenotpresenttocaptureherinteractionswiththePresidentashisspokesperson.SherecollectedlessonslearnedaboutleadershipromaollowersperspectiveandspokeothehumilitystrengthorgivenessandcivilitythatsheobservedrsthandastraitsimbuedinBushsleadership.PerinobeganwithhumilityrecallingthersttimeshelledinorthenPressSecretarySnowwhowasalsoapastASCDCAnnualSeminarkeynotespeaker.YoucangetabigheadworkingattheWhiteHouse.Everybodyyoucallreturnsyourphonecallwithin10seconds.Itcanbeaheadyexperience.ItcanalsobeintenseandPerinosstoriesdemonstratedthatshehadtobereadyoranything.Oneoneoccasionin2008whenshehadbeenonthejobasdeputypresssecretaryoronlyeightweeksPerinohadtobriethepresswhileSnowwasundergoingtreatmentorcancer.SinceSnowwasmorethanaoottallerthanPerinoaWhiteHouseworkeroferedtoconstructanewpodiumorher.IsaidOhgoodnessnothatssuchawasteotaxpayerdollars.Illjuststandononeothoseappleboxesanditllbene.ForaullweekPerinodeliveredpressbriengromatopaboxatSnowspodiumbuttheWhiteHouseworkerreturnedinsistingmorestronglythatshehaveherownpodiumbuilt.ShevividlyrecalledhimtellingherNBCNewsshowedustheshotromthebackotheroomromtheirposition.AndwhenyourestandingonthatboxatonySnowspodiumthesealaboveyourheaddoesnotsayTeWhiteHouseitsaysTeWhiteHo.OvertheaudiencelaughtershewasquicktoaddSoyallboughtmeanewpodium.JustwhenyouthinkyourehotstufGodhasawayoremindingyouthatyoureonlytheWhiteHouse.AhearteltmomentcameduringavisittoBethesdaNavalHospitalwhereveteranswithtraumaticbraininjuriesweretreated.WhileBushpresentedthePurpleHearttoacriticallyinjuredveteranwiththesoldiersamilylookingontheveteranregainedconsciousness.PerinorecalledthePresidentholdingthesoldiersheadinhishandsastheaidereadthecommendation.Terestouswillneverreallyknowwhatthatisliketomakeadecisiontosendayoungpersontowarandthentobetheretowitnessatraumaticbraininjury.BeoreleavingshesawthePresidenttouchhisoreheadtothesoldiersandsayTankyou.InJanuary2009ourdaysbeoreBarrackObamawassworninasPresidentPerinoaccompaniedthePresidenttoNorolkVirginiaoraspeechandphotoopwithNavySeals.SherememberedherlightheartedconversationwithtwoNavySealswaitingorapicturewiththePresident.ItriedtomakeconversationsoIaskedtherstNavySealWhatmadeyouwanttobecomeaSealWasitamilytraditionorpatriotismorsenseoadventureTerstSealsaidtomeNomaamchicksdigit.SheaskedthesecondNavySealWhenyoureabouttogowhereveritisyoumightbegoingdoyouhavetotakealotolanguagecoursesHesaidOhnomaamwerereallynottheretotalk.PerinooferedanotheranecdoteaboutalessonoorgivenessthatshelearnedromthePresident.WhenormerPressSecretaryScottMcClellanwhohiredPerinolaterwroteabookhighlycriticalothePresidentPerinotookitpersonally.Iwasdevastatedshesaid.Ibrokeupwithmyboyriendincollegeandthatputmeinbedorthreedays.ButthatwasnothinglikethebetrayalthatIeltrom Volume12014verdict15ScottMcClellan.WhenBushgotwindoherreactionhecalledherintotheOvalOceandtoldheritwasbesttoorgiveMcClellansuggestingthatsheviewitashedidshruggingitobecauseinaewweeksnoonewouldrememberthebook.PerinotookthatperspectivetoheartbutalsolearnedromthewisdomandkindnessthatthePresidentshowedtoher.Ialwaysthinkothisromamanagementperspective.Whenyoumanageyoungerpeopleandtheyareworkingtheirwayuptrytounderstandwhatwillhelpthemdoabetterjob.Itslikechildreneveryonedealswithcriticismordisciplinedierently.ShealsotalkedaboutcivilityasacomponentoleadershiprecallingareporteraskingBushduringoneohisnalinterviewsasPresidenthowoenhesawBillClinton.AccordingtoPerinoBushandClintonmetrequentlyoenorlunchattheWhiteHousebutthemeetingswerenotorshowtobebroadcasttothemedia.Teyhadagoodrelationshipinspiteotheirpoliticaldierences.Perinohadinsightsaboutothernationalleadersaswell.ShemetPresidentObamain2005whenhewasaSenatorandbothwereseatedatthesametableatagridirondinner.Hehadbeenintownoronlyveweeks.HeandIlaughedorhours.Ihadsomuchungettingtoknowinelectionslaterthisyear.HoweverRepublicansneedsixseatstogainamajorityintheSenate.IyouknowanyyoungpeoplelookingtogetcampaignexperiencethissummergotoanyothesebigcampaignsArkansasWestVirginiaMontanaLouisianaNorthCarolinathosecampaignsaregoingtobewildandalotountowatch.Shepredictedthattheoutcomesotheseraceswilldeterminewhatwillhappenin2016.TiswillbeoneothersttimeseverthataDemocraticnomineewillnothaveaprimarychallenger.YouhearsomepeoplesuggestthatHilaryClintonisnotrunningorPresident.YoucouldliterallyknockmeoverwithaeatherithathappensalthoughPerinoaddedClintonscampaignin2008couldhaveusedsomework.OntheRepublicansidein2016shesaidGetreadyoranotherclownshowiasseemspossibletherearesome18candidatesallvyingtobethepartyscandidate.Lastlyshesaidtoexpecttheunexpected.EverythingIjustsaidheretodaycouldbeinoperableatthenextmoment.ShebroughtuptheeveningoSeptember102001whensheandcolleagueswerediscussingtheVicePresidentsenergytaskorce.AerSeptember11wenevertalkedaboutthattaskorceagain.ShealsonotedthatinJuneolastyearEdwardSnowdonrevealedalloAmericassecrets.Tatisaneventthatwillhaveconsequencesortherestoourlives.SheaddedOnethingorsuresomethingwillhappenthatnooneexpected.WantingtosoundoptimisticdespitetheprevalenceonegativestoriesthataboundPerinosaidIworkatcablenews.Noonecoversastorythatseveralplaneslandedsaelyatanairport.Teonlystorytheycoveristheonethatdidnt.IdothinkthatthereissomereasontobeoptimisticbecauseotraditionsotheruleolawthepeaceultranseropowerAmericaningenuityandourabilitytoactonacrisis.Wearereachingcrisisproportionsontheghtowhatkindoacountryarewegoingtobeandhowmucharewegoingtopayorit.DanaPerinocontinuedfrompage15himthatIwenthomeandremembertellingmyhusbandthatIthinkIjustmetsomeonewhocouldbePresidentin25years.SeveralyearslaterinSeptembero2008duringthepresidentialcampaignsheranintoObamaatameetingattheWhiteHouse.EverybodyelsehadledinandPresidentObamathenSenatorwasshakingeverybodyshand.IputoutmyhandtointroducemyselhesaidAhDanaPerino.IthoughtwowheknowswhoIamthatsamazing.Beoreshecouldremindthen-candidateObamaowheretheyhadpreviouslymetheinterruptedher.HowcouldInotrememberthatwasmyavoriteeveninginalloWashington.ShortlyaershetoldtheDeputyChieoStaIjustmightvoteorhim.urningtoabroaderthemePerinoblamedpoliticalextremistsormuchotodaysdivisivenessingovernment.ShepredictedthatlittlewillbeaccomplishedinWashingtonbeorethe2016election.Youwondericivilitycansurvive.InthewordsoauturepresidentIthinkitcanbutitwilltakeavillage.YounoticeIsaiduturepresident.ShecitedrecentpollsthatrefectthemajorityoAmericansdonotbelievethecountryisontherighttrack.PerinobelievestheRepublicanswouldkeepthemajorityintheHouseoRepresentativescontinuedonpage16 16verdictVolume12014ASCDCTanksOur2014AnnualSeminarExhibitorsandSponsorsADRServicesInc.ARCDisputeResolutionCommercialSuretyBondAgencyCompexLegalServicesInc.ESIExamWorksExecutivePresentationsExponentForensisGroupInc.GaryA.DorickaLawCorp.IveyEngineeringInc.JudicateWestLibertyMed-LegalAdmin.Inc.Macro-ProInc.PetersonReportingPMADisputeResolutionQuestDiscoveryServicesInc.RoughanAssociatesSteinInvestigationAgencyExhibitorsSponsorsAtlasSettlementGroupInc.RoughanAssociatesForensisGroupInc.ExecutivePresentationsConcludingherremarkssheremindedeveryoneoJanuary2009whenPresidentBushinvitedthelivingpastPresidentsandSenatorObamatotheWhiteHouseoraluncheonbeoretheinauguration.IwastherewithRobertGibbsObamasfrstPressSecretary.RobertandIstoodbythegrandatherclockinthebackotheroomandtherewereallothePresidentsstandingtogether.SheaddedIwasthinkingaboutthatlessononorgivenessatthatmomentbecauseitsremarkablehowdirtyandnastypoliticscanbebutyouhaveallothesemenwhowerePresidentsorwhowasgoingtobeaPresidentthatarewillingtobetheretogether.DanaPerinocontinuedfrompage15TePainRehabilitationMedicalGroup Volume12014verdict172014AnnualSeminarPhotos 18verdictVolume12014LIFECAREPLANSIComprehensiveTrialIMiniMediationSettlementConferenceICritiqueEXPERTTESTIMONYITrialIArbitrationIMediationSettlementConferenceVIDEOSERVICEIDayinLifeIMediationSettlementDocumentaryMEDICALRECORDSIReviewIChronologyIMEIAttendanceIReportCritique114WestColoradoBlvd.MonroviaCA91016626.303.6333Ext.16or17www.linc.bizJanRoughanRNLIFECAREPLANNING Volume12014verdict19IthasbeenmorethantwoyearssincetheCaliorniaSupremeCourtsseminaldecisioninHowellv.HamiltonMeatsProvisionsInc.201152Cal.4th541Howellwhichheldthatpersonalinjuryplaintisarelimitedtorecoveringtheamountsactuallypaidormedicalcostsnottheinfatedamountsupposedlybilledbytheirmedicalproviders.InthetwoyearssincetheappellatecourtshaveconrmedthatHowellturnedongeneralprinciplesouniversalapplicationandshouldbeappliedbroadly.IndeedearlierthisyeartheCourtoAppealinDoddv.Cruz2014223Cal.App.4th933recognizedthedeendanthadarighttodiscoveryregardingthemachinationsoplaintiscounselinseekingtocircumventHowellthroughthesaleomedicalliens.TepurposeothisarticleistoupdatereadersastothestatusoHowellandtodiscussstrategiesorrespondingtoattemptsbytheplaintisbartoevadeorlimitHowelltoitsspecicacts.Howellarecap.InHowelltheSupremeCourtheldaplaintimayrecoveraseconomicdamagesnomorethantheamountspaidbytheplaintiorhisorherinsurerorthemedicalservicesreceived....Howellsupra52Cal.4thatp.566emphasisadded.Tecourtexplainedthattoberecoverableamedicalexpensemustbebothincurredandreasonable.Id.atp.555emphasisadded.Itheplaintinegotiatesadiscountandtherebyreceivesservicesorlessthanmightreasonablybechargedtheplaintihasnotsueredapecuniarylossorotherdetrimentinthegreateramountandthereorecannotrecoverdamagesorthatamount.Ibid.seeCiv.Code3281damagesareawardedtocompensateordetrimentsuered3282detrimentisalossorharmtopersonorproperty3283uturedamagesalsorequiredetriment.Accordinglywhenahealthcareproviderhasacceptedasullpaymentanamountlessthanstatedinthatprovidersbilltheplainticannotrecoverortheundiscountedsumstatedintheprovidersbillbutneverpaidbyoronbehalotheinjuredperson...orthesimplereasonthattheinjuredplaintididnotsueranyeconomiclossinthatamount.Howellsupra52Cal.4thatp.548.InreachingitsholdingtheSupremeCourtexplainedthatpricingormedicalservicesiscontrolledbyahighlycomplexmarketoneinwhichpricesvarytoasignicantextentdependingonthecategoriesopayeesandpayors.Howellsupra52Cal.4thatpp.561-562.Somepayorssuchasprivatehealthinsurersarewellequippedtoconductsophisticatedarms-lengthpricenegotiations.Id.atp.562.Otherpayorsareguaranteeddiscountedratesbystatelaw.Id.atp.561.Asaresultmostpatientsincludingthosewhoareinsureduninsuredandrecipientsundergovernmenthealthcareprogramspaysteeplydiscountedrates.Id.atpp.561-562n.9.AsthecourtsummarizedBecausesomanypatientsinsureduninsuredandrecipientsundergovernmenthealthcareprogramspaydiscountedrateshospitalbillshavebeencalledinsincereinthesensethattheywouldyieldtrulyenormousprotsithosepriceswereactuallypaid.Id.atp.561.GiventheseactstheSupremeCourtheldtheamountnominallybilledormedicalexpensesdoesnotrefectthevalueotheservicesprovideditisnotpossibletosaygenerallythatprovidersullbillsrepresenttherealvalueotheirservicesnorthatthediscountedpaymentstheyacceptromprivateinsurersaremerearbitraryreductions.Howellsupra52Cal.4thatp.562.DrawinganygeneralizationsabouttherelationshipbetweenthecostomedicalcareandtheamountslistedasthepriceorHowellTwoYearsLaterStrategiesforRespondingtoAttemptstoCircumventaLandmarkDecisionbyStevenS.FleischmanRobertH.Wrightcontinuedonpage20 20verdictVolume12014thatcareotherthanthattherelationshipisnotalwaysacloseonewouldbeperilous.Ibid.TeSupremeCourtthusheldthatevidenceotheullbilledamountisnotitselrelevantontheissueopastmedicalexpenses.Howellsupra52Cal.4thatp.567.Bycontrastevidenceotheamountactuallypaidormedicalexpensesisrelevantandnotbarredbythecollateralsourcerule.Whenamedicalcareproviderhas...acceptedasullpaymentortheplaintiscareanamountlessthantheprovidersullbillevidenceothatamountisrelevanttoprovetheplaintisdamagesorpastmedicalexpensesandassumingitsatisesotherrulesoevidenceisadmissibleattrial.Ibid.CorenbaumInHowelltheSupremeCourtdidnotaddresswhetherevidenceothebilledamountormedicaldamagesmightberelevantonotherissuessuchasnoneconomicdamagesoruturemedicalexpenses.Howellsupra52Cal.4thatp.567.ToseissuesweredecidedbyDivisionTreeotheSecondAppellateDistrictinCorenbaumv.Lampkin2013215Cal.App.4th1308Corenbaum.Corenbaumdealtsquarelywiththeissueoadmissibilityinevidenceotheullamountoaninjuredplaintismedicalbillingsnotonlywithrespecttodamagesorpastmedicalexpensesbutalsowithrespecttouturemedicalexpensesandnoneconomicdamages.Corenbaumsupra215Cal.App.4thatp.1319.Corenbaumheldthatbecausetheullamountbilledisnotanaccuratemeasureothevalueomedicalservicestheullamountbilledorpastmedicalservicesisnotrelevanttoadeterminationothereasonablevalueouturemedicalservices.Id.atpp.1330-1331emphasisadded.ForthesamereasonsCorenbaumprecludedexpertwitnessesromrelyingontheinfatedbilledamountstosupportopinionsregardinguturemedicalexpenses.Evidenceobilledamountscannotsupportanexpertopiniononthereasonablevalueoffuturemedicalservices.Id.atp.1331emphasisadded.CorenbaumurtherconcludedthattheamountbilledisalsoinadmissibletoproveaplaintisnoneconomicdamagesEvidenceotheullamountbilledisnotadmissibleorthepurposeoprovidingplaintiscounselanargumentativeconstructtoassistajuryinitsdiculttaskodeterminingtheamountononeconomicdamagesandisinadmissibleorthepurposeoprovingnoneconomicdamages.Corenbaumsupra215Cal.App.4thatp.1333.CorenbaumconcludedinnouncertaintermsevidenceotheullamountsbilledortheplaintismedicalcarewasnotrelevanttotheamountotheplaintisdamagesorpastmedicalexpensesfuturemedicalexpensesornoneconomicdamagesCorenbaumsupra215Cal.App.4thatp.1333emphasisadded.TusunderHowellandCorenbaumaplaintisrecoveryodamagesoruturemedicalcareislimitedtotheamountlikelytobepaidorincurredorthatcarenottheinfatedamountlistedonahospitalbillthatnooneisexpectedtoactuallypayandaplainticannotcircumventthisrulebyarguingthatthebilledamountisrelevanttoissuessuchasnoneconomicloss.StrategiesforrespondingtoattemptstocircumventHowellandCorenbaumInlightoHowellandCorenbaumtheamountbilledbyamedicalproviderisinadmissibletoprovepastoruturemedicaldamagesisinadmissibletosupportaclaimornoneconomicdamagesandcannotsupportanexpertsopinion.Itissimplyinadmissibleoranypurpose.Nonethelessplaintiscounselhavecomeupwithnovelargumentsinanattempttocircumventtheseclearrules.Followingisalistosomeotheseargumentsandpossibleresponses.TeuninsuredplaintiPlaintisrequentlycontendthatHowellandCorenbaumturnontheexistenceoprivateinsuranceandthatplaintiswithoutinsuranceshouldunlikeinsuredplaintisbeabletorelyupontheinfatedamountsbilledbymedicalproviders.Notso.Whetherornotinsuredaplainticanrecoveronlytheamountactuallypaidorincurred.Tecontraryargumentbyplaintisshouldailorthreereasons.FirsttheappellatecourtshavenotlimitedHowelltoitsactsinvolvingprivateinsurance.InsteadtheholdinginHowellhasbeenappliedtoplaintiswithcoverageunderMedicareLuttrellv.IslandPacicSupermarketsInc.2013215Cal.App.4th196198andtheworkerscompensationsystemSanchezv.Brooke2012204Cal.App.4th126131.AstheLuttrellCourtoAppealexplainedanyattempttolimitHowelltoitsactsdoesnotaccountortheactthatwhateverthesourceothepayments...theendresultisthesametheplaintihasnoliabilityorpastmedicalservicesinexcessothosepaymentssoheisnotentitledtorecoveranythingmorethanthepaymentamount.Luttrellatp.206TemostrecentdecisiononthispointisRominev.JohnsonControlsInc.March172014CaseNo.B239761__Cal.App.4th__2014WL1012960atp.__.Althoughprimarilyaddressingtheissueoprejudiceromtheerroneousadmissionoevidenceinapre-HowelltrialtheRomineCourtoAppealsummarizedthebroadlegalprinciplesromHowellandCorenbaumEvidenceotheullamountbilledoraplaintismedicalcareisnotrelevanttodamagesoruturemedicalcareornoneconomicdamagesanditsadmissioniserror.Id.atp.__.AscorrectlyrefectedintheRominedecisionthelegalprincipleinthesecasesdoesnothingeontheexistenceoprivateinsurance.InsteadHowellandCorenbaumturnontheissuesodetrimentandreasonablevalue.Asthosecourtsrecognizeddamagesrequireactualdetriment.Civ.Code328132823283.Inthecontextopaymentsormedicalexpensespastoruturethismeanstheamountsactuallypaidorincurrednottheinfatedamountssupposedlybilledbymedicalproviders.Howellsupra52Cal.4thatpp.548567Corenbaumsupra215Cal.App.4thatpp.1330-1332.HowellTwoYearsLatercontinuedfrompage19continuedonpage21 Volume12014verdictgreensheetsiLisaPerrochetTheGreenSheetsalthoughpublishedlaterthanmostcurrentadvancesheetsbecauseocopydeadlinesshouldserveasauseulrevieworecentimportantdecisions.ReadersareinvitedtosuggestsignicantdecisionsorinclusioninthenextGreenSheetsedition.PleasecontactLPerrochethorvitzlevy.comomaketheGreenSheetsauseultooltodeensecounseltheyareprintedingreenandinsertedinthemiddleoVerdictmagazineeachissue.Teycanbeeasilyremovedandledorurtherreerence.OcoursetheGreenSheetsarealwaysoneattorneysinterpretationothecaseandeachattorneyshouldthoroughlyreadthecasesbeorecitingthemorrelyingonthisdigest.Careulcounselwillalsochecksubsequenthistorybeoreciting.greensheetsNOTESONRECENTDECISIONScontinuedonpageiiARBITRATIONArbitrationagreementclausesthateliminateallfederalcourtreviewofarbitrationawardsareunenforceable.InreWal-MartWageandHourEmploymentPracticesLitigation9thCir.2013737F.3d1262.Tiscasearoseoutoadisputeoverhowtoallocate28millioninattorneyeesawardedaspartoawage-and-hourclassactionsettlementwithWal-Mart.Teplaintisattorneyssubmittedtheallocationdisputetobindingnon-appealablearbitrationasrequiredbythesettlement.Tedistrictcourtconrmedthearbitratorsallocationndingnogroundstovacatetheawardundersection10otheFederalArbitrationAct.TeattorneysappealedandoneotheattorneyswhoreceivedalargeallocationchallengedtheNinthCircuitsjurisdictionovertheappealinlightothenon-appealabilityclause.TeNinthCircuitrejectedthejurisdictionalchallengedecliningtoconstruethenon-appealabilityclauseasprecludingthedistrictcourtoritromreviewingthearbitrationawardbecausesuchaconstructionwouldrendertheagreementunenorceable.TecourtreasonedthatpartiesmaynotcontractuallyevadeorwaiveFAAsection10whichsetsoutthelegalgroundsorvacatinganarbitrationawardandreectsCongressintenttoensureaminimumlevelodueprocessorpartiestoarbitration.CIVILPROCEDUREFederalcourtsmaynotexercisegeneraljurisdictionoveraforeignparentcompanyinasuitbroughtbyforeignplaintiffsforeventsoccurringoutsidetheUnitedStatessimplybecausetheparentcompanyssubsidiarydoesbusinessintheforum.DaimlerAGv.Bauman2014571U.S.__No.11-965AgroupoArgentinanresidentsledsuitagainstaGermancompanyDaimlerinCaliorniaederalcourtclaimingthatDaimlersArgentiniansubsidiarycollaboratedwithArgentiniansecurityorcesincausinghumanrightsviolations.TeplaintisclaimedtheycouldsueDaimlerinCaliorniaederalcourtoncausesoactionarisinganywhereintheworldbecauseDiamlerhadanindirectsubsidiaryinDelawarethatimportedandsoldDaimlervehiclesthroughouttheUnitedStatesincludingCaliornia.Daimlermovedtodismissorlackopersonaljurisdictionandthedistrictcourtgrantedthemotion.TeNinthCircuitreversedholdingthatCaliorniaederalcourtscouldexercisejurisdictionoverDaimlerbecauseitsAmericansubsidiarysactivitiesinCaliorniawereimportanttoDiamler.TeUnitedStatesSupremeCourtheldthatdueprocesspreventstheexerciseojurisdictionbyaCaliorniaederalcourtoveraoreigncorporationbeingsuedbyoreignplaintisoreventsoccurringwhollyoutsidetheUnitedStates.InGoodyearDunlopTiresOperationsS.A.v.Brown564U.S.___2011theSupremeCourtheldthatacourtmayassertgeneralpersonaljurisdictionoveraoreigncorporationwhenthatcorporationsafliationswiththeorumstatearesoconstantandVoume12014erictgreenseetsierrocetTheGreenSheetsalthoughpublishedlaterthanmostcurrentadvancesheetsbecauseocopydeadlinesshouldserveasauseulrevieworecentimportantdecisions.ReadersareinvitedtosuggestsignicantdecisionsorinclusioninthenextGreenSheetsedition.PleasecontactLPerrochethorvitzlevy.comomaketheGreenSheetsauseultooltodeensecounseltheyareprintedinreenandinsertedinthemiddleoVerdicmaazineeachissue.Teycanbeeasilyremovedandledorurtherreerence.OcoursetheGreenSheetsarealwaysoneattorneysinterpretationothecaseandeachattorneyshouldthoroughlyreadthecasesbeorecitingthemorrelyingonthisdigest.Careulcounselwillalsochecksubsequenthistorybeorecitin.rnNTENREENTDEIINcontnueonpageARBITRATINrtratonareementcausestatemnateafrlrrviwfririnwrrnnfrl.nrea-artaeanourmpomentractcetato9thir.2013737F.3d1262.Tiscasearoseoutoadisputeoverhowtoallocate28millioninttorneyeesawardedaspartoawae-and-hourclassactionsettlementwithWal-Mart.Teplaintisattorneyssubmittedtheallocationisputetobindinnon-appealablearbitrationasrequiredbythesettlement.Tedistrictcourtconrmedthearbitratorsallocationndinnoroundstovacatetheawardundersection10otheFederalArbitrationAct.TeattorneysappealedandoneotheattorneyswhoeceivedalareallocationchallenedtheNinthCircuitsjurisdictionvertheappealinlihtothenon-appealabilityclause.TeNinthCircuitrejectedthejurisdictionalchallenedeclinintoonstruethenon-appealabilityclauseasprecludinthedistrictcourtritromreviewinthearbitrationawardbecausesuchaconstructionwouldrendertheareementunenorceable.TecourtreasonedthatpartiesmaynotcontractuallyevadeorwaiveFAAsection10whichsetsoutthelealroundsorvacatinanarbitrationawardandreectsConressintenttoensureaminimumlevelodueprocessorpartiestorbitration.IVILPREDREeeracourtsmanotexercseeneraurisdictionoveraforeinarentcomaninasuitbrouhtbforeinlaintiffsforeventsoccurrinoutsidetheUnitedtatessimlecausethearentcomanssubsidiardoesusinessintheforum.DaimlerAv.Bauma2014571U..__No.11-965AgroupoArgentinanresidentsledsuitagainstaGermancompanyDaimlerinCaliorniaederalcourtclaimingthatDaimlersArgentiniansubsidiarycollaboratedwithArgentiniansecurityorcesincausinghumanrightsviolations.TeplaintisclaimedtheycouldsueDaimlerinCaliorniaederalcourtoncausesoactionarisinganywhereintheworldbecauseDiamlerhadanindirectsubsidiaryinDelawarethatimportedandsoldDaimlervehiclesthroughouttheUnitedStatesincludingCaliornia.Daimlermovedtodismissorlackopersonaljurisdictionandthedistrictcourtgrantedthemotion.TeNinthCircuitreversedholdingthatCaliorniaederalcourtscouldexercisejurisdictionoverDaimlerecauseitsAmericansusidiarysactivitiesinCaliorniawereimportanttoDiamler.TeUnitedStatesSupremeCourtheldthatdueprocesspreventstheexerciseojurisdictionyaCaliorniaederalcourtoveraoreigncorporationeingsuedyoreignplaintisoreventsoccurringwhollyoutsidetheUnitedStates.InGoodyearDunlopTiresOperationsS.A.v.Brown564U.S.___2011theSupremeCourtheldthatacourtayassertgeneralpersonaljurisdictionoveraoreigncorporationwhenthatcorporationsafliationswiththeorumstatearesoconstantand iiverdictgreensheetsVolume12014pervasivethatthecorporationmaybesaidtobeathomeintheorumstate.DaimlercouldnotbeconsideredathomeinCaliorniabecauseregardlessoitsAmericansubsidiaryssystematicandcontinuouscontactswithCaliorniaDaimlerasamultinationalcorporationwithworldwidesalesthatmanuacturesvehiclesandhasitsheadquartersinGermany.CompareConsecoMarketingLLCv.IFAandInsuranceServicesInc.2013__Cal.App.4th__B244444holdingthatajudgmentcreditorthatisaoreignlimitedliabilitycompanydoesnothavetoqualiytodobusinessinCaliorniatoenorceasisterstatejudgmentundertheSisterStateandForeignMoneyJudgmentsAct.Contractualforum-selectionclausesareenforceablebyamotionunder28U.S.C.1404aandthecourtshouldusuallyconsiderthepartieschoiceofforumasthecontrollingfactorwhenrulingonsuchamotion.AtlanticMarineConstructionCo.Inc.v.UnitedStatesDistrictCourtfortheWesternDistrictofTexas2013134S.Ct.568Apartytoacontractdisputeledsuitinederalcourtinexas.Tedeendantmovedtohavethecasedismissedortranserredunder28U.S.C.section1406aandFederalRuleoCivilProcedure12b3orinthealternative28U.S.C.section1404aonthebasisoaorumselectionclauseinthepartiescontractthatpointedtoVirginiaederalorstatecourt.Tedistrictcourtheldthatsection1406aandRule12b3didnotsupportdismissalortranserbecausethoserulesprovideortranseronlywherevenuewouldbewrongunderthestandardssetorthin28U.S.C.section1391andvenuewasnotwrongbythatstandardinthiscase.Accordinglythedistrictcourtconsideredsection1404awhichgovernstranseronlywithintheederalcourtsystemandpermitstranserorconvenienceastheexclusiveavailablegroundorthemotiontotranser.Inapplyingtheorumnon-conveniensactorsunderthatstatutethedistrictcourtdeterminedthattheorumselectionclausewasoneactoravoringtranserbutthattranserwasunwarrantedbecauseanotheractortheconvenienceowitnessesoutweighedtheothers.Tusthedistrictcourtdeniedtranser.TeUnitedStatesSupremeCourtreversed.TeSupremeCourtagreedthatsection1406aandRule12b3donotauthorizetranserbasedonaorumselectionclausewherethesuithasnotbeenledinastatutorilywrongvenue.TeSupremeCourturtheragreedthatthepropermechanismorenorcingaorumselectionclauseatleastwherethereisaederalorumselectedissection1404a.TeCourtruledhoweverthatinevaluatingtheorumnon-conveniensactorsinacaseinvolvingaorumselectionclausethepartiescontractualchoiceoorumshouldbegivencontrollingweightintheabsenceoextraordinarycircumstancesunrelatedtothepartiesconvenience.TeCourtthereoredirectedthecasetobetranserredtoVirginiaederalcourt.Declarationsayingearlierfactually-devoiddiscoveryresponseswereamistakecandefeatsummaryjudgmentmotion.Ahnv.KumhoTires2014223Cal.App.4th133Petitionforreviewled342014Inthisbreachocontractactionthedeendantpropoundedinterrogatoriesaskingtheplaintitostateallactssupportingthecomplaintsallegations.Teplaintirespondedsayingrespondingpartydoesnotknowwhetheranyactsresponsivetothisrequestexist.Discoveryiscontinuing.Tedeendantmovedorsummaryjudgmentarguingthatinlightotheactually-devoidinterrogatoryresponsestheclaimswerewithoutanyactualbasis.Teplaintiopposedthesummaryjudgmentmotionwithadeclarationattestingtotheactsallegedinthecomplaint.Plaintiscounselalsosubmittedadeclarationexplainingthattheinterrogatoryresponsescontainedinadvertentomissionsandweremistakenandthatamendedresponseswerebeingserved.TetrialcourtrelyingonDAmicov.BoardofMedicalExaminers197411Cal.3d1disregardedthedeclarationsasinconsistentwiththeinterrogatoryresponsesandgrantedsummaryjudgmentorthedeendant.TeCourtoAppealFourthDist.Div.woreversed.Tecourtdeterminedthattheactually-devoiddiscoveryresponsessayingthattheplaintididnotknowwhetheractsordocumentssupportedtheclaimswerenotclearandunequivocaladmissionsoactthatcouldnotbecontradictedbyotherevidenceliketheplaintisdeclaration.Tecourtexplainedevasiveanswerstowrittendiscoveryisnotalegallysufcientgroundorgrantingamotionorsummaryjudgmentparticularlywhenotherevidenceadducedonthemotionshowstherearetriableissuesomaterialact.Tisisbecausesummaryjudgmentisproperonlyiallthepaperssubmittedonthemotionshowtherearenogenuineissuesomaterialactrequiringatrial.Hereconsideringallothepapersthereweretriableissuesregardingwhethertheoriginaldiscoveryresponseswereamistakeandwhetherplaintihadcredibleevidenceinsupportohisclaims.Terewerealsotriableissuesonthemeritsoplaintisclaims.Accordinglythesummaryjudgmentmotionshouldhavebeendenied.AhnisoneoseveralcasesthatareindisagreementoverthepracticalapplicationoDAmico.ASCDCledanamicusletterinsupportotheunsuccessulpetitionorreviewanddeensecounselpreserveachallengetoAhninappropriatecases.Adefectivespecialverdictformissubjecttoharmlesserroranalysis.Taylorv.NaborsDrillingUSALP2014222Cal.App.4th1228Tejuryoundortheplaintiinthissuitallegingsexualharassment.Specicallyonthespecialverdictormthejuryansweredyestoquestionsaboutwhethertheplaintihadbeensubjectedtounwantedharassingconductbasedonhisperceivedsexualorientationthatsuchharassmentwassevereorpervasiveandthatareasonablepersoninplaintispositionwouldhaveconsideredtheworkenvironmenttobehostile.Becauseoatypographicalerrorintheverdictormhoweverthejurywasdirectedtoskipquestionsaskingwhetherplaintipersonallyconsideredtheenvironmenthostileandwhetherthehostileenvironmentwasasubstantialactorthatcausedharmtotheplainti.Ratherthejuryskippedstraighttodamagesandawardedplaintiasignicantsum.Althoughthejurysailuretoanswertheadditionalquestionswasobviouswhenthejurywaspolledthedeendantdidnotobject.continuedfrompageicontinuedonpageiiiiierictgreenseetsVoume12014pervasivethatthecorporationmaybesaidtobeathomeintheorumstate.DaimlercouldnotbeconsideredathomeinCaliorniabecauseegardlessoitsAmericansubsidiaryssystematicandcontinuousontactswithCaliorniaDaimlerasamultinationalcorporationwithworldwidesalesthatmanuacturesvehiclesandhasitsheadquartersinGermany.CompareConsecoMarketingLLCv.IFAandInsuranceServicesInc.2013__Cal.App.4th__B244444holdingthatajudgmentcreditorthatisaoreignlimitedliabilitycompanydoesnothavetoqualiytodobusinessinCaliorniatoenorceasisterstatejudgmentundertheSisterStateandForeignMoneyJudgmentsAct.nrlfrm-linlrenforceablebyamotionunder28U...1404aandthecourtshouldusuallyconsiderheartieschoiceofforumasthecontrollinfactorwhenrulinonsuchamotion.AtlanticMarineonstructiono.Inc.v.UnitedtatesDistricrfrhWrnDirifTx2013134.t.568Apartytoacontractdisputeledsuitinederalcourtinexas.Teeendantmovedtohavethecasedismissedortranserredunder28U.S.C.section1406aandFederalRuleoCivilProcedure12b3rinthealternative28U.S.C.section1404aonthebasisoaorumselectionclauseinthepartiescontractthatpointedtoVirginiaederalrstatecourt.Tedistrictcourtheldthatsection1406aandRule12b3didnotsupportdismissalortranserbecausethoserulesprovideortranseronlywherevenuewouldbewrongunderthestandardssetorthin28U.S.C.section1391andvenuewasnotwrongbythatstandardinthiscase.Accordinglythedistrictcourtconsideredsection1404awhichgovernstranseronlywithintheederalcourtsystemndpermitstranserorconvenienceastheexclusiveavailablegroundorthemotiontotranser.Inapplyingtheorumnon-conveniensactorsunderthatstatutethedistrictcourtdeterminedthattheorumselectionclausewasoneactoravoringtranserbutthattranserwasnwarrantedbecauseanotheractortheconvenienceowitnessesutweighedtheothers.Tusthedistrictcourtdeniedtranser.TeUnitedStatesSupremeCourtreversed.TeSupremeCourtagreedhatsection1406aandRule12b3donotauthorizetranserbasedonorumselectionclausewherethesuithasnotbeenledinastatutorilywrongvenue.TeSupremeCourturtheragreedthatthepropermechanismorenorcingaorumselectionclauseatleastwherethereisederalorumselectedissection1404a.TeCourtruledhoweverhatinevaluatingtheorumnon-conveniensactorsinacaseinvolvingaorumselectionclausethepartiescontractualchoiceoorumshouldbeivencontrollingweightintheabsenceoextraordinarycircumstancesnrelatedtothepartiesconvenience.TeCourtthereoredirectedtheasetobetranserredtoVirginiaederalcourt.Declarationsayingearlieractually-devoiddiscoveryresponseswereamistakecandefeatsummaryjudgmentmotion.Ahnv.KumhoTire2014223al.App.4th133Petitionforreviewled342014Inthisbreachocontractactionthedeendantpropoundednterrogatoriesaskingtheplaintitostateallactssupportingthecomplaintsallegations.Teplaintirespondedsayingrespondingartydoesnotknowwhetheranyactsresponsivetothisrequestexist.Discoveryiscontinuing.Tedeendantmovedorsummaryjudgmentarguingthatinlightotheactually-devoidinterrogatoryresponsestheclaimswerewithoutanyactualbasis.Teplaintiopposedthesummaryjudgmentmotionwithadeclarationattestingtotheactsallegedinthecomplaint.Plaintiscounselalsosubmittedadeclarationexplainingthattheinterrogatoryresponsescontainednadvertentomissionsandweremistakenandthatamendedresponseswerebeingserved.TetrialcourtrelyingonDAmicov.BoardofMedicalExaminers197411Cal.3d1disregardedthedeclarationsasnconsistentwiththeinterrogatoryresponsesandgrantedsummaryjudmentorthedeendant.TeCourtoAppealFourthDist.Div.woreversed.Tecourtdeterminedthattheactually-devoiddiscoveryresponsessayinthatthelaintididnotknowwhetheractsordocumentssupportedtheclaimswerenotclearandunequivocaladmissionsoactthatcouldnotbecontradictedbyotherevidenceliketheplaintisdeclaration.Tecourtexplainedevasiveanswerstowrittendiscoveryisnotalegallysufcientgroundorgrantingamotionorsummaryjudgmentparticularlywhenotherevidenceadducedonthemotionshowstherearetriableissuesoaterialact.Tisisbecausesummaryjudgmentisproperonlyiallthepaperssubmittedonthemotionshowtherearenogenuineissuesoaterialactrequiringatrial.Hereconsideringallothepapersthereweretriableissuesregardingwhethertheoriginaldiscoveryresponseswereamistakeandwhetherplaintihadcredibleevidenceinsupportohisclaims.Terewerealsotriableissuesonthemeritsoplaintisclaims.Accordinglythesummaryjudgmentmotionshouldhavebeendenied.AhnisoneoseveralcasesthatareindisagreementoverthepracticalapplicationoDAmico.ASCDCledanamicusletterinsupportotheunsuccessulpetitionorreviewanddeensecounselpreserveachallengetoAhninappropriatecases.Adefectivespecialverdictformissubjecttoarmesserroranayss.Taylorv.NaborsDrillingUAL2014222al.App.4th1228Tejuryoundortheplaintiinthissuitalleinsexualharassment.Specicallyonthespecialverdictormthejuryansweredyestoquestionsaboutwhethertheplaintihadbeensubjectedtounwantedarassinconductbasedonhisperceivedsexualorientationthatsuchharassmentwassevereorpervasiveandthatareasonablepersonnplaintispositionwouldhaveconsideredtheworkenvironmenttobehostile.Becauseoatyporaphicalerrorintheverdictormoweverthejurywasdirectedtoskipquestionsaskinwhetherplaintiersonallyconsideredtheenvironmenthostileandwhetherthehostileenvironmentwasasubstantialactorthatcausedharmtotheplainti.Ratherthejuryskippedstraihttodamaesandawardedplaintiasinicantsum.Althouhthejurysailuretoanswertheadditionalquestionswasobviouswhenthejurywaspolledthedeendantdidnotobject.ontinuedromaeicontnueonae Volume12014verdictgreensheetsiiiTeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.Sixheldnotonlythatthedeendantoreitedthedeectintheverdictbyailingtoobjectbeorethejurywasdischargedbutalsothattheerrorintheverdictormwasharmless.Giventheoverwhelmingevidenceoaggressiveharassmentandthejurysanswerstothequestionsitdidanswerthecourthadnodoubtthejurywouldhaveansweredyestotheunansweredquestionsbutorthetypographicalerrorthatdirectedthejurytoskipthosequestions.Tusthecourtconcludedaretrialwouldbeawasteojudicialresources.Tecourtemphasizedthatitwouldhavetoreverseiithadanyconcernsaboutprejudicebutthatithadnosuchconcernsherewherethepartiesclearlyhadaullandairtrial.Plaintiffsinabilitytocollectjudgmentbecauseofdebtorsinsolvencyconstitutesaninequitableresultasamatteroflawjustifyingaddingalteregosasjudgmentdebtors.RelentlessAirRacingLLCv.AirborneTurbineLtd.Partnership2013222Cal.App.4th811PlaintisobtainedajudgmentagainstAirborneurbineLimitedPartnership.PlaintiswereunabletocollectthejudgmentagainstAirbornehoweverbecauseitsprincipalstranserredoutalloitsassetsleavingitinsolvent.PlaintisthereoresoughttoaddAirbornestwolimitedpartnersandanothercompanytheyownedasjudgmentdebtors.TetrialcourtdeniedplaintismotiontoaddthejudgmentdebtorsbecausealthoughtheplaintisestablishedthatthelimitedpartnerswereAirbornesalteregostheplaintisailedtoshowhowtreatingAirborneasaseparateentitywouldleadtoaninequitableresult.TeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.woreversed.TecourtexplainedthatthereisnorequirementthattheplaintisshowthelimitedpartnersactedwithbadintentwhentheyremovedtheassetsromAirbornetoshowthattheresultinginsolvencycreatedaninequitableresult.TecourtheldthatplaintisinabilitytocollectthejudgmentbecauseoAirbornesinsolvencywasunderthecircumstancesaninequitableresultasamatterolaw.AccordinglytheCourtoAppealmodiedthejudgmenttoincludethelimitedpartnersasjudgmentdebtors.InthecourseoitsrulingtheCourtoAppealalsonotedthattherewasnorequirementthatplaintisattempttolitigatethealteregoissueaspartotheliabilityaction.Imposingsucharequirementwouldnotbeprudentasitwouldorceplaintistoengageinpretrialdiscoveryonalteregoissuesthatarebetterleftoberesolvedoncethereisajudgmentanditgoesunpaid.SeealsoCardinalev.Miller2014222Cal.App.4th1020PartieswhoconspiredtohelpajudgmentdebtorevadeplaintiseortstoenorceajudgmentareliableunderCodeoCivilProcedureSec.685.040orattorneyeesincurredinenorcingthejudgmenteventhoughtheywerenotpartiestothecontractonwhichtheoriginaljudgmentwasbasedorpartiestotheoriginalactionleadingtothejudgment.Trialcourtshavediscretiontoallowformorethan14hoursofdepositiontime.CertainteedCorporationv.SuperiorCourtHart2014222Cal.App.4th1053Teplaintisuednumerousdeendantsorhisasbestos-relatedinjuries.Terewassubstantialmedicaldoubtthattheplaintiwouldsurvivesixmonths.UnderCodeoCivilProceduresection2025.290subdivisionbadepositionosuchapersonislimitedto14hours.Tedeendantssoughtleaveocourttodeposetheplaintiinexcesso14hoursandthecontinuedonpageivtrialcourtdeniedtherequest.Tetrialcourtoundthatlimitingthedepositiontoonly14hoursraisedsignicantdueprocessconcernsbutiteareditlackedauthoritytograntmoretime.Specicallythecourtwasconcernedthatthepartosection2025.290subdivisionathatpermitsatrialcourttograntadditionaldepositiontimewhereneededtoairlyexaminethedeponentdidnotapplytosubdivisionb.Tetrialcourtrecommendedandthedeendantssoughtwritrelie.TeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.Treeheldthatthe14-hourtimelimitimposedbysubdivisionbismerelypresumptiveandthattrialcourtsarenotonlyauthorizedbutrequiredtoalloworadditionaldepositiontimeunlessthecourtinitsdiscretiondeterminesthatthedepositionshouldbelimited.Tecourtemphasizedthatsection2025.290subdivisioncmakesclearthatnothinginthestatuteisintendedtoaectthetrialcourtsdiscretiontomakewhateverordersregardinglimitationodepositionsthatarerequiredintheinterestsojustice.PersonalservicemaybeeffectedataUPSstoreaddressdesignatedbyapartywhoisunrepresentedandlacksapermanentresidence.Sweetingv.Murat2013221Cal.App.4th507Tedeendantsinaconversionsuitmovedorsummaryjudgmentandtocompeldiscoveryresponsesromtheplainti.Teyservedthemotionpapersontheplaintiatanaddressplaintihadlistedonanoticeochangeoaddressorm.TataddressturnedouttobeaunitataUPSstore.Teplaintididnottimelyrespondtothemotionsandatthehearingonthemotionsthetrialcourtexerciseditsdiscretionnottoconsiderplaintisuntimelyresponses.Tetrialcourtgrantedsummaryjudgmentinavorothedeendantsandgranteddeendantsdiscoverymotionsandrequestorsanctionsagainstplainti.RelyingonCodeoCivilProcedure415.20aorthepropositionthatpersonalservicecannotbeeectedatapostoceboxtheplaintiaskedthetrialcourttoreconsideritsrulingsbecausethepaperswereimproperlyserved.Tetrialcourtnonethelessenteredjudgmentorthedeendants.TeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.FourheldthatwhenapartyhasledanoticeochangeoaddressthatlistsanaddressoraUPSstoreatwhichherentsamailboxandstatesthatallnoticesanddocumentsregardingtheactionshouldbesenttothataddresspersonalserviceiseectuatedbypersonaldeliveryoanoticeomotiontotheUPSstore.TecourtexplainedthatserviceataUnitedStatesPostalServicepostalboxisimproperundertheCodebutserviceataprivateorcommercialpostoceboxisallowed.Afax-led170.6challengemustincludeinstructionsfordirectingthechallengetoappropriatejudge.Fryv.SuperiorCourt2013222Cal.App.4th475PlaintisaxedLosAngelesSuperiorCourtFormLACIV015totheclerksoceinordertoexerciseaCodeoCivilProcedure170.6challenge.Teaxtransmittaldidnotincludeanyinstructionstotheclerkregardingwhethertodirectthechallengetotheassignedjudgeortothepresidingjudge.Accordinglytheclerksocetooknourtheraction.Overamonthlaterplaintisinquiredaboutthestatusothechallengeandwasinormeditwaslost.Whentheplaintisnallybroughttheissuetothetrialjudgesattentionshedeclinedtodeemthechallengetimelyled.Teplaintissoughtawritomandate.continuedfrompageiiVoume12014erictgreenseetsiiiTeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.Sixheldnotonlythattheeendantoreitedthedeectintheverdictbyailingtoobjectbeorehejurywasdischargedbutalsothattheerrorintheverdictormwasharmless.Giventheoverwhelmingevidenceoaggressiveharassmentndthejurysanswerstothequestionsitdidanswerthecourthadnooubtthejurywouldhaveansweredyestotheunansweredquestionsbutorthetypographicalerrorthatdirectedthejurytoskipthosequestions.Tusthecourtconcludedaretrialwouldbeawasteojudicialresources.Tecourtemphasizedthatitwouldhavetoreverseiithadanyconcernsboutprejudicebutthatithadnosuchconcernsherewherethepartieslearlyhadaullandairtrial.Plaintiffsinabilitytocollectudgmentbecauseofdebtorsinsolvencyconstitutesaninequitableresultasamatteroflawustifyingaddingalteregosasugmentetors.elentlessAiracinLLv.AirborneTurbineLtd.artners2013222al.A.4th811PlaintisobtainedajudgmentagainstAirborneurbineLimitedPartnership.PlaintiswereunabletocollectthejudgmentagainstAirbornehoweverbecauseitsprincipalstranserredoutalloitsassetsleavingitinsolvent.PlaintisthereoresoughttoaddAirbornestwolimitedpartnersandanothercompanytheyownedasjudgmentdebtors.TetrialcourtdeniedplaintismotiontoaddthejudgmentdebtorsecausealthoughtheplaintisestablishedthatthelimitedpartnerswereAirbornesalteregostheplaintisailedtoshowhowtreatingAirborneasaseparateentitywouldleadtoaninequitableresult.TeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.woreversed.TecourtxplainedthatthereisnorequirementthattheplaintisshowthelimitedpartnersactedwithbadintentwhentheyremovedthessetsromAirbornetoshowthattheresultinginsolvencycreatedninequitableresult.TecourtheldthatplaintisinabilitytoollectthejudgmentbecauseoAirbornesinsolvencywasundertheircumstancesaninequitableresultasamatterolaw.AccordinglytheCourtoAppealmodiedthejudgmenttoincludethelimitedpartnerssjudgmentdebtors.InthecourseoitsrulingtheCourtoAppeallsonotedthattherewasnorequirementthatplaintisattempttolitigatethealteregoissueaspartotheliabilityaction.Imposingsuchaequirementwouldnotbeprudentasitwouldorceplaintistoengageinpretrialdiscoveryonalteregoissuesthatarebetterleftoberesolvedncethereisajudgmentanditgoesunpaid.SeealsoCardinalev.Mille2014222Cal.App.4th1020PartieswhoconspiredtohelpajudgmentdebtorevadeplaintiseortstoenorceajudgmentareliableunderCodeoCivilProcedureSec.685.040orattorneyeesincurredinenorcingthejudgmenteventhoughtheywerenotpartiestothecontractonwhichtheoriginaljudgmentwasbasedorpartiestotheoriginalactionleadingtothejudgment.Trilrhvirinllwfrmrhan14hoursofdeositiontime.ertainteedorporationv.uperiorourtHart2014222al.A.4th1053Teplaintisuednumerousdeendantsorhisasbestos-relatedinjuries.Terewassubstantialmedicaldoubtthattheplaintiwouldsurvivesixmonths.UnderCodeoCivilProceduresection2025.290subdivisionbadepositionosuchapersonislimitedto14hours.Tedeendantssoughtleaveocourttodeposetheplaintiinexcesso14hoursandthecontnueonpagevtrialcourtdeniedtherequest.Tetrialcourtoundthatlimitinthedepositiontoonly14hoursraisedsinicantdueprocessconcernsbutiteareditlackedauthoritytorantmoretime.Specicallythecourtwasconcernedthatthepartosection2025.290subdivisionathatpermitsatrialcourttograntadditionaldepositiontimewhereneededtoairlyexaminethedeponentdidnotapplytosubdivisionb.Tetrialcourtrecommendedandthedeendantssoughtwritrelie.TeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.Treeheldthatthe14-hourtimelimitimposedbysubdivisionbismerelypresumptiveandthattrialcourtsarenotonlyauthorizedbutrequiredtoalloworadditionaldepositiontimeunlessthecourtinitsdiscretiondeterminesthatthedepositionshouldbelimited.Tecourtemphasizedthatsection2025.290subdivisioncmakesclearthatnothinginthestatuteisntendedtoaectthetrialcourtsdiscretiontomakewhateverordersregardinglimitationodepositionsthatarerequiredintheinterestsojustice.PersonalservicemaybeeffectedataUPstorearessesgnateyapartywosunreresenteanacsaermanentresence.weetingv.Mura2013221al.App.4th507Tedeendantsinaconversionsuitmovedorsummaryjudmentandtocompeldiscoveryresponsesromtheplainti.Teyservedthemotionapersontheplaintiatanaddressplaintihadlistedonanoticeochaneoaddressorm.TataddressturnedouttobeaunitataUPSstore.Teplaintididnottimelyrespondtothemotionsandattheearinonthemotionsthetrialcourtexerciseditsdiscretionnottoconsiderplaintisuntimelyresponses.Tetrialcourtrantedsummaryjudmentinavorothedeendantsandranteddeendantsdiscoveryotionsandrequestorsanctionsaainstplainti.RelyinonCodeoCivilProcedure415.20aorthepropositionthatpersonalservicecannotbeeectedatapostoceboxtheplaintiaskedthetrialcourttoreconsideritsrulinsbecausethepaperswereimproperlyserved.Tetrialcourtnonethelessenteredjudmentorthedeendants.TeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.FourheldthatwhenaartyhasledanoticeochaneoaddressthatlistsanaddressoraUPSstoreatwhichherentsamailboxandstatesthatallnoticesanddocumentsreardintheactionshouldbesenttothataddressersonalserviceiseectuatedbypersonaldeliveryoanoticeomotiontotheUPSstore.TecourtexplainedthatserviceataUnitedStatesPostalServicepostalboxisimproperundertheCodebutserviceatarivateorcommercialpostoceboxisallowed.Afax-led170.6challengemustincludeinstructionsfordirectinthechallenetoarorateue.Frv.uperiorour2013222al.A.4th475PlaintisaxedLosAngelesSuperiorCourtFormLACIV015totheclerksoceinordertoexerciseaCodeoCivilProcedure170.6challenge.Teaxtransmittaldidnotincludeanyinstructionstotheclerkregardingwhethertodirectthechallengetotheassignedjudgeortothepresidingjudge.Accordinglytheclerksocetooknourtheraction.Overamonthlaterplaintisinquiredaboutthestatusothechallengeandwasinormeditwaslost.Whentheplaintisnallybroughttheissuetothetrialjudgesattentionshedeclinedtodeemthechallengetimelyled.Teplaintissoughtawritomandate.ontinuedromaeii ivverdictgreensheetsVolume12014TeCourtoAppealSecond.Dist.Div.OneheldthatFormLACIV015issucienttoconstituteasection170.6motionandthataxlingispermissiblebutthattheaxeddocumentmustbeaccompaniedbyprocessinginstructionsthatspeciywherethechallengeshouldbedirected.Becauseplaintisdidnotincludesuchprocessinginstructionsinthiscasethetrialcourtdidnotabuseitsdiscretionintreatingthechallengeasuntimely.CLASSACTIONSCommonalityforclasscerticationexistswherethereisapatternorpracticeofemployeesworkingoff-the-clocktocompletedailytasks.Williamsv.SuperiorCourtAllstateInsuranceCompany2013221Cal.App.4th1353Plaintiledanactionorunpaidovertimewagesonbehalohimselandothersimilarly-situatedAllstateautoinsuranceadjustorswhoareallegedlyrequiredtoworkotheclockatthebeginningoeachworkday.TetrialcourtoriginallycertiedtheclassbutthenpermittedAllstatetobrietheissueowhetherthecourtshouldde-certiytheclassinlightotheUnitedStatesSupremeCourtsrulinginWal-MartStoresInc.v.Dukes2011131S.Ct.2541aclassactioncannotbemaintainedwheretheplaintisclaimsarebasedoncountlessindividualemploymentdecisionsandnotageneralpolicyodiscriminationthatcouldserveastheglueholdingtheclasstogetherorthepurposesoFederalRuleoCivilProcedure23scommonalityrequirement.Tetrialcourtthendecidedtode-certiytheclassinlightotheindividualizednatureoAllstatesarmativedeensethatnotalladjustersworkedotheclockandthatanyotheclocktimewasdeminimisandwithoutAllstatesknowledge.TeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.Eightheldthatthetrialcourterredinde-certiyingtheclass.TecourtexplainedthatDukesdidnotapplybecauseitinvolvedaederalclassactionseekinginjunctivereliewhereasthiscaseinvolvedaCaliorniaclassactionseekingmonetaryrelie.FurtherunlikeinDukestheplaintisclaimhereinvolvedacompanywidepolicyonotpayingovertimeorworkperormedbeoretheocialstartotheworkdaynotthesubjectiveemploymentdecisionsocountlessindividualcompanymanagers.HerethegluebindingtogethertheclassisthequestionowhetherAllstatehadapolicyonotpayingorotheclockworkaquestionamenabletoclasstreatment.Allstatesdeensesabouttheamountotimeanyadjustorsworkedotheclockrelatedtodamagesanddierencesindamagesareordinarilynotsucienttodeeatclasscertication.SeealsoJonesv.FarmersInsuranceExchange2013221Cal.App.4th986reversingdenialoclasscerticationbecausetrialcourtimproperlyocusedonindividualissuesconcerningtherighttorecoverdamagesratherthanevaluatingwhetherthetheoryorecoverywasamenabletoclasstreatmentplaintistheoryorecoverybasedontheexistenceoauniormpolicydenyingcompensationorpreshifworkpresentedpredominantlycommonissuesoactandlawappropriateorclasstreatment.SeealsoMartinezv.JoesCrabShackHoldings2013221Cal.App.4th1148ReviewGrantedandHeldFebruary192014pendingDuranv.U.S.BankNationalAssn.S200923reversingtrialcourtdenialocerticationoclassosalariedmanagerialemployeeswhoclaimedthattheyhadbeenmisclassiedasexemptandwereentitledtoovertimepayideendantspoliciesasimplementedacrossCaliorniaresultedinmanagerialemployeesbeingundercompensatedorperormingexemptworkclassrelieisappropriateevenitherewereindividualdisputedissuesoactrelatingtotheamountotimespentbyindividualclassmembersonparticulartasks.WhetherlocalcontroversyexceptiontoClassActionFairnessActjurisdictionappliesmustbebasedonevidenceoraclearinferencefromtheclassdenitionnotguesswork.Mondragonv.CapitalOneAutoFinance9thCir.2013__F.3d.__TeplaintibroughtsuitonbehaloaclassopersonswhopurchasedorregisteredvehiclesinCaliorniaintheouryearsbeorethesuitwasled.TedeendantsremovedthecasetoederalcourtundertheClassActionFairnessActo2005andtheplaintimovedtoremandonthebasisothelocalcontroversyexceptionwhichprovidesorremandiatleasttwo-thirdsotheclassmembersarecitizensotheorumstate.Tedistrictcourtgrantedthemotiontoremand.TeNinthCircuitreversedholdingthattheplaintiailedtomeethisburdentoshowthelocalcontroversyexceptionapplied.Tecourtrejectedtheplaintisargumentthatthecourtcouldinerthatatleasttwo-thirdsotheclassmemberswereCaliorniansromthedenitionotheclass.TecourtheldthatapureinerenceregardingthecitizenshipoprospectiveclassmembersmaybesucienttoestablishthelocalcontroversyexceptionitheclassisdenedaslimitedtocitizensothestateinquestionbuttherewasnosuchclassdenitionheretherecouldbemanyreasonspeoplewhopurchasedorregisteredvehiclesinCaliorniaovertherelevantperiodwerenotCaliorniansatthetimeorhavesincemoved.Tusplaintihadtomeetitsburdeniburdenoproobypresentingsomeevidenceotheclassmemberscitizenshipinordertoprevailonitsremandmotion.Tecourtremandedthecaseorurtherproceedingsonthejurisdictionalissue.EVIDENCEIftherecordestablishedinthedistrictcourtissufcientanappellatecourthasauthoritytomakeDaubertndings.EstateofBarabinv.AstenJohnsonInc.9thCir.2014__F.3d__Ajuryawardedtheplaintisome10millionindamagesorhispersonalinjuryclaimsarisinghisallegedexposuretoasbestosromdryereltsprovidedbydeendants.Teplaintiscaserestedonthetestimonyotwoexpertswhoopinedthateveryexposuretoasbestoscouldcausemesothelioma.Tedistrictcourtallowedplaintisexpertstotestiyoverdeendantsobjections.Tedistrictcourtrecognizedthedivideamongcourtsandscientistsoverwhethertheeveryexposuretheorywasrelevantbutdecidedthatthetheorycouldgotothejuryintheinterestoallowingeachpartytotryitscase.TedeendantsappealedarguingthatthetrialcourtsailuretomakendingsabouttherelevanceandreliabilityotheexperttestimonyunderFederalRuleoEvidence702andDaubertwasanabuseodiscretion.TeenbancpanelotheNinthCircuitagreedwiththedeendantsthatthedistrictcourterredbyabdicatingitsroleasgatekeeperandallowingthetestimonytogotothejurywithouthavingmadethresholdndingsorelevanceandreliability.Teenbanccourtheldthattheimproperadmissionoplaintisexpertstestimonywasprejudicialbecausetheeveryexposuretheorywascriticaltotheplaintiscase.InreversingtheNinthCircuitconsideredthedeendantsargumentthatcontinuedfrompageiiicontinuedonpageviverictgreenseetsVoume12014TeCourtoAppealSecond.Dist.Div.OneheldthatFormLACIV15issucienttoconstituteasection170.6motionandthataxlingispermissiblebutthattheaxeddocumentmustbeaccompaniedbyprocessinginstructionsthatspeciywherethechallengeshouldbeirected.Becauseplaintisdidnotincludesuchprocessinginstructionsinthiscasethetrialcourtdidnotabuseitsdiscretionintreatingthehallengeasuntimely.LAATINCommonalityforclasscerticationexistswherehereisapatternorpracticeofemployeesworkingoff-the-clocktocompletedailytasks.Williamsv.uperiorourtAllstateInsuranceompany2013221al.App.4th1353Plaintiledanactionorunpaidovertimewagesonbehalohimselndothersimilarly-situatedAllstateautoinsuranceadjustorswhoarellegedlyrequiredtoworkotheclockatthebeginningoeachworkay.TetrialcourtoriginallycertiedtheclassbutthenpermittedAllstatetobrietheissueowhetherthecourtshouldde-certiythelassinlightotheUnitedStatesSupremeCourtsrulinginWal-MartStoresInc.v.Dukes2011131S.Ct.2541aclassactioncannotbemaintainedwheretheplaintisclaimsarebasedoncountlessindividualmploymentdecisionsandnotageneralpolicyodiscriminationthatouldserveastheglueholdingtheclasstogetherorthepurposesFederalRuleoCivilProcedure23scommonalityrequirement.Tetrialcourtthendecidedtode-certiytheclassinlightotheindividualizednatureoAllstatesarmativedeensethatnotalldjustersworkedotheclockandthatanyotheclocktimewasdeminimisandwithoutAllstatesknowledge.TeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.Eightheldthatthetrialcourtrredinde-certiyingtheclass.TecourtexplainedthatDukesdidnotpplybecauseitinvolvedaederalclassactionseekinginjunctivereliewhereasthiscaseinvolvedaCaliorniaclassactionseekingmonetaryelie.FurtherunlikeinDukestheplaintisclaimhereinvolvedaompanywidepolicyonotpayingovertimeorworkperormedbeoreheocialstartotheworkdaynotthesubjectiveemploymentdecisionscountlessindividualcompanymanagers.HerethegluebindingogethertheclassisthequestionowhetherAllstatehadapolicyonotpayingorotheclockworkaquestionamenabletoclasstreatment.Allstatesdeensesabouttheamountotimeanyadjustorsworkedoheclockrelatedtodamagesanddierencesindamagesareordinarilynotsucienttodeeatclasscertication.SeealsoJonesv.FarmersInsuranceExchange2013221Cal.App.4th986reversingdenialoclasscerticationbecausetrialcourtimproperlyocusedonindividualissuesconcerningtherighttorecoverdamagesratherthanevaluatingwhetherthetheoryorecoverywasamenabletoclasstreatmentplaintistheoryorecoverybasedontheexistenceoauniormpolicydenyingcompensationorpreshifworkpresentedpredominantlycommonissuesoactandlawappropriateorclasstreatment.SeealsoMartinezv.JoesCrabShackHoldings2013221Cal.App.4th1148ReviewGrantedandHeldFebruary192014pendingDuranv.U.S.BankNationalAssn.S200923reversingtrialcourtdenialocerticationoclassosalariedmanagerialemployeeswhoclaimedthattheyhadbeenmisclassiedasexemptandwereentitledtoovertimepayideendantspoliciesasimplementedacrossCaliorniaresultedinmanagerialemployeesbeingundercompensatedorperormingexemptworkclassreliesappropriateevenitherewereindividualdisputedissuesoactrelatintotheamountotimespentbyindividualclassmembersonarticulartasks.Whetherlocalcontroversyexceptiontolassctonarnessctursctonappesmusteedonevidenceorclerinferencefromtheclassdenitionnotguesswork.Mondraonv.apitalneAutoFinanc9thir.2013__F.3d.__TeplaintibroughtsuitonbehaloaclassopersonswhopurchasedorregisteredvehiclesinCaliorniaintheouryearsbeorethesuitwasled.TedeendantsremovedthecasetoederalcourtundertheClassActionFairnessActo2005andtheplaintimovedtoremandonthebasisothelocalcontroversyexceptionwhichprovidesorremandiatleasttwo-thirdsotheclassmembersarecitizensotheorumstate.Tedistrictcourtgrantedthemotiontoremand.TeNinthCircuitreversedholdinthattheplaintiailedtomeethisburdentoshowthelocalcontroversyexceptionapplied.Tecourtrejectedtheplaintisarumentthatthecourtcouldinerthatatleasttwo-thirdsotheclassmemberswereCaliorniansromthedenitionotheclass.TecourtheldthatapureinerencereardinthecitizenshipoprospectiveclassmembersmaybesucienttoestablishthelocalcontroversyexceptionitheclassisdenedaslimitedtocitizensothestateinquestionbuttherewasnosuchclassdenitionheretherecouldbemanyreasonspeoplewhopurchasedorreisteredvehiclesinCaliorniaovertherelevantperiodwerenotCaliorniansatthetimeorhavesincemoved.Tusplaintihadtomeetitsburdeniburdenoroobypresentinsomeevidenceotheclassmemberscitizenshipinordertoprevailonitsremandmotion.Tecourtremandedthecaseorurtherproceedinsonthejurisdictionalissue.EVIDENEIftherecordetblihedintheditrictcourtisufcientanappellatecourthasauthoritytomeauertndings.EstateofBarabinv.AstenJohnsonInc.9thir.2014_.3_Ajuryawardedtheplaintisome10millionindamagesorhisersonalinjuryclaimsarisinghisallegedexposuretoasbestosromdryereltsprovidedbydeendants.Teplaintiscaserestedonthetestimonyotwoexpertswhoopinedthateveryexposuretoasbestoscouldcauseesothelioma.Tedistrictcourtallowedplaintisexpertstotestiyoverdeendantsobjections.Tedistrictcourtrecognizedthedivideamongcourtsandscientistsoverwhethertheeveryexposuretheorywasrelevantbutdecidedthatthetheorycouldgotothejuryinthenterestoallowingeachpartytotryitscase.TedeendantsappealedarguingthatthetrialcourtsailuretomakendingsabouttherelevanceandreliabilityotheexperttestimonyunderFederalRuleoEvidence702andDauberwasanabuseodiscretion.TeenbancpanelotheNinthCircuitagreedwiththedeendantsthatthedistrictcourterredbyabdicatingitsroleasgatekeeperandallowingthetestimonytogotothejurywithouthavingmadethresholdndingsorelevanceandreliability.Teenbanccourtheldthatthemproperadmissionoplaintisexpertstestimonywasprejudicialbecausetheeveryexposuretheorywascriticaltotheplaintiscase.InreversingtheNinthCircuitconsideredthedeendantsargumentthatontinuedromaeiiicontnueonpagev Volume12014verdictgreensheetsvthereviewingcourtshouldhaveauthoritytomakeDaubertndingsitsel.OverrulingMukhtarv.CaliforniaStateUniversity299F.3d10531066n.129thCir.2002amendedby319F.3d10739thCir.2003theNinthCircuitagreedthatareviewingcourthastheauthoritytomakeDaubertndingsitseliitdecidestherecordissucienttodeterminewhetherexperttestimonyisrelevantandreliable.Terecordinthiscasewasnotsucientlyclearhoweversothecourtremandedoranewtrial.LABORANDEMPLOYMENTLocationofnewjobisafactorthejurymayconsiderindeterminingwhethernewjobisinferiorformitigationofdamagespurposes.Villacortav.CemexCementInc.2013221Cal.App.4th1425Inthiswrongulterminationsuittheplaintiwasunemployedoreightmonthsaferlosinghisjobwiththedeendantatwhichpointhetookanotherjob.Tenewjobhadslightlybetterpaybutwaslocatedsoarromtheplaintishomethathehadtorentanapartmentandnotseehimamilyduringtheweek.Tejuryoundortheplaintiandawarded198000indamagesorlostsalary.Tedeendantarguedinamotionorjudgmentnotwithstandingtheverdictthatthedamagesawardwasunsupportedbytheevidencebecauseplaintislostsalaryortheeightmonthshewasunemployedwasonly44000.Teplaintiarguedthathewasnotlimitedtoseekingdamagesorthetimehewasunemployedbecausehisnewjobwasnotcomparabletohisoldjobinlightothedistanceobetweenhisnewjobandhishomeandamily.TetrialcourtdeniedJNOV.TeCourtoAppealFourthDist.Div.woarmedthejuryverdict.Tecourtrecitedtherulethatwagesromanewbutineriorjobcannotbeusedtomitigatedamagesandnotedthatthelocationoanewjobisoneotheactorstoconsiderindeterminingwhetheranewjobisinerior.Teplaintisevidencethattakingthenewjobrequiredhimtoassumetheburdensorentingasecondresidenceandnotseeinghisamilyduringtheweekwassucienttosupportthejurysndingthatthenewjobwasinerior.Allegationthatemployersfailuretopayforemployeeswork-relatedautoexpensesrenderedsalarybelowminimumwagecouldstateaclaimforwrongfuldischarge.Vasquezv.FranklinManagementRealEstateFundInc.2014222Cal.App.4th819AnemployeeworkingasanapartmentmaintenancetechnicianbroughtsuitagainsthisemployerorviolationoLaborCode2802allegingthattheemployerrequiredtheemployeetodosignicantdrivingorworkinhispersonalvehiclewithoutgettingreimbursedormileageandgasoline.Teemployeeallegedthathewasorcedtoresignbecausehecouldnotaordtheuelandmaintenancecostsonhis10.00perhoursalaryandstillaordhisbasiclivingexpenses.Teemployeeassertedclaimsorconstructivedischargeandintentionalinictionoemotionaldistress.TeemployerdemurredonthegroundsthattheailuretoreimburseoruelandmileagewasnotsucientlyintolerableandoutrageoustosupportconstructivedischargeandIIEDclaims.Tetrialcourtsustainedthedemurrerswithleavetoamendtheconstructivedischargeclaim.Teemployeeamendedhiscomplainttoincludecalculationsshowingthathissalaryafervehicleexpenseswaslessthantheminimumwagebuthedidnotspecicallyallegethattheeectotheno-reimbursementpolicywasthathereceivedlessthanminimumwage.Teemployerdemurredagainandthetrialcourtsustainedthedemurrerwithoutleavetoamendndingthattheailuretoreimbursemileageandpayorgaswasnotsointolerablethatitorcedtheemployeetoresign.TeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.Fourheldthattheemployeeshouldhavebeengivenleavetoamend.TecourtconcludedthatCaliorniasminimumwagelawrepresentsaundamentalpolicyorpurposesoaclaimorwrongulterminationorconstructivedischargeinviolationopublicpolicy.Allegationsthattheemployeeswork-relatedvehicleexpensesweresohighincomparisonwithhiswagesastodeprivehimotheprotectionothewage-and-hourlawsandhisabilitytopaybasiclivingexpenseswouldhavebeensucienttostateaconstructivedischargeclaim.TecourtarmeddismissalotheIIEDclaim.TORTSEmployerdoesnothavepreconceptiondutyofcaretochildofemployeewhowasexposedtochemicals.Elsherefv.AppliedMaterialsInc.2014451Cal.App.4th223Aathermotherandchildsuedtheathersemployerbecausethechildwasbornwithbirthdeectsasaresultoathersexposuretotoxicchemicalsatwork.Tetrialcourtgrantedsummaryadjudicationinavorotheemployeronthegroundthattheemployerdidnotoweapreconceptiondutyocare.TeCourtoAppealSixthDist.heldthattheemployerdidnotoweapreconceptiondutyocaretopreventthechildsinjuries.TeCourtoAppealexplainedthatapreconceptiondutyocarehaspreviouslybeenoundtoexistonlywithrespecttomedicalproessionalsandproductmanuacturers.ApplyingtheRowlandactorsthecourtheldthattheemployerdidnothaveapreconceptiondutyocareundertheactsothiscaseasimposingsuchadutywouldextendpossibleliabilitybeyondreasonableboundsandimposesignicantburdensonthecommunity.Tecourtalsoheldhoweverthattheplaintisclaimorstrictproductsliabilitywasviableonthecourtsassumptionthatdutyisnotaconceptusedtodelineatethescopeoastrictliabilitytheory.ButseecontraryCaliorniaSupremeCourtauthoritiese.g.ONeilv.CraneCo.201253Cal.4th335362instrictliabilityasinnegligenceoreseeabilityaloneisnotsucienttocreateanindependenttortdutycitingErlichv.Menezes199921Cal.4th543552Johnsonv.AmericanStandardInc.200843Cal.4th5670discussingpolicyreasonsoradoptingsophisticateduserdeensepremisedonthelackoanydutytowarninnegligenceandstrictliabilityclaims.Adoctorcanofferevidencethattheplaintiffsdeathwascausedbyhospitalequipmentfailureandnothisconducteventhoughthehospitalhasbeennonsuited.Lealv.Mansour2013221Cal.App.4th638Tiswasawronguldeathactionagainstadoctorandahospitalwhosepatientdiedrompost-surgicalcomplications.Plaintistheorywasthatthehospitalwasnegligentinailingtoensurethatthepatientsventilatorwasunctioningandthatthedoctorwasnegligentinprovidingpost-surgicaltreatment.Atthecloseoplaintiscasethehospitalmovedoranonsuitinlightoplaintisailuretopresentevidenceonegligencewithrespecttooperationotheventilatorandthatmotionwasgranted.continuedonpagevicontinuedfrompageivVoume12014erictgreenseetshereviewingcourtshouldhaveauthoritytomakeDaubertndingsitsel.OverrulingMukhtarv.CaliforniaStateUniversity299F.3d10531066n.129thCir.2002amendedby319F.3d10739thCir.2003theNinthCircuitagreedthatareviewingcourthastheauthorityomakeDauberndingsitseliitdecidestherecordissucienttoeterminewhetherexperttestimonyisrelevantandreliable.Terecordinthiscasewasnotsucientlyclearhoweversothecourtremandedornewtrial.LABRANDEMPLYMENTLocationofnewobisafactortheurymayconsernetermnngweternewosinferiorformitigationofdamagespurposes.Villacortav.emexementInc.2013221al.App.4th1425Inthiswrongulterminationsuittheplaintiwasunemployedorightmonthsaferlosinghisjobwiththedeendantatwhichpointheookanotherjob.Tenewjobhadslightlybetterpaybutwaslocatedsoarromtheplaintishomethathehadtorentanapartmentandnotseehimamilyduringtheweek.Tejuryoundortheplaintiandwarded198000indamagesorlostsalary.Tedeendantarguedinmotionorjudgmentnotwithstandingtheverdictthatthedamageswardwasunsupportedbytheevidencebecauseplaintislostsalaryorheeightmonthshewasunemployedwasonly44000.Teplaintirguedthathewasnotlimitedtoseekingdamagesorthetimehewasnemployedbecausehisnewjobwasnotcomparabletohisoldjobinlightothedistanceobetweenhisnewjobandhishomeandamily.TetrialcourtdeniedJNOV.TeCourtoAppealFourthDist.Div.woarmedthejuryverdict.Tecourtrecitedtherulethatwagesromanewbutineriorjobcannoteusedtomitigatedamagesandnotedthatthelocationoanewjobisoneotheactorstoconsiderindeterminingwhetheranewjobisinerior.Teplaintisevidencethattakingthenewjobrequiredhimoassumetheburdensorentingasecondresidenceandnotseeinghisamilyduringtheweekwassucienttosupportthejurysndingthathenewjobwasinerior.Allegationthatemployersfailuretopayforemloeeswork-relatedautoexensesrenderedsaareowmnmumwaecoustateacamforwronfuldischare.asquezv.rannanaementeastateunnc.2014222al.A.4th819AnemployeeworkingasanapartmentmaintenancetechnicianbroughtsuitagainsthisemployerorviolationoLaborCode2802alleginghattheemployerrequiredtheemployeetodosignicantdrivingorworkinhispersonalvehiclewithoutgettingreimbursedormileagendgasoline.Teemployeeallegedthathewasorcedtoresignbecausehecouldnotaordtheuelandmaintenancecostsonhis10.00perhoursalaryandstillaordhisbasiclivingexpenses.Teemployeessertedclaimsorconstructivedischargeandintentionalinictionomotionaldistress.TeemployerdemurredonthegroundsthattheailuretoreimburseoruelandmileagewasnotsucientlyintolerablendoutrageoustosupportconstructivedischargeandIIEDclaims.Terialcourtsustainedthedemurrerswithleavetoamendtheconstructiveischargeclaim.Teemployeeamendedhiscomplainttoincludealculationsshowingthathissalaryafervehicleexpenseswaslessthanheminimumwagebuthedidnotspecicallyallegethattheeectoheno-reimbursementpolicywasthathereceivedlessthanminimumwae.Teemployerdemurredaainandthetrialcourtsustainedthedemurrerwithoutleavetoamendndinthattheailuretoreimburseileaeandpayoraswasnotsointolerablethatitorcedtheemployeetoresign.TeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.Fourheldthattheemployeeshouldhavebeengivenleavetoamend.TecourtconcludedthatCaliorniasminimumwagelawrepresentsaundamentalpolicyorurposesoaclaimorwrongulterminationorconstructivedischargenviolationopublicpolicy.Allegationsthattheemployeeswork-relatedvehicleexpensesweresohighincomparisonwithhiswagesastodeprivehimotheprotectionothewage-and-hourlawsandhisabilitytopaybasiclivingexpenseswouldhavebeensucienttostateaconstructivedischargeclaim.TecourtarmeddismissalotheIIEDclaim.TRTEmployerdoesnothavepreconceptiondutyofaretochildofemployeewhowasexposedtoemc.Elsherefv.AliedMaterialsInc.2014451al.App.4th223Aathermotherandchildsuedtheathersemployerbecausethechildwasbornwithbirthdeectsasaresultoathersexposuretotoxicchemicalsatwork.Tetrialcourtrantedsummaryadjudicationinavorotheemployerontheroundthattheemployerdidnotoweareconceptiondutyocare.TeCourtoAppealSixthDist.heldthattheemployerdidnotoweareconceptiondutyocaretopreventthechildsinjuries.TeCourtoAppealexplainedthatapreconceptiondutyocarehaspreviouslybeenoundtoexistonlywithrespecttomedicalproessionalsandproductanuacturers.ApplyintheRowlandactorsthecourtheldthattheemployerdidnothaveapreconceptiondutyocareundertheactsothiscaseasimposinsuchadutywouldextendpossibleliabilitybeyondreasonableboundsandimposesinicantburdensonthecommunity.Tecourtalsoheldhoweverthattheplaintisclaimorstrictproductsliabilitywasviableonthecourtsassumptionthatdutyisnotaconceptusedtodelineatethescopeoastrictliabilitytheory.ButseecontraryCaliorniaSupremeCourtauthoritiese..ONeilv.CraneCo.201253Cal.4th335362instrictliabilityasinnelienceoreseeabilityaloneisnotsucienttocreateanindependenttortdutycitingErlichv.enezes199921Cal.4th543552Johnsonv.AmericanStandardInc.200843Cal.4th5670discussingpolicyreasonsoradoptingsophisticateduserdeensepremisedonthelackoanydutytowarninnegligenceandstrictliabilityclaims.Adoctorcanofferevidencethatthelaintiffsdeathwascausedbhositaleuimentfailureannotsconucteventouteostaaseennonute.eav.ansour2013221al.A.4th638Tiswasawronguldeathactionagainstadoctorandahospitalwhoseatientdiedrompost-surgicalcomplications.Plaintistheorywasthatthehospitalwasnegligentinailingtoensurethatthepatientsventilatorwasunctioningandthatthedoctorwasnegligentinprovidingpost-surgicaltreatment.Atthecloseoplaintiscasethehospitalmovedoranonsuitinlightoplaintisailuretopresentevidenceonegligencewithrespecttooperationotheventilatorandthatmotionwasgranted.contnueonpagevontinuedromaeiv viverdictgreensheetsVolume12014Duringthedeensecasethedoctorstheoryothecasewasthatheprovidedpropercarebuttheventilatormalunctioned.Tecaseagainstthedoctorwenttothejuryandthejuryreturnedaverdictinavorothedoctoronthegroundthathisnegligencewasnotasubstantialactorthatledtothepatientsdeath.TeplaintisappealedarguingthetrialcourtviolatedCodeoCivilProceduresection581csubdivisiondwhichprohibitsadeendantrommakingcommentontheaultoanabsenttorteasorwhohaspreviouslyobtainedanadjudicationonthemeritsbypermittingthedoctortoarguethatthedecedentsdeathwascausedbyaaultyventilatorandnothisnegligence.Tedoctorrespondedthathedidnotseektoattributeanyaulttothehospitalratherheonlysoughttoexplainwhatcausedthepatientsdeathandwhythatwasnothisault.TeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.Eightoundnoerror.Tecourtheldthatsection581csubdivisionddoesnotprecludeadeendantromarguingandpresentingevidencethateventsandequipmentthatmayhavebeenunderthecontroloanabsenttorteasorcausedaplaintisinjuriesratherthanthedeendantsnegligence.Tecourtexplainedthatsection581csubdivisiondwasintendedtopreventthebadaithpracticeorelyingonadismisseddeendanttoconusethejuryandattempttoavoidliabilityoronesownwrongdoingtheso-calledemptychairdeensenottopreventadeendantrompresentingingoodaithrelevantevidencerelatedtoacausativeactororwhichthereisnoculpableparty.Absentabasisforaproductmanufacturertohavebelievedthattheultimateuserswouldknowoftherisksthemanufacturermaynotrelyonasophisticatedintermediaryuserdefense.Pfeiferv.JohnCraneInc.2013221Cal.App.4th1270Inthisasbestoscasetheplainticlaimedtohavebeenexposedtothedeendantsasbestos-containingproductswhileworkingortheNavyinthe1960sand1970s.Tedeendantsoughtajuryinstructionthatitcouldnotbeliableorailuretowarntheplaintiothedangersoasbestos-containingproductsitsuppliedtotheNavybecausetheNavywasasophisticateduserthatknewotherisksoasbestos.Tetrialcourtdeclinedtogivethissophisticatedintermediaryuserinstructionandthejuryreturnedaverdictortheplainti.TeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.Fourarmedthetrialcourtsreusaltogivethedeendantsrequestedinstruction.TecourtheldthatthesophisticationoanintermediarytheNavyinthiscasedoesnotasamatterolawoperatetoprecludethesuppliersliabilityorailuretowarntheultimateendusersotheproductabouttheproductsdangers.oavoidliabilitybasedonasophisticatedintermediaryuserdeensethesuppliermusthavesomebasisorbelievingthattheintermediarywouldprotecttheultimateuserandtheusersstatusasanemployeeotheintermediaryisnotaloneasucientbasisorsuchabelie.TequestionothescopeothesophisticateduserpurchaserintermediarydoctrineisnowpendingbeoretheCaliorniaSupremeCourtWebbvSpecialElectriccaseno.S209927sothiscasewouldhavebeenastrongcandidateoragrant-and-holdordervacatingtheopinionascitableprecedentbutthedeendantinPeiferchosenottoseekreview.Deensecounselattrialshouldpreserveallargumentsthatthisopinionwaswronglydecided.SeealsoBucknerv.MilwaukeeElectricToolCorporation2013222Cal.App.4th522upholdingtrialcourtdecisiontograntanewtrialbasedoninsuciencyoevidencetosupportadeenseverdictonsophisticateduserdeensetherewasnoevidencethatplaintiahandymannotalicensedcontractorknewthatuseodeendantsverypoweruldrillwithoutasidehandlewasdangerous.Parentcompanymaybeliablefortortiousinterferencewithitssubsidiaryscontracts.AsahiKaseiPharmaCorporationv.ActelionLtdetal.2014222Cal.App.4th945AsahiKaseiPharmaCorporationenteredintoalicensingagreementwithCo-TerixInc.inordertodevelopandcommercializemedicalproductstotreatcardiovasculardisease.ActelionLtd.acompetitorpharmaceuticalcompanyanddominantmarketorcesubsequentlyacquiredthestockoCo-TerixandcausedittoterminatedevelopmentoAshahisproducts.AsahisuedActelionandseveraloitsmanagersorintentionalintererencewithcontract.ActelionsoughtsummaryadjudicationthatitanditshighlevelmanagerswereimmuneromsuitorintentionalintererencebecauseActelionhadanownershipinterestinCo-TerixandthereorecouldnotbechargedwithintereringwithCo-Terixscontract.Tetrialcourtdeniedsummaryadjudication.Actelionmadesimilarargumentswithrespecttohowthejuryshouldbeinstructedontheintererenceclaimandreneweditsargumentsagaininpost-trialmotions.TetrialcourtrejectedActelionspositionthatitwasimmuneromtheintererenceclaimasamatterolawateachjuncture.TeCourtoAppealFirstDist.Div.FivearmedthetrialcourtsrulingsthatActelionwasnotimmuneromthetortiousintererenceclaimasamatterolaw.ActelionhadtakenthepositionthatnocontractexistedbetweenitandAsahiandthatitdidnotassumeCo-Terixscontract.RatherActelionreliedonlyonitseconomicinterestinthecontractresultingromitsownershipinterestinCo-Terix.TecourtrejectedActelionsargumentorextendingimmunitytothosewhohavemerelyaneconomicinterestinthecontractwithoutbeingpartytothecontract.AccordinglyActelioncouldbeheldliableorintereringwiththecontract.PROFESSIONALRESPONSIBILITYAnattorneywhorepresentsbothanemployeeandtheemployermaybeliabletotheemployeeformalpracticeandbreachofduciarydutyforfailingtoprotectemployeefromgettingred.Yanezv.Plummer2013221Cal.App.4th180MichaelYaneztheplaintiinthiscasewasawitnesstoanon-the-jobinjurysueredbyBobyGarciaYanezsco-employeeatUnionPacicRailroadCompany.AfertheaccidentYanezgaveastatementsayingthathesawBobyslipalldown.GarciasuedUnionPacic.BrianPlummerrepresentedbothUnionPacicandYanezinconnectionwithYanezsdepositioninGarciassuit.WhilepreparingorYanezsdepositionYanezexpressedconcernaboutbeingdeposedbecauseheearedthathistestimonywouldbeunavorabletoUnionPacicandthathemightthereorelosehisjob.PlummerconrmedthataslongasYaneztoldthetruthhisjobwouldbeunaected.PlummerconrmedthatYanezdidnotactuallyseeGarciaall.PlummerdidnotprepareYanezonthetopicowhyhisearlierstatementwasdierent.DuringthedepositionYaneztestiedthathedidnotseeGaricaall.InacursorypartotheexaminationYanezsaidthathisearlierstatementcontinuedfrompagevcontinuedonpageviiierictgreenseetsVoume12014Duringthedeensecasethedoctorstheoryothecasewasthatheprovidedpropercarebuttheventilatormalunctioned.Tecaseagainsthedoctorwenttothejuryandthejuryreturnedaverdictinavorotheoctoronthegroundthathisnegligencewasnotasubstantialactorthatledtothepatientsdeath.TeplaintisappealedarguingthetrialcourtviolatedCodeoCivilProceduresection581csubdivisiondwhichprohibitsadeendantrommakingcommentontheaultoanabsentorteasorwhohaspreviouslyobtainedanadjudicationonthemeritsbypermittingthedoctortoarguethatthedecedentsdeathwascausedbyaaultyventilatorandnothisnegligence.Tedoctorrespondedthatheidnotseektoattributeanyaulttothehospitalratherheonlysoughtoexplainwhatcausedthepatientsdeathandwhythatwasnothisault.TeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.Eightoundnoerror.Teourtheldthatsection581csubdivisionddoesnotprecludeaeendantromarguingandpresentingevidencethateventsandquipmentthatmayhavebeenunderthecontroloanabsenttorteasorausedaplaintisinjuriesratherthanthedeendantsnegligence.Teourtexplainedthatsection581csubdivisiondwasintendedtopreventthebadaithpracticeorelyingonadismisseddeendanttoonusethejuryandattempttoavoidliabilityoronesownwrongdoingheso-calledemptychairdeensenottopreventadeendantrompresentingingoodaithrelevantevidencerelatedtoacausativeactororwhichthereisnoculpableparty.Absentabasisforaroductmanufacturertovvmrwnwoftherisksthemanufacturermaynotrelyonasophisticatedintermediaryuserdefense.Pfeiferv.JohnraneInc.2013221al.App.4th1270Inthisasbestoscasetheplainticlaimedtohavebeenexposedtotheeendantsasbestos-containingproductswhileworkingortheNavyinthe1960sand1970s.Tedeendantsoughtajuryinstructionthatitcouldnotbeliableorailuretowarntheplaintiothedangersosbestos-containingproductsitsuppliedtotheNavybecausetheNavywasasophisticateduserthatknewotherisksoasbestos.Tetrialourtdeclinedtogivethissophisticatedintermediaryuserinstructionndthejuryreturnedaverdictortheplainti.TeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.Fourarmedthetrialcourtseusaltogivethedeendantsrequestedinstruction.TecourtheldthathesophisticationoanintermediarytheNavyinthiscasedoesnotasmatterolawoperatetoprecludethesuppliersliabilityorailuretowarntheultimateendusersotheproductabouttheproductsdangers.oavoidliabilitybasedonasophisticatedintermediaryuserdeensethesuppliermusthavesomebasisorbelievingthattheintermediarywouldprotecttheultimateuserandtheusersstatusasanemployeeotheintermediaryisnotaloneasucientbasisorsuchabelie.TequestionothescopeothesophisticateduserpurchaserintermediarydoctrineisnowpendingbeoretheCaliorniaSupremeCourtWebbvSpecialElectriccaseno.S209927sothiscasewouldhavebeenastrongcandidateoragrant-and-holdordervacatingthepinionascitableprecedentbutthedeendantinPeiferchosenottoseekreview.Deensecounselattrialshouldpreserveallargumentsthathisopinionwaswronglydecided.Seelsoucknerv.MilwaukeeElectricToolCorporation2013222Cal.App.4th522upholdintrialcourtdecisiontorantanewtrialbasedoninsuciencyoevidencetosupportadeenseverdictonsophisticateduserdeensetherewasnoevidencethatplaintiaandymannotalicensedcontractorknewthatuseodeendantsverypoweruldrillwithoutasidehandlewasdangerous.Parentcompanymaybeliablefortortiousinterferencewithitssubsidiaryscontracts.AsahiKaseiPharmaororationv.ActelionLtdetal.2014222al.A.4th945AsahiKaseiPharmaCorporationenteredintoalicensingagreementwithCo-TerixInc.inordertodevelopandcommercializemedicalroductstotreatcardiovasculardisease.ActelionLtd.acompetitorharmaceuticalcompanyanddominantmarketorcesubsequentlyacquiredthestockoCo-TerixandcausedittoterminatedevelopmentoAshahisproducts.AsahisuedActelionandseveraloitsmanagersorintentionalintererencewithcontract.ActelionsoughtsummaryadjudicationthatitanditshihlevelmanaerswereimmuneromsuitorintentionalintererencebecauseActelionhadanownershipinterestnCo-TerixandthereorecouldnotbecharedwithintererinwithCo-Terixscontract.Tetrialcourtdeniedsummaryadjudication.Actelionmadesimilararumentswithrespecttohowthejuryshouldbenstructedontheintererenceclaimandreneweditsarumentsaaininost-trialmotions.TetrialcourtrejectedActelionspositionthatitwasmmuneromtheintererenceclaimasamatterolawateachjuncture.TeCourtoAppealFirstDist.Div.FivearmedthetrialcourtsrulinsthatActelionwasnotimmuneromthetortiousintererenceclaimasamatterolaw.ActelionhadtakenthepositionthatnocontractexistedbetweenitandAsahiandthatitdidnotassumeCo-Terixscontract.RatherActelionreliedonlyonitseconomicinterestnthecontractresultinromitsownershipinterestinCo-Terix.TecourtrejectedActelionsarumentorextendinimmunitytothosewhoavemerelyaneconomicinterestinthecontractwithoutbeinpartytothecontract.AccordinlyActelioncouldbeheldliableorintererinwiththecontract.PRFEINALREPNIBILITYnattorneworeresentsotanemoeeanteemoermaeaetoteemloeeformalracticeandbreachofduciarydutyforfailingtoprotectemployeefromgettingred.nzv.mm2013221al.A.4th180MichaelYaneztheplaintiinthiscasewasawitnesstoanon-the-jobnjurysueredbyBobyGarciaYanezsco-employeeatUnionPacicRailroadCompany.AfertheaccidentYanezgaveastatementsayingthathesawBobyslipalldown.GarciasuedUnionPacic.BrianPlummerrepresentedbothUnionPacicandYanezinconnectionwithYanezsdepositioninGarciassuit.WhilepreparingorYanezsdepositionYanezexpressedconcernaboutbeingdeposedbecauseheearedthathistestimonywouldbeunavorabletoUnionPacicandthathemightthereorelosehisjob.PlummerconrmedthataslongasYaneztoldthetruthhisjobwouldbeunaected.PlummerconrmedthatYanezdidnotactuallyseeGarciaall.PlummerdidnotprepareYanezonthetopicowhyhisearlierstatementwasdierent.DuringthedepositionYaneztestiedthathedidnotseeGaricaall.InacursorypartotheexaminationYanezsaidthathisearlierstatementontinuedromaevcontnueonpagev Volume12014verdictgreensheetsviiwaswordedwrong.AUnionPacicdirectorattendedthedepositionandnoticedtheinconsistencybetweenYanezsdepositiontestimonyandtheearlierstatement.TeinconsistencyledtodisciplinaryproceedingsagainstYanezconcludinginhistermination.YanezsuedPlummerormalpracticeandbreachoduciaryduty.TetrialcourtgrantedsummaryjudgmentorPlummeronthegroundthatYanezcouldnotestablishcausationandYanezappealed.TeCourtoAppealTirdDist.reversed.TecourtexplainedthatYanezandUnionPacichadadverseinterestsbecauseYanezstestimonywaspotentiallyharmultoUnionPacicbutthatPlummerundertooktorepresentbothinthedepositionwithoutinormedconsent.PlummeralsoailedtoprotectYanezbygivinghimtheopportunitytoexplainanydiscrepancybetweenhisearlierstatementandhisdepositiontestimonyregardingwhetherheactuallysawGarciaall.UndertheseactstherewasatriableissueastowhetherPlummersmalpracticeandbreachoduciarydutywasasubstantialactorresultinginYanezstermination.TeYanezcourtocusedontheattorneydeendantsbreachoethicaldutiesbutdidnotocsoncausationi.e.howtheplaintiwillbeabletoprovethatbutortheattorneysadvicetheplainticouldhavetoldthetruthwhentestiyingandobtainedabetterresultnotbeingred.ATTORNEYFEESANDCOSTSAnon-partyisentitledtorecoveritscostsofcomplyingwithasubpoenaifthosecostsaresignifcant.LegalVoicev.StormansInc.9thCir.2013__F.3d__Plaintischallengingcertainregulationsrelatedtodrugprescriptionsservedasubpoenadeucestecumtoobtainamongotherthingscommunicationsbetweenanadvocacygroupandthegovernmentabouttheregulations.Tedistrictcourtdeniedtheadvocacysgroupsrequesttohavethecostsocomplianceshifedtotheplaintisbecauseitdeterminedthatthecostocompliancewouldnotbeoverlyburdensome.TeNinthCircuitheldthatthedistrictcourterredinapplyingtheoverlyburdensomestandard.RatherFederalRuleoCivilProcedure45d2Biirequiresadistrictcourttoshifanon-partyscostsocompliancewithasubpoenatothepropoundingpartyithosecostsaresignicant.Inthiscasetheadvocacygroupscostocompliancewere20000whichwassignicantandentitledtheadvocacygrouptohavethecostsallocatedtotheplaintis.AsathresholddeterminationtheNinthCircuitalsoheldthatanon-partyisnotlimitedtoappealingtheinterlocutoryorderwithin30daysoitsentryitmayappealaninterlocutoryorderwithin30daysaferentryonaljudgmenttothesameextentthatapartymayappealsuchanorder.Tustheadvocacygroupsappealothedenialocoststakenaferentryojudgmentwastimely.Whenaplaintiffdismisseshissuitinresponsetoananti-SLAPPmotiondefendantsarenotentitledtoattorneyfeesunlesstheywouldhaveprevailedonthemeritsofthemotion.Tourgemanv.NelsonKennard2014222Cal.App.4th1447TeplaintiledaclassactionundertheUnairCompetitionLawseekingtoenjoindeendantsromengaginginallegedviolationsotheFairDebtCollectionsPracticesAct.Tedeendantsledananti-SLAPPmotionandtheplaintidismissedhissuitinresponse.Tedeendantsthensoughtanawardoattorneyeesincurredinconnectionwiththeanti-SLAPPmotion.Tetrialcourtawardedattorneyeesagainsttheplainti.TeplaintiappealedtheeeawardandtheCourtoAppealFourthDist.Div.Onereversed.Tecourtheldthattheplaintislawsuitwhichsoughtonlyinjunctiverelietobenetthepublicandnogreaterrelieortheplaintihimselwouldhavequaliedorthepublicinterestexceptiontotheanti-SLAPPstatute.Accordinglythecourtheldthatthetrialcourterredinawardingattorneyeestodeendantsbecausetheywouldnothaveprevailedontheiranti-SLAPPmotion.CASESPENDINGINTHECALIFORNIASUPREMECOURTAddressingwhetheratrialcourtmayawardattorneyfeestoaprevailingdefendantundertheanti-SLAPPstatutewherethetrialcourtlacksjurisdictionoverplaintiffscase.Barryv.StateBarofCaliforniaCaseNo.S14058formerlypublishedat2013218Cal.App.4th1435.AnattorneyledsuitagainsttheStateBarseekingtosetasideastipulationthathadresolveddisciplinarychargesagainsther.TeStateBarmovedtostriketheplaintiscomplaintarguingthattheattorneydisciplinaryproceedingswereprotectedactivities.TetrialcourtoundthatitlackedsubjectmatterjurisdictiontoadjudicateplaintisclaimsarisingoutoStateBardisciplinaryproceedingsandawardedtheStateBarattorneyeesundertheanti-SLAPPstatuteCodeoCivilProceduresection425.16subdivisionc.TeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.woreversedtheeeawardholdingthatthetrialcourtlackedsubjectmatterjurisdictionovertheentirecaseandthereoredidnotevenhavepowertoawardattorneyeesundertheanti-SLAPPstatute.TeSupremeCourtgrantedreviewonNovember262013toaddressthisquestionIthetrialcourtgrantsaspecialmotiontostrikeunderCodeoCivilProceduresection425.16onthegroundthattheplaintihasnoprobabilityoprevailingonthemeritsbecausethecourtlackssubjectmatterjurisdictionovertheunderlyingdisputedoesthecourthavetheauthoritytoawardtheprevailingpartytheattorneyeesmandatedbysection425.16subdivisioncAddressingwhetherBrandtfeesawardedbythetrialcourtshouldbeconsideredaspartofcompensatorydamagesforpurposesofcalculatingapunitivedamagesratio.Nickersonv.StonebridgeLifeInsuranceCompanyCaseNo.S213873formerlypublishedas2013219Cal.App.4th188Teplaintiaparaplegicwhohadallenromhiswheelchairandsueredabrokenlegollowedbyvariouscomplicationswashospitalizedor109days.Hehadinsurancecoverageorsuchhospitalstaysandledaclaimwhichtheinsurerreusedtopayonthegroundsthattheneedorsuchanextendedstaywasunsubstantiated.Teplaintisuedandthejuryreturnedaverdictndingthattheinsurerbreachedthecontractandactedinbadaith.Tejuryawarded35000orbreachotheimpliedcovenantand19millioninpunitivedamages.Inadditionthetrialcourtawarded31500inunpaidbenetsandafertheverdictcontinuedfrompagevicontinuedonpageviiiVoume12014erictgreenseetsviiwaswordedwrong.AUnionPacicdirectorattendedthedepositionndnoticedtheinconsistencybetweenYanezsdepositiontestimonyandheearlierstatement.TeinconsistencyledtodisciplinaryproceedingsgainstYanezconcludinginhistermination.YanezsuedPlummerormalpracticeandbreachoduciaryduty.TetrialcourtgrantedsummaryjudgmentorPlummeronthegroundthatYanezcouldnotstablishcausationandYanezappealed.TeCourtoAppealTirdDist.reversed.TecourtexplainedhatYanezandUnionPacichadadverseinterestsbecauseYanezsestimonywaspotentiallyharmultoUnionPacicbutthatPlummerndertooktorepresentbothinthedepositionwithoutinormedonsent.PlummeralsoailedtoprotectYanezbygivinghimthepportunitytoexplainanydiscrepancybetweenhisearlierstatementndhisdepositiontestimonyregardingwhetherheactuallysawGarciaall.UndertheseactstherewasatriableissueastowhetherPlummersmalpracticeandbreachoduciarydutywasasubstantialactoresultinginYanezstermination.TeYanezcourtocusedontheattorneydeendantsbreachoethicalutiesbutdidnotocsoncausationi.e.howtheplaintiwillbeabletoprovethatbutortheattorneysadvicetheplainticouldhavetoldtheruthwhentestiyingandobtainedabetterresultnotbeingred.ATTRNEYFEEANDTAnon-partyisentitledtorecoveritscostsofcomplyingwithasubpoenaifthosecostsaresignifcant.LegalVoicev.tormansInc.9thir.2013__F.3d_Plaintischallengingcertainregulationsrelatedtodrugprescriptionsservedasubpoenadeucestecumtoobtainamongotherthingsommunicationsbetweenanadvocacygroupandthegovernmentbouttheregulations.Tedistrictcourtdeniedtheadvocacysroupsrequesttohavethecostsocomplianceshifedtotheplaintisecauseitdeterminedthatthecostocompliancewouldnotbeoverlyurdensome.TeNinthCircuitheldthatthedistrictcourterredinapplyingtheoverlyburdensomestandard.RatherFederalRuleoCivilProcedure45d2Biirequiresadistrictcourttoshifanon-partyscostsoompliancewithasubpoenatothepropoundingpartyithosecostsresignicant.Inthiscasetheadvocacygroupscostocompliancewere20000whichwassignicantandentitledtheadvocacygrouptohavethecostsallocatedtotheplaintis.AsathresholddeterminationheNinthCircuitalsoheldthatanon-partyisnotlimitedtoappealingheinterlocutoryorderwithin30daysoitsentryitmayappealaninterlocutoryorderwithin30daysaferentryonaljudgmenttothesameextentthatapartymayappealsuchanorder.Tustheadvocacyroupsappealothedenialocoststakenaferentryojudgmentwasimely.Whenalaintiffdismisseshissuitinresonseoananti-LAPPmotiondefendantsarenotentitledtoattornefeesunlessthewouldhaverevailedonthemeritsofthemotion.Touremanv.NelsonKennard2014222al.A.4th1447TeplaintiledaclassactionundertheUnairCompetitionLawseekingtoenjoindeendantsromengaginginallegedviolationsotheFairDebtCollectionsPracticesAct.Tedeendantsledananti-SLAPPmotionandtheplaintidismissedhissuitinresponse.Tedeendantsthensouhtanawardoattorneyeesincurredinconnectionwiththeanti-SLAPPmotion.Tetrialcourtawardedattorneyeesagainsttheplainti.TeplaintiappealedtheeeawardandtheCourtoAppealFourthDist.Div.Onereversed.Tecourtheldthattheplaintislawsuitwhichsoughtonlyinjunctiverelietobenetthepublicandnogreaterrelieortheplaintihimselwouldhavequaliedorthepublicinterestexceptiontotheanti-SLAPPstatute.Accordinglythecourtheldthatthetrialcourterredinawardingattorneyeestodeendantsbecausetheywouldnothaveprevailedontheiranti-SLAPPmotion.AEPENDININTHEALIFRNIAPREMERTressngweteratracourtmayawarattorneyfeestoaprevailingdefendantunderhenti-LAPPttutewherethetrilcourtlacksjurisdictionoverplaintiffscase.Barryv.tateBarofaliforniaaseNo.14058formerlyublishedat2013218al.App.4th1435.AnattorneyledsuitaainsttheStateBarseekintosetasideastipulationthathadresolveddisciplinarycharesaainsther.TeStateBarmovedtostriketheplaintiscomplaintaruinthattheattorneydisciplinaryproceedinswereprotectedactivities.TetrialcourtoundthatitlackedsubjectmatterjurisdictiontoadjudicateplaintisclaimsarisinoutoStateBardisciplinaryproceedinsandawardedtheStateBarattorneyeesundertheanti-SLAPPstatuteCodeoCivilProceduresection425.16subdivisionc.TeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.woreversedtheeeawardholdinthatthetrialcourtlackedsubjectatterjurisdictionovertheentirecaseandthereoredidnotevenhaveowertoawardattorneyeesundertheanti-SLAPPstatute.TeSupremeCourtrantedreviewonNovember262013toaddressthisquestionIthetrialcourtrantsaspecialmotiontostrikeunderCodeoCivilProceduresection425.16ontheroundthattheplaintiasnoprobabilityoprevailinonthemeritsbecausethecourtlackssubjectmatterjurisdictionovertheunderlyindisputedoesthecourtavetheauthoritytoawardtheprevailinpartytheattorneyeesandatedbysection425.16subdivisioncressnweterrnfeesawardedbetracourtsoueconsereasartofcomensatordamaesforurosesofcacuatnauntveamaesrato.Nickersonv.tonebrideLifeInsuranceompanNo.213873formerlublishedas2013219al..4t188Teplaintiaparaplegicwhohadallenromhiswheelchairandsueredabrokenlegollowedbyvariouscomplicationswashospitalizedor109days.Hehadinsurancecoverageorsuchhospitalstaysandledaclaimwhichtheinsurerreusedtopayonthegroundsthattheneedorsuchanextendedstaywasunsubstantiated.Teplaintisuedandthejuryreturnedaverdictndingthattheinsurerbreachedthecontractandactedinbadaith.Tejuryawarded35000orbreachotheimpliedcovenantand19millioninpunitivedamages.Inadditionthetrialcourtawarded31500inunpaidbenetsandafertheverdictontinuedromaevicontnueonpagev viiiverdictgreensheetsVolume12014another12500inattorneyeesunderBrandtv.SuperiorCourt198537Cal.3d813.Tetrialcourtconditionallygrantedtheinsurersmotionoranewtrialunlesstheplainticonsentedtohavethepunitivedamagesawardremittedto350000tentimesthecompensatorydamagesaward.TeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.Treearmedthetrialcourtsconditionalnewtrialorder.TeSupremeCourtgrantedreviewtodeterminewhetherwhencalculatingtheratiobetweenpunitiveandcompensatorydamagesanawardoattorneyeesunderBrandtv.SuperiorCourt198537Cal.3d813isproperlyincludedinthecompensatorydamagescalculationwheretheeesarepartoajuryawardbutexcludedromthecompensatorydamagescalculationwhentheeesareawardedbythetrialcourtafertheverdict.Addressingsetoffsfornoneconomicdamagesinmedicalmalpracticeactions.Rashidiv.MoserCaseNo.S214430formerlypublishedas2013219Cal.App.4th1170.Teplaintisettledhismedicalmalpracticeclaimagainsttwoothethreehealthcaredeendantsandthetrialcourtapprovedthesettlementsasbeingingoodaith.Tecasewenttotrialastothethirddeendantandthejuryawarded125000oruturemedicalcareandnon-economicdamagesinanamountthetrialcourtreducedto250000pursuanttoMICRA.Tenonsettlinghealthcaredeendantarguedheshouldreceiveosetsortheeconomicandnoneconomicdamagesbasedonthepretrialsettlements.Tetrialcourtdisagreedbecausetherewasnobasistoallocatethepretrialsettlementamountsbetweeneconomicandnoneconomicdamages.TeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.Fourreversedholdingthattheplaintisjuryawardornon-economicdamagesagainstthenonsettlingdeendantshouldbesetobasedonthenon-economicdamagesamountothepretrialsettlements.Tecourtexplainedthatwheneveramorespecicstatuteisinconsistentwithageneralstatutethespecicstatuteshouldbeinterpretedasanexceptiontothemoregeneralone.CivilCodesection3333.2setsatotalmaximumamounto250000onaplaintisnon-economicrecoveryagainstallhealthcareproviderdeendantsinasingleaction.Althoughthegeneralstatutoryruleisthateachdeendantisonlyseverallyliableornon-economicdamagessection3333.2ismorespecicinprohibitingaplaintiromrecoveringmorethanaspeciedmaximumornon-economiclossesromallhealthcareprovidersinthesameaction.TeSupremeCourtgrantedreviewonJanuary152014onthisquestionIajuryawardstheplaintiinamedicalmalpracticeactionnoneconomicdamagesagainstahealthcareproviderdeendantdoesCivilCodesection3333.2entitlethedeendanttoasetobasedontheamountonon-economicdamagesinapretrialsettlemententeredintobyanotherhealthcareproviderordoesthegeneralstatutoryrulethatliabilityornon-economicdamagesisseveralonlynotjointandseveralbarthistypeosetoAddressingtheCaliforniaHighwayPatrolsvicariousliabilityfortowtruckdriversintheFreewayServicePatrolprogram.DepartmentofCaliforniaHighwayPatrolv.SuperiorCourtAlvaradoCaseNo.S214221formerlypublishedas2013220Cal.App.4th612.TeplaintiswereinjuredinacollisionwithatowtruckoperatingundercontractwiththeCaliorniaHighwayPatrolpursuanttotheFreewayServicePatrolprogram.PlaintissuedCHPandCHPmovedorsummaryjudgmentonthegroundthatitwasnotthetowtruckdriversspecialemployerandcouldnotbeliableorthetowtruckdriversnegligence.TetrialcourtgrantedsummaryjudgmentorCHP.TeCourtoAppealFourthDist.Div.TreearmedholdingthatCHPwasnotvicariouslyliableorthecollisioncausedbyatowtruckdriverintheFSPprogram.TecourtreasonedthattherelevantstatutesintheStreetsandHighwaysCodeandtheVehicleCodesuggestthatLegislatureintendedtodistinguishbetweenthepeopleandcompaniesemployingtowtruckdriversintheFSPprogramontheonehandandtheCHPontheother.TerewasthereorenolegislativeintenttoimposevicariousliabilityontheCHPasaspecialemployeroFSPtowtruckdrivers.TeSupremeCourtgrantedreviewonJanuary212014ontheollowingquestionCantheCaliorniaHighwayPatrolbeconsideredthespecialemployeroatowtruckdriverparticipatingintheFreewayServiceProgramAddressingNinthCircuitsquestionsregardingemployersobligationtoprovideseatsduringworkhours.Kilbyv.CVSPharmacyCaseNo.S215614formerlypublishedas9thCir.2013739F.3d1192.TeSupremeCourtgrantedtheNinthCircuitsrequestunderCaliorniaRuleoCourt8.548toansweracertiedquestionoCaliornialaw.InasingleopinionconcerningtwocasesKilbyv.CVSPharmacyInc.whichinvolvesstorecashiersandHendersonv.JPMorganChaseBankNAwhichinvovlesbanktellerstheederalcourtaskedorhelpinterpretingtwoCaliorniaWageOrderswhichrequirethatanemployerprovidesuitableseatstoemployeeswhenthenatureotheworkreasonablypermitstheuseoseats.TequestionspresentedareForpurposesoIWCWageOrder4-200114AandIWCWageOrder7-200114A1DoesthephrasenatureotheworkreertoanindividualtaskordutythatanemployeeperormsduringthecourseohisorherworkdayorshouldcourtsconstruenatureotheworkholisticallyandevaluatetheentirerangeoanemployeesdutiesaIthecourtsshouldconstruenatureotheworkholisticallyshouldthecourtsconsidertheentirerangeoanemployeesdutiesimorethanhaloanemployeestimeisspentperormingtasksthatreasonablyallowtheuseoaseat2Whendeterminingwhetherthenatureotheworkreasonablypermitstheuseoaseatshouldcourtsconsideranyorallotheollowingtheemployersbusinessjudgmentastowhethertheemployeeshouldstandthephysicallayoutotheworkplaceorthephysicalcharacteristicsotheemployee3IanemployerhasnotprovidedanyseatdoesaplaintineedtoprovewhatwouldconstitutesuitableseatstoshowtheemployerhasviolatedSection14AcontinuedfrompageviiiiierictgreenseetsVoume12014nother12500inattorneyeesunderBrandtv.SuperiorCour198537Cal.3d813.Tetrialcourtconditionallygrantedtheinsurersmotionoranewtrialunlesstheplainticonsentedtohavethepunitiveamagesawardremittedto350000tentimesthecompensatoryamagesaward.TeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.Treermedthetrialcourtsconditionalnewtrialorder.TeSupremeCourtgrantedreviewtodeterminewhetherwhenalculatingtheratiobetweenpunitiveandcompensatorydamagesanwardoattorneyeesunderBrandtv.SuperiorCour198537Cal.3d13isproperlyincludedinthecompensatorydamagescalculationwhereheeesarepartoajuryawardbutexcludedromthecompensatoryamagescalculationwhentheeesareawardedbythetrialcourtaferheverdict.Addressingsetoffsfornoneconomicdamagesnmecamaractceactons.asv.oseraseNo.214430formerlublishedas2013219al.A.4th1170.Teplaintisettledhismedicalmalpracticeclaimagainsttwoothehreehealthcaredeendantsandthetrialcourtapprovedthesettlementssbeingingoodaith.Tecasewenttotrialastothethirddeendantndthejuryawarded125000oruturemedicalcareandnon-conomicdamagesinanamountthetrialcourtreducedto250000pursuanttoMICRA.Tenonsettlinghealthcaredeendantarguedheshouldreceiveosetsortheeconomicandnoneconomicdamagesbasednthepretrialsettlements.Tetrialcourtdisagreedbecausetherewasnobasistoallocatethepretrialsettlementamountsbetweeneconomicndnoneconomicdamages.TeCourtoAppealSecondDist.Div.Fourreversedholdingthattheplaintisjuryawardornon-economicamagesagainstthenonsettlingdeendantshouldbesetobasedonhenon-economicdamagesamountothepretrialsettlements.Teourtexplainedthatwheneveramorespecicstatuteisinconsistentwithageneralstatutethespecicstatuteshouldbeinterpretedasanxceptiontothemoregeneralone.CivilCodesection3333.2setsatotalmaximumamounto250000onaplaintisnon-economicrecoverygainstallhealthcareproviderdeendantsinasingleaction.Althoughhegeneralstatutoryruleisthateachdeendantisonlyseverallyliableornon-economicdamagessection3333.2ismorespecicinprohibitingplaintiromrecoveringmorethanaspeciedmaximumornon-conomiclossesromallhealthcareprovidersinthesameaction.TeSupremeCourtgrantedreviewonJanuary152014onthisuestionIajuryawardstheplaintiinamedicalmalpracticeactionnoneconomicdamagesagainstahealthcareproviderdeendantdoesCivilCodesection3333.2entitlethedeendanttoasetobasedonthemountonon-economicdamagesinapretrialsettlemententeredintoyanotherhealthcareproviderordoesthegeneralstatutoryrulethatliabilityornon-economicdamagesisseveralonlynotjointandseveralarthistypeosetoAddressingthealiorniaHighwayPatrolsvicariousliabilityfortowtruckdriversintheFreewayervicePatrolprogram.DepartmentofaliforniaHighwayPatrolv.uperiorourAlvaradoaseNo.214221formerlypublishedas2013220al.App.4th612.TeplaintiswereinjuredinacollisionwithatowtruckoperatingundercontractwiththeCaliorniaHighwayPatrolpursuanttotheFreewayServicePatrolprogram.PlaintissuedCHPandCHPmovedorsummaryjudgmentonthegroundthatitwasnotthetowtruckdriversspecialemployerandcouldnotbeliableorthetowtruckdriversnegligence.TetrialcourtgrantedsummaryjudgmentorCHP.TeCourtoAppealFourthDist.Div.TreearmedholdingthatCHPwasnotvicariouslyliableorthecollisioncausedbyatowtruckdriverntheFSPprogram.TecourtreasonedthattherelevantstatutesintheStreetsandHighwaysCodeandtheVehicleCodesuggestthatLegislatureintendedtodistinguishbetweenthepeopleandcompaniesemployingtowtruckdriversintheFSPprogramontheonehandandtheCHPontheother.TerewasthereorenoleislativeintenttomposevicariousliabilityontheCHPasaspecialemployeroFSPtowtruckdrivers.TeSupremeCourtrantedreviewonJanuary212014ontheollowingquestionCantheCaliorniaHighwayPatrolbeconsideredthespecialemployeroatowtruckdriverparticipatingintheFreewayServiceProgramAddressingNinthircuitsquestionsregardingemployersobligationtoprovideseatsduringwrkhr.Kilbv.VPharmacaseNo.215614ormerlyublishedas9thir.2013739F.3d1192.TeSupremeCourtgrantedtheNinthCircuitsrequestunderCaliorniaRuleoCourt8.548toansweracertiedquestionoCaliornialaw.InasingleopinionconcerningtwocasesKilbyv.CVSPharmacyInc.whichinvolvesstorecashiersandHendersonv.JPMorganChaseBankNwhichinvovlesbanktellerstheederalcourtaskedorelpinterpretingtwoCaliorniaWageOrderswhichrequirethatanemployerprovidesuitableseatstoemployeeswhenthenatureotheworkreasonablypermitstheuseoseats.TequestionspresentedareForpurposesoIWCWaeOrder4-200114AandIWCWaeOrder7-200114A1DoesthehrasenatureotheworkreertoanindividualtaskordutythatanemployeeperormsdurinthecourseohisorherworkdayorshouldcourtsconstruenatureotheworkholisticallyandevaluatetheentireraneoanemployeesdutiesaIthecourtsshouldconstruenatureotheworkholisticallyshouldthecourtsconsidertheentireraneoanemployeesdutiesimorethanhaloanemployeestimeisspenterormintasksthatreasonablyallowtheuseoaseat2Whendetermininwhetherthenatureotheworkreasonablypermitstheuseoaseatshouldcourtsconsideranyorallotheollowintheemployersbusinessjudmentastowhethertheemployeeshouldstandthephysicallayoutotheworkplaceorthephysicalcharacteristicsotheemployee3IanemployerhasnotprovidedanyseatdoesaplaintineedtoprovewhatwouldconstitutesuitableseatstoshowtheemployerasviolatedSection14Aontinuedromaevii Volume12014verdict21Duetothequirkoanoddindustrypracticemedicalcarebillingisunlikethatinothercommercialcontextswherethewordbillisgenerallyunderstoodtobeasynonymorthewordinvoiceandistakenasademandorpaymentintheamountstated.Virtuallynopatientwhetherinsuredoruninsuredactuallyincurstheullamountbilledbyamedicalprovider.SeeHowellsupra52Cal.4thatpp.560-565seeid.atp.561Nordothechargemasterrates...necessarilyrepresenttheamountanuninsuredpatientwillpayseeVencorInc.v.NationalStatesIns.Co.9thCir.2002303F.3d10241029n.9onlyasmallminorityopatientspaytheulllistedrateNationObsceneContractsTeDoctrineoUnconscionabilityandHospitalBillingotheUninsured200594Ky.L.J.101104labelinghospitalchargesasregularullorlistismisleadingbecauseinacttheyareactuallypaidbylessthanvepercentopatientsnationallyIrelandTeConceptoReasonableValueinRecoveryoMedicalExpensesinPersonalInjuryorts200814J.LegalEcon.8788onlyasmallractionopersonsreceivingmedicalservicesactuallypayoriginalamountsbilledorthoseservicesseee.g.Luttrellv.IslandPacicSupermarketsInc.2013215Cal.App.4th196199690548billedbut138082acceptedasullpaymentadiscounto80percent.Furtherputtingasidethequestionohowmuchisactuallypaidaplaintimayrecoverasdamagesnomorethanthereasonablevalueomedicalservicesreceived.Howellsupra52Cal.4thatp.555.Yetthebillsissuedbymedicalserviceproviderse.g.basedonchargemasterschedulesdonotrefectreasonablevaluebecausetheygrosslyexceedwhatprovidersactuallyacceptasullpaymentrominsurers.Howell52Cal.4thatpp.560-562Corenbaumsupra215Cal.App.4thatp.1326theullamountbilledbymedicalprovidersisnotanaccuratemeasureothevalueomedicalservices.Becausetheamountthatmedicalprovidersincludeintheirso-calledbillsisnotincurredevenbynoninsuredpatientsanddoesnotrefectthevalueothemedicalcareitshouldnotbeadmissibleanddoesnotsupportadamagesaward.FuturemedicalexpensesiftheplaintiisuninsuredormightbecomeuninsuredAnothervariationotheargumenttolimitHowellandCorenbaumisthattheplaintimaynotbeinsuredintheuture.Allotheaboveargumentsapplytodeeatthatclaim.Anotherargumentbasedonederallawsupportsthedeenseargumentaswell.TePatientProtectionandAordableCareActo2010PPACAalsoknownasObamaCarenowmandatesthateveryoneobtainandmaintainhealthinsurance.26U.S.C.5000AaAnapplicableindividualshalloreachmonthbeginningaer2013ensurethattheindividualandanydependentotheindividualwhoisanapplicableindividualiscoveredunderminimumessentialcoverageorsuchmonth.TePPACArequiresthathealthinsurancepoliciesbeoeredonaguaranteedissueandguaranteedrenewalbasis.42U.S.C.300gg-1a300gg-2a.TePPACAalsoprohibitshealthinsurersromdiscriminatingagainstprospectiveinsuredsonthebasisohealthstatusincludinganypreexistingcondition.42U.S.C.300gg-3aprovidinggenerallythatagrouphealthplanandahealthinsuranceissueroeringgrouporindividualhealthinsurancecoveragemaynotimposeanypreexistingconditionexclusionwithrespecttosuchplanorcoverageseegenerallyNat.Fedn.oIndep.Businessv.Sebelius2012567U.S.__132S.Ct.25662580183L.Ed.2d450describingthePPACAsprovisions.SomemightarguethatpatientscouldorgotheirdutytobuyhealthinsurancenotwithstandingPPACA.ButbyextensionothebasicdutyomitigationPlacerCountyWaterAgencyv.Homan1985165Cal.App.3d890897Trify-elInc.v.Bezenek199646Cal.App.4th15591568theplaintihasanobligationtopurchasemedicalinsurancetoobtainuturemedicaltreatmentatnegotiatedrates.BecauseaplaintihastherightandobligationtoobtainsuchinsuranceunderPPACAtheplainticannotrecovermedicaldamagespremisedonaailuretoobtaintheinsurancemandatedbyederallaw.ForaulldiscussionotheimplicationsothePPACAonaplaintisrighttorecovereconomicdamagesseeH.TomasWatsonRipeForLitigationUsingtheNewFederalHealthcareActtoLimitFutureDamagesVerdictMagazine1stQuarter201039.TeundocumentedworkerplaintiAhasaysplaintiscounselmyclientisnotonlyuninsuredbutisalsoanundocumentedworkerandthusisnoteligibleunderthePPACAorguaranteed-issueinsurancecoverage.Notsoast.Evidenceoamountsthatanexpertclaimswillbebilledintheutureisnomorerelevanttoshowingthereasonableamountthatwouldactuallybepaidorsuchaplaintithanitistoprovingotherpatientsdamages.TequestioniswhatdoprovidersactuallyacceptaspaymentromsuchpatientsandwhatwilltheyacceptintheutureMoreoveritheplaintiissubjecttodeportationtheuturemedicaldamagesarguablyshouldbecalculatedbasedonwhattheplaintiwouldactuallyincurinthehomecountry.Anyrecoveryouturedamagesbasedoncontinuedpresenceinthiscountrywouldbepreemptedbyederalimmigrationlaw.Seee.g.HomanPlasticCompoundsInc.v.N.L.R.B.2002535U.S.137150-151claimorbackpayoreclosedbyederalimmigrationpolicyRodriguezv.Kline1986186Cal.App.3d11451149anundocumentedalienmayonlyrecoverlostUnitedStatesutureearningswhenhecandemonstratetothecourtssatisactionthathehastakenstepsthatwillcorrecthisdeportableconditionVelizv.RentalServiceCorp.USAInc.M.D.Fla.2003313F.Supp.2d13171337InsumpermittinganawardpredicatedonwagesthatcouldnotlawullyhavebeenearnedandonajobobtainedbyutilizingraudulentdocumentsrunscontrarytoboththeletterandspiritotheIRCAwhosesalutorypurposeitwouldsimultaneouslyundermineHernandez-Cortezv.HernandezD.Kan.Nov.42003Civ.A.01-1241-JM2003WL22519678at6-7nonpub.opn.holdingthatederalimmigrationlawpreemptsundocumentedaliensstatetortlawclaimorutureearningsbasedoncontinuedU.S.residencearangov.StateIndus.Ins.SystemNev.200125P.3d175178-179holdingthatworkerscompensationlawswerepreemptedHowellTwoYearsLatercontinuedfrompage20continuedonpage22 22verdictVolume12014byederalimmigrationlawtoextentthatstatelawaordedvocationalrehabilitationbenetstoundocumentedalien.TemedicallienscamAnotherploytosidestepHowellandCorenbaumistoclaimthatthebillormedicalserviceswassoldtoathird-partynancingcompanyaactorthatisassertingaclaimagainsttheplaintiortheullamountbilled.FortunatelythistactichasbeencalledintoquestionbytherecentCourtoAppealdecisioninDoddv.Cruz2014223Cal.App.4th933Dodd.TeactsinDoddwillbringawrysmiletoanydeenseattorneysace.InDoddtheplaintiwasreerredbyhislawyertoamedicalservicesprovider.Tatproviderinturnsolditsaccountreceivabletoaactorwhichcoincidentallywasownedinpartbytheplaintisattorney.Tedeendantsubpoenaeddocumentstoascertaintheamounttheactoractuallypaidthemedicalproviderorthelien.Id.atp.937.Tetrialcourtgrantedtheplaintismotiontoquashthesubpoenaandsanctioneddeensecounsel5600.Id.atp.938.DeendantappealedandtheCourtoAppealreversedthediscoveryrulingandthesanctionsaward.TeCourtoAppealrearmedtherulethattheamountbilledbythemedicalproviderwithnoexpectationoactualpaymentinthatamountisnotthetestTeamountahealthcareproviderbillsaplaintioritsmedicalservicesisnotrelevanttotheamountotheplaintiseconomicdamagesorpastmedicalservices.Doddsupra223Cal.App.4thatp.941.Incontrastthesubpoenasoughtrelevantinormationi.e.whatthemedicalprovideractuallyacceptedromtheactorpursuanttotheirarrangementtodischargethemedicalprovidersaccountreceivable.Id.atp.942.Asthecourtnotedthedeenseexpertcouldrelyuponthatgureincalculatingtheamountotheplaintispastmedicalexpenses.Ibid.WherewegofromhereHowellandCorenbaumturnongeneralprinciplesouniversalapplication.InthosecasesthebilledamountwasinadmissiblebecauseitwasnotincurredanddidnotHowellTwoYearsLatercontinuedfrompage21refectthereasonablevalueothemedicalservices.DespiteattemptsbytheplaintisbartolimitHowellandCorenbaumtotheiractsthelogicothosecasesdoesnotdependontheexistenceoinsurancetheidentityotheplaintiorthetypeomedicaldamages.Indeeditwouldmakenosensetoapplythemeasureodamagesinconsistentlytosomeplaintisbutnottoothersortoapplyadierentmeasureorpastmedicaldamagesthantouturemedicaldamages.MoreoverthePPACAdovetailswiththesecasesbymandatinghealthinsuranceandthusputtingtorestanyspeculationthataplaintimaylackinsuranceintheuture.UsingthislogicandtheseauthoritiesattemptstocircumventHowellandCorenbaumshouldbecutoatthepass.RobWrightandSteveFleischmanareappellateattorneysatHorvitzLevyLLPinEncino.Mr.WrightwascounselorecordorthedeendantintheCorenbaumandDoddcasesdiscussedinthisarticle. Volume12014verdict23Youaresittingonahardbenchinacrowdedcorridoroadistantcourthouse.Youhavelimitedinternetsignalnopowersupplyandnotableoryourlaptop.Youvebeenwaitingallmorningtoseethesettlementreereeandyourealizeyouwilllikelyspendalldayinthiswastelandnocofeenodrinksnocandynoreshbakedcookiesandnoreelunchmanymayarguethatlunchatoneothemanymediationprovidersisnotreebutisbuiltintotheeverincreasingmediationees.YourealizeyourcomortablemediationwasusurpedbyamandatorysettlementconerenceandyouaskHowdidwegethereAerJeld-WenInc.v.SuperiorCourtCal.App.4thDist.2007146Cal.App.4th536whichconrmedthatcourtscouldnotorderpartiestoattendandpayorprivatemediationmanyconstructiondeectinsurersinstructedtheirdeensecounseltostopattendingmediation.TismayhavebeenaresponsetotheirrustrationwiththeperceivedlackoprogressatmostNoFreeLuncheTransformationofMediationintoMandatorySettlementConferencesbyDavidB.MadariagaMichaelLloydconstructiondeectmediationsorpossiblyanattempttosavecosts.Initiallytheresultwasseveralvoluntarymediationswherepartiescouldopt-outoattendingandavoidpayingmediationeesollowedbyonenalmandatorysettlementconerencethatallnon-settlingpartieswererequiredtoattend.Howeverthedownturninmediationparticipationamongthesubcontractorsledtoanincreaseintherequestoranduseosuccessivemandatorysettlementconerenceswherepartiescounselandinsurancerepresentativesarecompelledtoattend.Cal.RulesofCourtRule3.1380b.TeauthorityortherecenttrendoholdingmultiplemandatorysettlementconerencesisoundinCaliforniaRulesofCourtRule3.1380awhichstatesthatonthecourtsownmotionorattherequestoanypartythecourtmaysetoneormoremandatorysettlementconerences.CaliforniaRulesofCourtRule3.1380awasamendedinresponsetotheJeld-WendecisionandbecameefectiveJanuary12008.FormerRule3.1380aprovidedthatthecourtcouldsetamandatorysettlementconerenceandorderpartiestoattend.Courtsareincreasinglyappointingsettlementreereestopresideoverthesesettlementconerencesandorderingthepartiestocompensatethereeree.AuthorityorappointingasettlementreereetopresideoveramandatorysettlementconerenceisoundinJeld-WenwhichstatesthatatrialcourtmayappointareereetoconductamandatorysettlementconerenceinacomplexcasepursuanttoCaliforniaCodeofCivilProcedure639andRulesofCourtRule3.920.Jeld-WenInc.v.SuperiorCourtCal.App.4thDist.2007146Cal.App.4th536542.TecourtinJeld-WenreliedontheholdinginLuv.SuperiorCourtthatCodeofCivilProcedure187andthecomplexlitigationstandardsoCaliforniaRuleCourtRule3.400etseq.provideauthorityoracourttoappointareereetoconductsettlementconerencesincomplexmatters.Luv.SuperiorCourtCal.App.4thDist.199755Cal.App.4th12641271.Jeld-continuedonpage24 24verdictVolume12014WenandLugoontoconcludethatCodeofCivilProcedure638and639provideorcompensationoacourtappointedsettlementreereebytheparties.Luat1272andJeld-Wenat542.InterestinglynothinginCodeofCivilProcedure639mentionsappointingareereetopresideoveramandatorysettlementconerencebuttheadvisorycommenttoCaliforniaRulesofCourtRule3.920providesthatRule3.920bisnotintendedtoprohibitacourtromappointingareereetoconductamandatorysettlementconerenceinacomplexcase.ForathoroughdiscussionotheauthorityorlackthereootheJudicialCounseltoimposerulesallowingcourtstoappointsettlementreereesandrequirethelitigantstocompensatethereereeseeJefG.HarmeyerEsq.JudicialCouncilAuthorityAndTeProposedAmendmentoCaliforniaRulesOfCourtRule3.1280publishedinthe2008coursematerialsorWestCoastCasualtysConstructionDeectSeminar.NeitherJeld-NoFreeLunchcontinuedfrompage23WennorLuhaveanysubsequentappellatehistoryandremaingoodlaw.Tetransormationovoluntarymediationintomandatorysettlementconerenceshasseriousnegativeconsequencessuchasthelossothemediationprivilege.EvidenceCode1115-1128andAdvisoryCommitteeCommenttoCaliforniaRulesofCourtRule3.1380d.Neitherthecommunicationsnorthedocumentsandreportspreparedorthemandatorysettlementconerencearecondentialincludingthemandatorysettlementconerencestatementthateachpartyisrequiredtoprepareleandserve.PursuanttoCaliforniaRulesofCourtRule3.1380casettlementconerencestatementmustincludeagoodaithsettlementdemandbyeachplaintifandagoodaithsettlementoferbyeachdeendant.CaliforniaRulesofCourtRule3.1380c.Whilethepartiesatmediationmaysubmitmediationbriesitisnotrequiredandthepartieswerearenotrequiredtomakeandpublishgoodaithofers.Whatconstitutesagoodaithoferwillclearlybeamatterodisputeandailuretomakeagoodaithofermaysubjectapartytocourtsanctions.HoweveronecourthasheldthatCaliforniaRulesofCourtRule3.1380cdoesnotrequireapartytoincreaseitsoferortoparticipateinmeaningulsettlementnegotiationsatamandatorysettlementconerenceandthereoreitsailuretodosoisnotsanctionableconduct.Vidriov.HernandezCal.App.2ndDist.2009172Cal.App.4th14431460.Asideromthelossocondentialitytherequirementtopreparemandatorysettlementbriesandorpartiesandinsurancerepresentativetopersonallyattendsettlementconerencesincreasesthecostsolitigation.Increasingthecostsolitigationmayhavebeenanimpetusbehindcourtsexpandeduseothemandatorysettlementprocessasmediatorsandsettlementconerencejudgesoenemphasizeanticipatedlitigationcoststoencourageinsurancecompaniestocontinuedonpage25 Volume12014verdict25compromiseclaimsoquestionableliability.Somejudgesarealsootheopinionthatinconveniencinginsurancerepresentativeswillincreasesettlementauthority.Regardlessothemotivationsthereseemstobenoescaperomthemultiplesettlementgatheringsinconstructiondeectlitigationthatsomanyparticipantsandinsurancecompaniesbemoan.Whilethevenuehaschangedthegameremainsmostlythesame.WherebeorelitigantswereNoFreeLunchcontinuedfrompage24requiredtoattendandpayormultiplemediationspursuanttoacasemanagementordertheyarenowrequiredtoattendandpayormultiplemandatorysettlementconerences.Ireducingthenumberosettlementconerencesorlitigationcostswasamotivationinopposingmediationtheexperimenthasailed.Nowinadditiontopayingthereereeshourlyratepartiesarerequiredtopreparemandatorysettlementconerencestatementsandincurtravelcostsorinsurancerepresentativestoattend.Perhapsthissituationwillcyclicallyevolvelikesomuchoconstructiondeectlawandwewillseeareturntomediationasitbecomeclearerthatparticipatinginserialsettlementconerencesisnotreducinglitigationcostsorresolvingcases.Inthemeantimethepartieshaveexchangedthecomortandinormalityoanalternativedisputeacilitywithreewi-androomtoworkorthebackroomsandhallwaysocourthouseswherethereisnoreelunch.Withcourtdelaysworseningduetobudgetcutsmediationismorevaluablethanever.TatwasathemeatCityHallatthedynamickickofothe2014CityofLosAngelesMediationAwarenessWeek.ASCDCmembersrepresentcompaniessmallbusinessindividualsandyesgovernmententitieswhohavebeensued.AlthoughASCDCmembersarepreparedtotakecasestotrialandbeyondwhenappropriatetheyrecognizethatmanydisputesareamenabletobeingandshouldberesolvedthroughcompromiseandmediation. 26verdictVolume12014 Volume12014verdict27IyouhaventbeentoCourtinLongBeachinawhileyouareinorapleasantsurpriseTenewGovernorGeorgeDeukmejianCourthousehasopenedorbusiness.Atover500000squareeettheglassandsteelstructureisaglisteningauthoritativesite.Itstandsasawelcomecontrasttoitscare-wornpredecessorwhereeithertheelevatorsorescalatorsworkedbutneverbothatthesametime.TeconstructionothenewacilitywasmadepossiblethroughanancialandmanagementpartnershipwiththeLongBeachJudicialPartnersLLCwhichcontinuestomanageandmaintaintheacility.LongBeachCourtHousebyWilliamO.Woodlandhenewacilityiswellappointedwithnearlyallothenewesttechnologybuiltintothecourtroomsthemselvesincludingwirelessconnectionsthroughoutandaudiovisualportswithinthetrialcourtsthemselves.IntermsoaccommodationstheCourtcurrentlymaintainsaconveniencestorewithavarietyosnacksdrinksandothersundries.ConstructionisunderwayoracombinationretailCofeeBeanandSubwayshoptobeopenedinthenearuture.LikeitspredecessorthenewCourthouseservicestheullspectrumolegalissueswithover30operationalcourtroomsmanagingavarietyocivilandcriminalcaseloads.TeDeukmajianCourthouseisajewelamongtheLosAngelesCountyCourtacilities.WoodyWoodlandWilliamWoodyWoodlandisaPartnerwiththeLongBeachrmoFordWalkerHaggertyBehar.Hispracticeemphasizesdeenseowronguldeathcatastrophicinjuryandgovernmentalliabilitymatters. 28verdictVolume12014continuedonpage29Thetypicalproductliabilitycasestartswithacomplaintthatcontainscausesoactionorstrictproductliabilitynegligenceandbreachoexpressandimpliedwarranty.HoweverbythetimeexpertsaredeposedtheissuesusuallyhavebeenreducedtotheironecommondenominatorwastheproductdeectivelydesignedMoreoenthannotplaintifsdroptheirclaimsornegligenceandbreachowarrantyandproceedtotrialsolelyonthestrictproductsliabilityclaimbasedondesigndeect.Tispracticehasitsrootsinlegaldoctrineandtherulesoevidence.FirstCaliorniaadoptedstrictliabilitytorelievetheinjuredplaintifotheburdensassociatedwithprovingnegligence.Croninv.J.B.E.OlsonCorp.19728Cal.3d121133.Tereoreunderthemergerdoctrineclaimsorstrictliabilitynegligenceandwarrantymergeintoasinglecauseoactionrelatedtotheallegedlydeectivedesignotheproduct.SeeBalidov.ImprovedMach.Inc.197229Cal.App.3d633640disapprovedonothergroundsinRegentsofUniversityofCaliforniav.HartfordAcc.Indemn.Co.197821Cal.3d624641AlthoughseparatecountsornegligencewarrantyandstrictliabilityhavebeenpleadedweviewthemasstatingasinglecauseoactioninthatthecomplaintseeksdamagesorpersonalinjuriescausedbydecienciesinthedesignoamanuacturedproductseealsoLambertv.GeneralMotors198867Cal.App.4th11791185Whereliabilitydependsontheproooadesigndeectnopracticaldiferenceexistsbetweennegligenceandstrictliabilitytheclaimsmerge.Secondalthoughevidenceocustomandpracticeisgenerallynotadmissibleinastrictliabilityclaimevidenceostepstakenbythemanuacturerinanattempttodesignasaeproductisrelevanttoanegligenceclaim.Grimshawv.FordMotorCompany1981119Cal.App.3d757803.Tereoreiplaintifproceedstotrialonanegligencetheorythejuryispermittedtoocusonthereasonableconductothemanuactureraswellasothersintheindustry.Tisopensthedoorortheadmissionocomparativeevidencewhichcanincludecomparativestatisticaldataaboutsaetyperormancesuchastherisksoatalityandinjuryromcomparableproductswithsimilaranddiferentdesigns.Suchevidenceusuallydemonstratesthattheproductunderattackisorgoodreasoncomparabletovirtuallyeveryothersimilarproductonthemarketorthattheuseocomparableproductswithadiferentdesigncanresultinthesametypeoinjuryorworse.Tisgenerallyisharmultoplaintifsdeectcasesotoavoidtheadmissionocomparativeevidenceplaintifsusuallydroptheirnegligenceclaimpriortotrial.Forthesereasonsgenerallytherewasnobenettoplaintifstoproceedtotrialonanyclaimotherthanstrictliability.Butpotentiallyincludedundertheproductsliabilityumbrellaisaclaimorbreachoexpresswarrantybasedonadvertisementsosaety.SeeCACI1230.CACI1230usessaetyasanexampleothetypeorepresentationgivingrisetoanexpresswarrantyandthatistherepresentationthatwillbeusedhere.Howeverotherrepresentationsregardingaproductarealsopotentiallyactionable.InGhernav.FordMotorCo.1966246Cal.App.2d639Ghernathecourtstatedthatwhenamanuacturerengagesinadvertisinginordertobringhisgoodsandtheirqualitytotheattentionothepublicandthustocreateaconsumerdemandtherepresentationsmadeconstituteanexpresswarrantyrunningdirectlytoabuyerwhopurchasesinreliancethereon.Gherna246Cal.App.2dat652.TistypeoclaimwillhereaerbereerredtoasanAdsWarrantyclaim.ExpressWarrantyClaimsBasedonProductSafetyAdseAdmissibilityofTradeUsageandComparativeProductPerformanceEvidencebyMarkV.BerryJoyceM.Peim Volume12014verdict29WarrantyClaimscontinuedfrompage28AnAdsWarrantyclaimgivesrisetoissuesolawandevidenceusuallynotconrontedbytheproductsliabilitydeenseattorney.Tistypeoclaimturnsonwhatthemanuacturermeantwhenitadvertiseditsproductassaeandnotwhethertheproductoroneoitscomponentpartswasdeectivelydesigned.Establishingwhatsaemeansintherelevantindustrycallsortheadmissionocomparativeevidenceandevidenceotradeusagethattheproductliabilityplaintigenerallywishestokeepout.ItalsoinvokestheCommercialCode.TeElementsofanAdsWarrantyClaimTethreeelementsoanAdsWarrantyclaimare1.Tedeendantmadeastatementoactorapromiseorgaveadescriptiontoplaintiindicatingthattheproductwassaeand2.Teproductdidnotperormasstatedorpromisedordidnotmeetthequalityothedescriptionprovidedand3.Teailureotheproducttobeasrepresentedwasasubstantialactorincausingtheallegedharm.SeeCACI1230seealsoCaliorniaCommercialCode2313.InotherwordsunderanAdsWarrantyclaimtheplaintimustestablishthattheailureoaproducttobeasrepresentedinanadvertisementcausedplaintiharm.TerstissuetheniswhatconstitutesastatementoactindicatingthattheproductwassaeCACI12301.StatementsofFactAundamentalprincipleotheAdsWarrantyclaimisthatthemanuacturermadeastatementorpromiseosaetyorotherwisedescribedtheproductassae.Butmanuacturersmakemanyclaimswhenadvertisingtheirproduct.Teseclaimsoenpertaintoproducteaturesandproductperormancebuttheyalsocanbeexpressionsohowwonderulthemanuacturerthinksitsproductis.TeormermaygiverisetoanAdsWarrantyclaimbutthelattercannot.InKeithv.Buchanan1985173Cal.App.3d13thecourtidentiedthethreeundamentalissuesthatmustbeconsideredtodeterminewhetherastatementmadebyamanuacturerconstitutesanexpresswarrantyunderCal.Comm.Code2313whetherthesellersstatementconstitutesanafrmationoactorpromiseordescriptionothegoodsunderCal.Comm.Code2313subdivision1aorborwhetherthesellersstatementismerelythesellersopinionorcommendationothegoodsunderCal.Comm.Code2313subdivision2whetherthestatementwaspartothebasisothebargainandwhetherthewarrantywasbreached.Keith173Cal.App.3dat20.InHauterv.Zogarts197514Cal.3d104Hauterthecourtexplainedthedistinctionbetweenactionableandinactionablerepresentations.Ideendantsassertionosaetyismerelyastatementoopinionmerepufngtheycannotbeheldliableoritsalsity.Hauter14Cal.3dat111.Howeverwhenamanuactureradvertisesthatitsproductiscompletelysaeandthattheballwillnothittheplayerthestatementsdonotindicatethesellerssubjectiveopinionaboutthemeritsohisproductbutratherfactuallydescribeanimportantcharacteristicoftheproduct.Seeid.at112and115.Emphasisadded.DespitethemanuacturersspecicrepresentationsosaetytheplaintiinHauterwasstruckandinjuredbytheball.TereoreanAdsWarrantyclaimcouldproperlybeasserted.TusaplainticannotexpecttopresenthisorherAdsWarrantyclaimtothejurymerelybasedonevidenceoaninjuryromusingaproductthatwasadvertisedassae.Temanuacturermusthaveadvertisedacharacteristicthatrenderedtheproductsaeorwhichwouldotherwisepreventinjuryduringtheuseotheproduct.continuedonpage30 30verdictVolume12014HowevermostcasesmaynotpresentthemselvesasneatlyasHauterwheretheuseotheproductmaniesteditselinaninjurycontrarytothespecicrepresentation.Inthosecloudiercasestoestablishwhatitsadvertisementorrepresentationmeantthemanuacturermustbeallowedtoproduceevidenceotradeusageandcomparativeevidence.TiscallsortheCaliorniaCommercialCode.TeCommercialCodeUndertheplainlanguageotheCommercialCodetradeusageisusedtointerpretallagreementsincludingwarranties.Anafrmationoactwhichbecomespartothebasisothebargaincreatesanexpresswarranty.Cal.Comm.Code2313subd.1a.Tatbargainincludesusageotrade.Cal.Comm.Code1201subd.a3deningagreementasTebargainothepartiesinactasoundintheirlanguageorinerredromothercircumstancesincludingusageotradeasprovidedinsection1303.Furthersubdivisiondosection1303unequivocallyallowstradeusagetogivemeaningtothetermsothepartiesagreementA...usageotradeisrelevantinascertainingthemeaningothepartiesagreementmaygiveparticularmeaningtospecictermsotheagreementandmaysupplementorqualiythetermsotheagreement.Cal.Comm.Code1303subd.d.Stillagainsection2202clearlystatesthatawrittentermmaybeexplainedorsupplementedaByusageotrade.Cal.Comm.Code2202subd.a.TeCommercialCodeplainlydeclaresthattradeusageevidenceisrelevanttogivemeaningtothebargaintheagreementandeveryterminitincludingwarranties.HauterconrmsthattheprovisionsotheCommercialCodeapplytoexpresswarrantiesandthatwarrantiesarebasicallycontractualinnature.Hautersupra14Cal.3dat117citingCal.Comm.Code2313comment1.Teseprovisionsarealsosupplementedbyprinciplesolawandequity.SeeCal.Comm.Code1103subd.bUnlessdisplacedbytheparticularprovisionsothiscodetheprinciplesolawandequity.supplementitsprovisions.MoreoverCodeoCivilProceduresections1644and1646alsoprovidethatusagemustbeollowedininterpretingthewordsoacontract.SeeCodeCiv.Proc.1644TewordsoacontractaretobeunderstoodintheirordinaryandpopularsenseunlessaspecialmeaningisgiventhembyusageinwhichcasethelattermustbeollowedseealsoCodeCiv.Proc.1646contractisinterpretedaccordingtolawandusage.Undertheplaintermsosections23131303and2202andCodeCiv.Proc.1644and1646alltermsotheagreementincludingwarrantiesafrmationsoactanddescriptionsmaybeinterpretedbyusageotrade.Comment5tosection2313reafrmsthatdescriptionsogoodsaregovernedbyusageotradebutitdoesnotexcludeotherterms.Furtheriarepresentationthataproductwassaewasnotinterpretedaccordingtousageotradeaquestionwouldremainastowhatsaemeantwithregardtothatproduct.Undercontractlawsaemustbeinterpretedastohowthereasonablepromisorherethemanuacturerwouldhavebelievedthatthereasonablepromiseeheretheconsumerunderstoodit.CodeCiv.Proc.1649MedicalOperationsManagementInc.v.NationalHealthLaboratoriesInc.1986176WarrantyClaimscontinuedfrompage29continuedonpage31 Volume12014verdict31Cal.App.3d886893.TiscontractprincipleappliesullytosalesogoodsgovernedbytheCommercialCode.SeeCal.Comm.Code1201subd.b12and1103subd.b.Consequentlyarepresentationthataproductissaemustbeconstruedinthesenseinwhichthemanuacturerbelievedthatpurchasersothatproductwerelikelytounderstandthatterm.Temanuactureristhereoreentitledtoprovehowitbelievedthatpurchaserswouldinterpretsaeinregardtotheproductinquestion.Tismeansthatevidenceotradeusageandcomparisontootherproductsandapplicablegovernmentorotherlegalrequirementsisadmissible.TustheCommercialCodeunequivocallyallowsevidenceotradeusagetointerpretthetermsoanexpresswarrantyandtoenablethejurytodeterminewhatthemanuacturermeantwhenitadvertiseditsproductassae.Indeedcourtshaveadmittedtradeusageevidenceincasesinvolvingbreachowarrantyclaims.Weinstatv.DentsplyInternationalInc.2010180Cal.App.4th12131229instructionsurnishedwithdeviceormedpartoexpresswarrantyasusageotradeNyeNissonv.WeedLumberCo.192892Cal.App.598607-08terminwarrantymustbeacceptedinthelightothemeaningothattermasitisknowntothetradeBrandensteinv.Jackling192999Cal.App.438445similar.Soiaplaintifseekstopursueanexpresswarrantyclaimbasedonamanuacturerssaetyadvertisingthemanuacturerisentitledtoprovewhatsaemeansintherelevantindustry.IntheautomotiveindustryorexamplethisincludesevidencethattheestablishedpracticeistoevaluatesaetybycomparisonwithcompetitorsvehiclesandobjectivecriteriasuchascompliancewiththeFederalMotorVehicleSaetyStandards.Tejurycanthenconsiderwhatsaemeansintheautomotiveindustryinordertodeterminewhatthemanuacturermeantwhenitrepresenteditsvehicleassae.InsumamanuacturerconrontedwithdeendinganAdsWarrantyclaimaspartoaproductliabilityactionshouldbeullypreparedtoargueortheadmissibilityoevidenceotradeusageandcomparativeevidenceasrelevantandnotprecludedbycaseorstatute.WarrantyClaimscontinuedfrompage30 32verdictVolume12014KernCountyReportbyTomFeherewrulesandeesarebeingproposedlikelytobeefectiveJuly1.TeproposalsoutorpubliccommentincludeAnonlineormatwww.kern.courts.ca.govtonotiythecourtby820a.m.onthemorningofahearingianattorneyistobelateoranappearance.Neweesperrule1.8.1orretrievingandcopyingrecords.SeealsochangestoChapterIII.CivilRulesandCivilCaseManagementRule3.3.2reOrdertoAppearorJudgmentDebtorExaminationandRule3.12.2breimeorFilingpapersinaRule3.740collectionaction.LosAngelesCountyReportbyJulianneDeMarcoAnadditionalourthpersonalinjurysupervisingcourtroomhasbeenaddeddowntownattheMoskCourthouse.NorthDistrictAntelopeValleyhasresumedhandlingunlimitedjurisdictionpersonalinjurycases.Onlinereservationoahearingdateinthepersonalinjurysupervisingcourtroomsnowrequirespayinganonreundableee.Datescanbereservedwithoutpayingaeebycallingthecourtroombetween300pmand400pmintheaernoon.L.A.SuperiorCourtisusinglegacyreserveundsthatitmustspendanywaytoacquireanelectroniccasemanagementsystem.OverthecomingmonthsandcoupleoyearsL.A.SuperiorCourtwilltransitiontoelectronicling.OrangeCountyReportbyLisaMcMainsAllcivillingsarerequiredtobebye-ling.InadditionefectiveApril12014transcriptsincivilprobateandmentalhealthproceedingswheretherewasacourtreportercanbeorderedonline.Yourrequestwillbesentdirectlytothecourtreporterpresentattheproceeding.Tereporterwillprovideacostestimateandmakearrangementsorpayment.MoreinormationcanbeoundatthecourtsredesignedwebsiteAhotissueinOrangeCountyiswhetherthecourtswillreturntoamastercalendarinlightobudgetissues.IyouhaveinputonthatprospecteelreetosendittothepresidingjusticeortoLisaMcMainswhowillcommunicateconcernsandideastothecourt.AlsoinormationisavailableonthecourtswebsiteregardingproposedchangestoLocalRules601.12700701701.1701.5704and900.5.Seewww.occourts.orgdirectorylocal-rules.continuedonpage33 Volume12014verdict33AroundtheCountiescontinuedfrompage32SanBernardinoCountyReportbyJeWalkerymid-MayallcivilcasesinRanchoCucamongaarebeingtranserredtodowntownSanBernardino.TismeansthatallcivilcaseswillbeindowntownSanBernardino.SanDiegoCountyReportbyPeteDoodyGroundhasjustbeenbrokenortheconstructionothenewSanDiegoCentralCourtHouse.TenewSanDiegodowntowncourthousewillbe22storieshighandwillinclude71courtrooms.ItwillreplacetheoldcourthouseonBroadwaywhichwasbuiltin1961andliesoveranearthquakeaultzone.Tenewcourthouseisanticipatedtobecompletedbeoretheendo2016.Tewell-knownstainedglassstatesealssalvagedromthe1890courthousewillbeondisplayinthenewcourthouse.SantaBarbaraCountyReportbyMichaelColtonlectroniclingiscomingthissummer.TecourtanticipatesthatbyJanuary2015throughadoptionoalocalruleocourtelectroniclingwillbemandatoryorrepresentedpartiessubjecttoahardshipexception.Tecourtcontinuestosupplycourtreportersorregularlawandmotionhearingsthemovingpartyisassesseda30eeinadditiontoregularmotionlingeeswhichistobepaidtogetherwithanyregularmotioneesatthetimemotionpapersareled.SantaBarbaraiswelcomingseveralnewjuristsTeHonorableJamesK.VoyseywithnearlythirtyyearsodistinguishedserviceintheSantaBarbaraCountyPublicDeendersofcewassworninasthenewestJudgeotheSantaBarbaraSuperiorCourtitisanticipatedhewilleventuallymovetoacriminalcourtassignmentinNorthCountySantaMaria.ChieU.S.BankruptcyJudgePeterCarrollandU.S.BankruptcyJudgeDeborahSaltzmanwillsoonbetakingthereinsintheNorthernDivisionotheCentralDistrictU.S.BankruptcyCourtinSantaBarbaraupontheretirementotheHonorableRobinRibletaertwentyyearsoexemplaryservice.VenturaCountyReportbyDianaLyteltrictcompliancewithcourtrulesisbeingrequiredorCaseManagementConerencesincludingCRC3.724andCMCstatement19b.PartiesaretosubmitstatementsoagreeduponcontestedactssimilartoFCRPRule26CaseManagementStatements.ContactDianaLytelormoreinormationaboutguidelinessetbyCivilCaseManagementAttorneyMilesLang.rialsarebeingsetwithinoneyearolingdates. 34verdictVolume12014 Volume12014verdict35defensesuccessesjanuarymarchDescribeyourDefenseVerdictForPublicationinVerdictMagazineLetushelpyouadvertiseyourtrialsuccessesHaveyouwonadefensejudgmentinajuryorbenchtrialHaveyouobtainedadispositiverulingduringoraftertrialsuchasbynonsuitdirectedverdictorJNOVHaveyouobtainedarulingthatthejudgmentwasmorefavorabletothedefensethanyourCCP998offertotheplaintiffIfsocompletetheinformationintheformontheASCDCwebsitewww.ascdc.orgorsendane-maildescribingyourwintoascdccamgmt.comandwewillpublishitinVerdictMagazine.RobertT.BergstenHospGilbertBergstenJohnsonv.HartunianRedmanv.McCartyDavidBrobeckJr.BrobeckWestBorgesRosaDouvilleColfordv.NunezBermudezv.CiolekHeacoxLouiseM.DouvilleKevinP.HillyerPattersonLockwoodHillyerHuckv.BruceM.AscoughRaymondR.MooreMooreMcLennanLLPGonzalezv.KokStephenM.NicholsMcKennaLongAldridgeLLPRobbinsv.UnionCarbideCorporationTerryA.RowlandDemlerArmstrongRowlandLLPCroteauv.HarbachFamilyTrustMatthewTrotterBortonPetriniLLPEscalantev.GillmanWayneW.WattenWattenDiscoeBassettMcMainsLeev.KostikyanBrianL.WilliamsSullivanBallogWilliamsLLPMandalav.ReverendRobertFultonetal. 36verdictVolume12014amicuscommitteereportcontinuedonpage37ASCDCsAmicusCommitteecontinuestoworkenergeticallyonbehalfofitsmembership.ASCDCsAmicusCommitteehassubmittedamicuscuriaebriefsinseveralrecentcasesintheCaliforniaSupremeCourtandCaliforniaCourtofAppealandhashelpedsecuresomemajorvictoriesforthedefensebar.2013YEARINREVIEWDuring2013theamicuscommitteewasactivelyinvolvedindozensomattersonbehaloASCDCsmembershipincludingtheollowingcaseAmicusbriefsonthemeritsAryehv.CannonBusinessSolutions201355Cal.4th1185statuteolimitationsinsection17200claimsCorenbaumv.Lampkin2013215Cal.App.4th196extendingHowelltouturedamagesandnoneconomicdamagesPublicationrequestsgrantedReichertv.StateFarmGenlIns.Co.2012212Cal.App.4th1453laworordinanceexclusioninhomeownerspolicyAberv.Comstock2012212Cal.App.4th931anti-SLAPPproceduralissuesTompsonv.AutomobileClubofSouthernCalifornia2013217Cal.App.4th710denialoclasscerticationAlamov.PracticeManagementInformationCorp.2013219Cal.App.4th466erroringivingormerCACI243025002505and2507inlightoHarrisv.CityofSantaMonica201356Cal.4th203Meddockv.YoloCounty2013220Cal.App.4th170interpretednaturalconditionimmunityunderGovernmentCode831.2Wisev.DLAPiper2013220Cal.App.4th1180legalmalpracticecasediscussingrequirementsorexpertwitnessespost-SargonSadeghiv.SharpMemorialMedicalCenter2013221Cal.App.4th598proceduralissuesinhospitalstaprivilegescaseSupportforsuccessfulpetitionsforreviewAlamov.PracticeManagementInfo.Group2012210Cal.App.4th95grantandholdorderissuedpendingoutcomeoHarrisv.CityofSantaMonica201356Cal.4th203Floresv.PresbyterianIntercommunityHospital2013213Cal.App.4th1386reviewgrantedstatuteolimitationsinmedicalmalpracticecaseWinnv.PioneerMedicalGroup2013Cal.App.4th875reviewgrantedstatuteolimitationsinmedicalmalpracticecaseSuccessfuldepublicationrequestsSchaeferv.Elder2013217Cal.App.4th1ordereddepublishedtripartiterelationshipcreatedconfictointerestPENDINGCASESATTHECALIFORNIASUPREMECOURTANDCOURTOFAPPEALASCDCsAmicusCommitteehasalsosubmittedamicuscuriaebriesintheollowingcasespendingattheCaliorniaSupremeCourtorCaliorniaCourtoAppealointeresttoASCDCsmembership1.Sanchezv.ValenciaNo.S199119TiscaseincludestheollowingissueDoestheFederalArbitrationAct9U.S.C.2asinterpretedinAMobilityLLCv.Concepcion2011563U.S.__131S.Ct.1740preemptstatelawrulesinvalidatingmandatoryarbitrationprovisionsinaconsumercontractasprocedurallyandsubstantivelyunconscionableJ.AlanWareldMcKennaLongAldridgesubmittedanamicusbrieonbehaloASCDC.2.Kesnerv.SuperiorCourtPneumoAbexLLC.Tiscaseinvolvestheissueowhetheraplainticanmaintainatakehomeasbestosclaimi.e.claimingthattheplaintiwasexposedtoasbestosthroughaamilymemberbringinghomeasbestosbersonclothing.TeCourtoAppealheldinCampbellv.FordMotorCo.2012206Cal.App.4th15thatnosuchclaimcanbeassertedagainstapremisesdeendantwhoowednodutytoamilymembersothosevisitingthepremises.TetrialcourtinthiscaseollowedCampbellanddismissedtheplaintisclaims.TeissueisnowpendingbeoreadierentdistrictotheCourtoAppealinawritproceedingintheKesnercasethecourthasissuedanalternativewritindicatingthatitmaydisagreewithCampbell.ASCDCjoinedtheamicusbriesubmittedbyDonWillenburgGordonReesonbehalotheAssociationoDeenseCounseloNorthernCaliorniaandNevada.HOWTHEAMICUSCOMMITTEECANHELPYOURAPPEALORWRITPETITIONANDHOWTOCONTACTUSHavingthesupportotheAmicusCommitteeisoneothebenetsomembershipinASCDC.TeAmicusCommitteecanassistyourrmandyourclientinseveralways1.Amicuscuriaebriesonthemeritsincasespendinginappellatecourts.2.LettersinsupportopetitionsorrevieworrequestsordepublicationtotheCaliorniaSupremeCourt.3.LettersrequestingpublicationounpublishedCaliorniaCourtoAppealdecisions.InevaluatingrequestsoramicussupporttheAmicusCommitteeconsidersvariousissuesincludingwhethertheissueathandisointeresttoASCDCsmembershipasawholeandwouldadvancethegoalsoASCDC. Volume12014verdict37AmicusCommitteeReportcontinuedfrompage36IfyouhaveapendingappellatematterinwhichyoubelieveASCDCshouldparticipateasamicuscuriaepleasefeelfreetocontactanyBoardmemberorthechairsoftheAmicusCommitteewhoareStevenS.FleischmanHorvitzLevy818-995-0800RobertOlsonGreinesMartinSteinRichlandLLP310-859-7811J.AlanWareldMcKennaLongAldridge213-243-6105JoshuaTraverColePedroza626-431-2787YoumayalsocontactmembersoftheAmicusLiaisonSubcommitteewhoareJeremyRosenHorvitzLevyHarryChamberlainManattPhelpsPhillipsBenShatzManattPhelpsPhillipsMichaelColtonMichaelA.ColtonLawyerCounseloratLawDavidPruettCarrollKellyrotterFranzenMcKennaJohnManierNassiriJungLLPSheilaWirkusPendergastHennellyGrossfeldSusanBrenneckeTompsonColegateTedXandersGreinesMartinSteinRichlandLLPRichardNakamuraMorrisPolichPurdy 38verdictVolume12014LodgingForthoseofyoudesiringlodgingaccommodationshereisalistofnearbyhotelsTHEMISSIONINNHOTELSPA3649MissionInnAvenueRiversideCA92501951-784-0300www.missioninn.comMARRIOTTRIVERSIDE3400MarketStreetRiversideCA92501951-784-8000www.marriott.comhotelstravelralmc-marriott-riverside-at-the-convention-centerHYATTPLACE3500MarketStreetRiversideCA92501951.321.3500riversidedowntown.place.hyatt.comenhotelhome.htmlGolfTournamentInlandEmpireJudicialReceptionFridayJune202014OakQuarryGOlfClubriversideCalifOrniaAssociationofSouthernCaliforniaDefenseCounsel930amRegistration1130amAllGolfersShouldbeCheckedIn1200noonShotgunStart500pmto700pmPost-ournamentReceptionwithInvitedJudiciaryHostedwineandbeerandhorsdoeuvresTeper-persontournamentfeeis195SecureafoursomebyJune22014toreceivethediscountedrateof175personTefeeincludesgreenfeesgolfcartfortwoboxlunchnetworkingreceptionprizesandfun.Appropriategolfattireandsoft-spikedshoesonlyallowed.AllregistrationsmustbereceivedbyJune92014.NorefundswillbeallowedforcancellationsreceivedafterJune22014.7151SierraAvenueRiversideCA92509951685-1140www.oakquarry.comGoodTimesGreatGolf NEWNEWVolume12014verdict39NAME_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________FIRM__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ADDRESS_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________CITYSTATEZIP________________________________________________________________________________________________________TELEPHONE______________________________________________FAX_______________________________________________________E-MAIL___________________________________________________WEBSITE_________________________________________________BARNUMBER__________________________________________________________________________________________________________MEMBERSHIPintheAssociationofSouthernCaliforniaDefenseCounselisopenbyapplicationandapprovaloftheBoardofDirectorstomembersingoodstandingwiththeStateBarofCalifornia.Asubstantialportionofyourpracticemustbedevotedtothedefenseofcivillitigation.AreyounowdevotingasubstantialportionofyourprofessionaltimetothepracticeofthedefenseofcivilandbusinessmattersincludingtheprosecutionofeminentdomainproceedingsYesNoStudentIffull-timeemployeeofanInsuranceCompanyCorporationorPublicEntitygivenameofyouremployerandyourtitleorposition_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________SPONSORINGMEMBER____________________________________________________________________________________________NameFirmPRACTICESPECIALTYAREASECTIONSInordertoprovideyouwithtargetedinformationpleasecheckallthatapplyAppellateBusinessLitigationConstructionLawEmploymentLawInsuranceLawLitigationIntellectualPropertyLandownerLiabilityManagingPartnerMedicalMalpracticePersonalLiabilityProductsLiabilityProfessionalLiabilityPublicEntityTransportationToxicTortsYoungLawyerMEMBERSHIPFEESRegular255.00YoungLawyerinpractice5yearsorless185.00LawStudent25.00Newmembersreceiveacomplimentaryhal-dayeducationseminarcomplimentaryattendanceattheAnnualJudicialandNewMemberReceptioninDecemberduringtheirfrstyearomembership.PAYMENTCheckEnclosedPleaseChargeMyCreditCard______________________________ExpDate__________SecurityCode________Ifpayingbycreditcardpleasefaxto916-924-7323.IfelectedtomembershipIagreetoabidebytheBylawsofthisAssociation.______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________SignatureofApplicantDateContributionsorgiftsincludingmembershipduestoASCDCarenottaxdeductibleascharitablecontributions.PursuanttotheFederalReconciliationActof1993associationmembersmaynotdeductasordinaryandnecessarybusinessexpensesthatportionofassociationduesdedicatedtodirectlobbyingactivities.Baseduponthecalculationrequiredbylaw15oftheduespaymentonlyshouldbetreatedasnondeductiblebyASCDCmembers.Checkwithyourtaxadvisorfortaxcreditdeductioninformation.PleasereturnthisformwithyourpaymenttoASSOCIATIONOFSOUTHERNCALIFORNIADEFENSECOUNSEL2520VentureOaksWaySuite150SacramentoCA95833TollFree800.564.6791Phone916.239.4082Fax916.924.7323www.ascdc.orgascdccamgmt.comUpdated22714ApplicationforMembership 40verdictVolume12014EricSchwettmannPatrickStockalperJeffreyA.WalkerN.DeniseTaylorImmediatePastPresidenttheassociationofsoutherncaliforniadefensecounsel2520ventureoakswaysuite150sacramentoca95833800.564.6791www.ascdc.orgexecutivecommitteeRobertA.OlsonPresidentMichaelSchonbuchVicePresidentGlennT.BargerVicePresidentClarkR.HudsonSecretary-TreasurerboardofdirectorsMichaelA.ColtonPeterS.DoodyThomasP.FeherLisaJ.McMainsGaryT.MontgomeryLisaPerrochetLawrenceR.RamseyStephenC.PasarowNinosP.SaroukhanioffJulianneDeMarcoChristopherE.FaenzaDanKramerEdwardR.LeonardPatrickJ.KearnsDianaP.Lytel Volume12014verdict3 theassociationofsoutherncaliforniadefensecounsel2520VentureOaksWaySuite150sacramentoca95833PRE-SORTFIRSTCLASSU.S.POSTAGEPAIDPERMIT1660SacramentoCAMay152014JointJudicialReceptionwithCAALALosAngelesJune202014GolfTournamentRiversideSeptember19-202014EducationSeminarLodgeatTorreyPinesSanDiegoNovember142014LawFirmManagementJonathanClubLosAngelesDecember2014JudicialandNewMemberReceptionJonathanClubLosAngeles