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associationofsoutherncaliforniadefensecounselVolume32014 www.ascdc.orgNowshowingonasmallscreennearyou....TheAssociationofSouthernCaliforniaDefenseCounselhasawealthofvaluableinformationavailabletoyouatwww.ascdc.orgincludinganAttorneyLocatoranExpertWitnessdatabaseandanAmicussectionaCalendarofEventsonlinemeetingregistrationarchivesofimportantandtimelyarticlesandlegislativeupdatesincludingbackissuesofVerdictmagazineandaMembers-Onlysection.Logontoday. Volume32014verdict1verdicttheassociationofsoutherncaliforniadefensecounsel2520ventureoakswaysuite150sacramentoca95833Employment10SocialMedia15WrongfulDeath23Hollywood21features10TrackingTrendsinCaliforniaEmploymentLawAlexanderv.FedExGroundPackageSys.Inc.andPattersonv.DominosPizzaDavidCardoneEsq.15SocialMediaandJuriesWhatCanGoWrongandWhattoDoAboutItJusticeRet.J.GaryHastingsandJohnG.McCabePh.D21HowHollywoodCanHelpYouWinSamirLyons23SurvivingClaimsforPunitiveDamagesInWrongfulDeathCasesMarkV.BerryandJoyceM.Peim27TheWidowWaveabookreviewofamaritimetrialBernardCotter312015AnnualSeminar-SavetheDatedepartments2IndextoAdvertisers3PresidentsMessagebyRobertA.Olson5CapitolCommentbyMichaelD.Belote6NewMembers9WhatWeDobyPatrickA.Long31AroundtheCounties33DefenseSuccesses34AmicusCommitteeReport36ExecutiveCommitteeBoardofDirectors 2verdictVolume32014verdict2520ventureoakswaysuite150sacramentoca95833staffeditorLisaPerrochetexecutivedirectorJenniferBlevinsartdirectorJohnBerkowitzcontributorsMichaelD.BelotePatrickA.LongCarolA.ShermanprintingSig-1PrintingassociationofsoutherncaliforniadefensecounselofficerspresidentRobertA.Olsonpresident-electMichaelSchonbuchvicepresidentGlennT.Bargersecretary-treasurerClarkR.HudsonboardofdirectorsMichaelA.ColtonJulianneDeMarcoPeterS.DoodyChristopherE.FaenzaThomasP.FeherPatrickJ.KearnsEdwardR.LeonardDianaP.LytelLisaJ.McMainsGaryT.MontgomeryStephenC.PasarowLisaPerrochetLawrenceR.RamseyNinosP.SaroukhanioffEricSchwettmannPatrickStockalperJeffreyA.WalkerForadvertisinginformationcontacttheASCDCbelowexecutiveoffice2520VentureOaksWaySuite150SacramentoCA95833800-564-6791ascdccamgmt.comwww.ascdc.orgVerdictMagazineispublishedormembersoTheAssociationoSouthernCaliorniaDeenseCounselASCDC.TheopinionsandadviceinVerdictMagazinearethoseothesubmittingauthorsandarenotnecessarilythoseoASCDC.Allrightsarereservedinallcountries.NopartothismagazinemaybereproducedinanyormwithoutwrittenconsentromVerdictMagazine.EditorialproductionandadvertisingofcesatVerdictMagazine2520VentureOaksWaySuite150SacramentoCA95833.Telephone800564-6791.Returnpostagemustaccompanyanyunsolicitedmaterialiitistobereturned.VerdictMagazineassumesnoresponsibilityorsuchmaterials.indextoadvertisersADRServicesInc.20ARC35ArrowheadEvaluationServices37BiomechanicalAnalysis29ExecutivePresentations32FieldsADR22FirstMediationCorp.17ForensisGroup7GreinesMartinSteinRichlandLLP16JackDaniels33JudicateWest29KGAInc.22TimothyMcGonigle14ProConsulInc.4RedlandsArbitration12RoughanAssociates8ThonBeckVanniCallahanPowell20 Volume32014verdict3RobertA.OlsonASCDC2014PresidentpresidentsmessageMysonwasaBoyScoutmorepreciselyheisanEagleScoutitssomethingthatstayswithyousaystheproudather.Tescoutshavea12-pointScoutLawrustworthyLoyalHelpulFriendlyCourteousKindObedientCheerulTriyBraveCleanandReverent.Hisscoutmastersometimesthought-provokinglyaskeditherewereathirteenthScoutLawpointwhatshoulditbeolerantGenerousetc.Itsaninterestingexerciseorlawyers.WhatprinciplesshouldalawyerstriveorTersttwoIthinkcanbeplagiarizedlawyerscallplagiarismadheringtoprecedentromthescoutsrustworthyandLoyal.Tepracticeolawallstartswithtrustworthiness.Tejuryhastotrustthelawyerithastotrusttheevidenceithastotrustthewitnesses.Itisthelawyersjobtobuildthattrust.Andthecourthastotrustthatthelawyerslegalandactualrepresentationstobeaccurateandthattheresultadvocatedisbothlegallycorrectandair.Ocoursetheclienthastotrustthelawyer.Butthereallygoodlawyersknowthattheyneedtobuildtrustalsowiththirdpartiesopposingwitnessesandopposingcounsel.Telawyeralsohastobeloyal.Tatmeansloyaltynotonlytotheclientbutalsotothejudicialsystemasawhole.Onecantallowloyaltytoaclienttooutweighloyaltytoseekingthetruthinaairprocess.ObedientandCourteouscanalsobecribbedromthescouts.Obedientissel-evident.Telawyerwhodeliberatelydisobeysacourtorderorclientwishesornogoodreasonisinvitingtrouble.Andcourtesyappliesnotonlytothecourtsandthoseinpowerbutalsotoopposingcounselwitnessesthepublicnomatterwhattheirbackgroundandcourtsta.Observethewell-seasonedveteransinanycourtroom.Teyareongoodtermswiththeiropposingcounsel.Andtheyareongoodtermswiththecourtsta.Teyrecognizethatcourtesytothecourtstabothreectswellonthemandmakesthewholeprocessworkbetter.Tecognateisthatcourtstasattitudesoenemanateromthejudicialofcerorofcersincharge.Acourteousandaccommodatingstareectsajudicialofcerwhobelievessuchcourtesyisimportantastathatiscurtanddifculttoworkwithisoenthatwaybecausethejudicialofcercreatesthatexpectationnomatterhowriendlythejudgemayseemonthebench.Bravealsoneedstobeinthelexiconolawyerprinciples.Itisthelawyersjobtotelltheclientandsometimesthecourtnotwhathesheitwantstohearbutwhathesheitneedstohear.Awiselawyeronceadvisedthatyourclientssubconsciouslymakeyoutheguardianotheirmorals.BoydHowoSucceedAsALawyer21StepsNov.1962exasBarJournal941992www.texasbar.comContentNavigationMenuForLawyersResourceGuidesForNewLawyersRolandBoydArticle.pdf.otheseveIwouldaddCreativeEfcientAliveNeuroticandHumble.Creativedoesntmeanmakingitupasyougoalongitmeansrecognizingproblemsandndinganalternativesolution.Atheartlawyersareproblemsolvers.CreativeandBravetogetheraredaringandintrepid.Sometimesyouhavetoputthecaseonthelinebasedonatheorythatinyourheartyouknowisright.Tatishowthelawismadeanddeveloped.Efcientisnotjustabillinggoalitisanattributeogoodlawyers.Teefcientlawyergetstotheheartotheproblemaddressesitandisdone.Tebestlawyersdontrequireorwantneedlessreamsodiscoveryorendlesstestimonyontangents.Teygettothenubotheissue.AbrahamLincolnasalawyerwasamousorconceding90percentotheothersidescasebutthenocusingonanddisposingothe10percentthatwonthecaseorhim.WhatdoImeanbyAliveImeanbeingpartotherestotheworld.Reallawyershavereallives.Teydontspendeverymomentintheofceorthinkingaboutthelaworacase.Lawisabouthowpeopleintherealworldrelatetoeachotherandtheworldaroundthem.obeabletounderstandletalonetohelpresolvesuchissuesthelawyerneedstobeapartotheworldaroundhimorherandtoconnecttoitandtootherpeople.Tereallygoodtriallawyersaretheoneswithbigpersonalitieswhoarealiveinthemomentandyethaveinterestinglivesoutsidethelawtoo.NeuroticYesneurotic.EverysuccessullawyerIknowhasastreakoobsessivecompulsivebehavior.WillthatbriereallygetledontimeHaveIcompletelydottedallotheIsandcrossedallothestoprovetheactthatIneedAlittleearisnecessarytokeepthesharpedge.AndlastbutnotleastHumble.Itseemsthatitisalwayswhenwethinkthatweareonthetopotheworldthatweslipup.ItiswellworthrememberingtheoldRomanadagethatallgloryisbuteeting.Wellthatsmy10charactertraitsoralawyer.Idbeinterestedinyours.10CharacterTraitsforLawyers 4verdictVolume32014 Volume32014verdict5MichaelD.BeloteLegislativeAdvocateCaliforniaDefenseCounselcapitolcommentTheNiagaraFallsofLegislationInastateascodiedasCaliorniaapersonmightreasonablyaskwhatsubjectscouldpossiblybelewhichrequirelegislation.AeralltheCodeoCivilProcedurealonecoverstwenty-fourvolumes.EachyearhowevertheCaliorniaLegislatureonceagainearnsthereputationasabillactory.Whenthedustclearedatendothe2014legislativeyearmorethan900newlawswereenactedandsignedintolawtoahemimproveourlives.GiventhisvolumethemonthoSeptemberisnotimetobeGovernoroCaliornia.AttheendothelegislativesessiononAugust30769billswereorwardedtoGovernorBrownorsignatureorveto.UnderthestateconstitutionhehaduntilSeptember30toactonthesebills.TisisnoeasyeattheGovernorreceivesanindividualizedpresentationoneachothe769billsinaone-monthperiod.Hevetoedapproximately150signingtheapproximately620remainingbills.Whenaddedtothebillssignedthroughouttheyearthetotalor2014isthe900gurementionedabove.TeCaliorniaDeenseCounselmonitored120billsorthe2014year.Othese58weresignedandsixwerevetoed.Tebillscoveredvirtuallyeverysubstantiveareaolawwithindeensepractice.Asinrecentyearsemploymentlawwasclearlyoneothemostactiveareasolegislation.OvervaryingdegreesobusinessoppositionGovernorBrownsignedthreeparticularlysignicantbillsrelatingtoemploymentAB1522GonzalezwhichrequireseverypublicandprivateemployerinCaliorniatoprovideaminimumnumberopaidsickdayswithinaveryprescriptivesetorequirementsAB1897HernandezwhichcouldmakeemployersliableorunpaidwagesoemployeesoindependentcontractorsworkingontheemployerspremisesandAB2617WeberwhichemployersearcouldinvalidatearbitrationclauseswhenFEHAclaimsareincludedinemploymentdisputes.Privacywasanotherareaolawattractingmajorinterest.SignedintolawwereAB1256BloomexpandingthedenitionsoactualandconstructiveinvasionsoprivacywherepremisesareenteredorthepurposesorecordingsoundsandpicturesAB1356BloomexpandingthedenitionostalkingandcausingemotionaldistressAB2306ChaualsodealingwiththeuseodevicestocommitconstructiveinvasionsoprivacyandinrecognitionoourmodernworldAB2643Wieckowskirelatingtosexting.Temedicalareabroadlydenedwasbusyin2014aswell.AlthoughobviouslynoMICRAchangeswereenactedbythelegislatureorbyvoterstheliabilityregulationandinsurancerelatingtoresidentialcareacilitieswereaddressedbyAB1523AB2171andAB2236pharmacistswerecoveredbyAB1535andSB960andendolienoticationswerethesubjectoAB2139.Tesebillsaremerelyillustrativeothesheerrangeoissuesrelevanttodeensepracticeaddressedbythelegislaturein2014.Otherbillsrelatedtopremisespublicentitiesincludingschoolsrealpropertycontractingorservicesandmuchmore.EachothebillsincludingcontentanalysesvotesandmoreisavailabletoASCDCmembersthroughthewebsite.Whenthenewlegislatureissworninorthe2015-2016sessionthewaterallolegislationwillbeginagain.NewbillsornextyearwillbesubjecttoanendoFebruarydeadlinebutitisavirtualcertaintythatbillswillbeintroducedondisabilityaccessliabilityunderHowell.HamiltonMeatsdemurrerstoxictortsSection909oferspartialsummaryadjudicationdiscoverySLAPPuseoelectronicrecording.TesebillswillbeconsideredbyalegislaturethatisatonceverynewtothesystemahugepercentagehaveservedortwoyearsorlessmoremoderatesomeestimatesarethatasmuchashalotheAssemblyDemocraticcaucuscouldbeidentiedasmoderateratherthanprogressiveandlesstrainedinthelawthenumberolawyersinthelegislaturecontinuestodecline.Moreinthespringwhentheonslaughtolegislationhasbeenintroduced. 6verdictVolume32014newmembersseptembernovemberArcherNorrisMatthewEschenburgArizonaSummitLawSchoolBrianFordBarberBauermeisterLindaBauermeisterBellatrixPCAliciaDearnBrydonHugoParkerReneeS.DiazSponsoringMemberStevenFleischmanCarrollKellyTrotterFranzenMcKennaPeabodyKayteeVotaStevenWysockySponsoringMemberDavidPruettCityofGlendaleCityAttorneysOceAnnM.MaurerSponsoringMemberLindaMillerSavittDonnaAndrewDonnaAndrewFordWalkerHaggertyBeharStacyYoungSponsoringMemberWilliamWoodlandFraserWatsonCroutchLLPShirleyWatkinsGordonReesDavidPhillipsDebraEllwoodMeppenHarringtonFoxxDubrowCanterJohnDewellMartinKristalSponsoringMemberMichaelJenkinsHiggsFletcherMackWilliamM.LowSponsoringMemberPeterDoodyKellerFigginsShayneFigginsKellyHockelKleinPComasK.HockelSponsoringMemberLindaMillerSavittLawOcesofDavidJ.WeissSigalitV.NourealSponsoringMemberDavidJ.WeissLewisBrisboisBisgaardSmithKennethC.FeldmanJohnLowenthalJereyRanenLongDelisJohnA.DelisLoyolaLawSchoolRockyGadeSponsoringMemberDeniseTaylorMatthewsLawGroupTyroneMatthewsSponsoringMemberRobertOlsonMitchellSilberbergKnuppAdamLevinSponsoringMemberLindaMillerSavittMohajerianPCAlMohajerianNeilDymottFrankMcFallTrexlerJennaBatemanJoshuaR.DryeCatherineM.ZungSponsoringMemberClarkHudsonOgletreeDeakinsNashSmoakStewartVinceVerdeRodiPollockPettkerChristianPramovPatrickJ.CainSponsoringMemberLindaMillerSavittSantaClaraUniversityMatthewGoodmanSponsoringMemberDeborahSiriasSeyfarthShawLLPF.ScottPageSponsoringMemberLindaMillerSavittSouthernCaliforniaEdisonCompanyCarlaBlancSturgeonWehbeEdwardAllenSturgeonSponsoringMemberEmilyWehbeTristarRiskManagementDaisyLi-BrumUlichGanionBalmuthFisherFeldLLPJamesGanionVictoriaOlagunjuVictoriaOlagunjuWadeLoweJosephHongSponsoringMemberRichardKoepWattenDiscoeBassettMcMainsMatthewA.ZavalaSponsoringMemberLisaMcMainsWilsonGettyLLPColinHarrisonWoodSmithHenningBermanConstanceA.EndelicatoWoodruSpradlinSmartRobertL.KaufmanSponsoringMemberDanielSpradlinYokaSmithJohnParkSponsoringMemberAprilHo Volume32014verdict7 8verdictVolume32014LIFECAREPLANSIComprehensiveTrialIMiniMediationSettlementConferenceICritiqueEXPERTTESTIMONYITrialIArbitrationIMediationSettlementConferenceVIDEOSERVICEIDayinLifeIMediationSettlementDocumentaryMEDICALRECORDSIReviewIChronologyIMEIAttendanceIReportCritique114WestColoradoBlvd.MonroviaCA91016626.303.6333Ext.16or17www.linc.bizJanRoughanRNLIFECAREPLANNING Volume32014verdict9PatrickA.LongwhatwedoLetmesuggestsomethingthatmayperhapsdrivealargepercentageoourmembershiptotallybonkers.Mostcertainlyyouhaveheardthissuggestionbeoreprobablymanytimes.Imsuggestingthateachousndadesertislandwithahighclassresortwherethemostexpensiveroomis100anightwherethecuisineisspectacularthenativesareallbeautiulclothingoptionalandaylorSwionyBennettU2andKatyPerryprovidethereenightlyentertainment.WouldyoubeinterestedinhangingthereoraweekOhyesletmeaddalastprovisothereisnoInternete-mailaccessnoWi-Finocellphoneusenadanothing.Youllbeinparadiseandcutoromtherestotheworldromclientsriendsamilywellyourspouseorbestriendgetstoaccompanyyouthemediaeverything.CouldyoudoitWoulditbeenjoyableProbablynot.MysuggestionspeciesaweekbutIvediscussedtheconceptwithaewoourmemberswhohaveconductedakindosimilarexperimentorjustaweekendocourseminusthedesertislandtheresortthespectacularcuisineandtheentertainment.WhattheydidwastounplugtheircomputersandstowthetabletscellphonesandassortedelectronicgearromFridaynightthroughMondaymorning.SixolksIspoketotriedthisandwhiletheresultsrangedromanearnervousbreakdowntoasenseotrulytotalrelaxationthegreaternumberourwerenotcomortablewereonedgeandworriedaboutwhatwasgoingonthattheydidntknowabout.Letsparsethisoutalittlebit.Tirtyyearsagomanyousdidntknowwhatabytewasandamousewasnothingmorethanarodent.odayourlivesaretoacertainextentruledbyelectronicsoonesortoranother.Itstrulyatwo-edgedswordwhichocoursemeansthatelectronicsbringagreatdealthatisgoodandpleasurabletoourlivesbutincorporatesbadthingsaswell.IknowIknowlieisindeedacompromise.Iacceptthatbutwhatweretryingtodohereistoweighthegoodstuwiththebadandseewhichsideoutweighstheother.Iwontwasteyourtimebylistingallthewonderulwaysinwhichelectronicsbenetourliveshowtheyincreaseproductivitykeepusintoucheliminatetheneedorpapersupplynever-endingblocksoinormationetc.Teproblemseemstobethataeryearsoavailingourselvesothesebenetsmostousseemtohavelosttheabilitytodisconnectromreceivingthesebenetswhenappropriatelikemaybeontheweekendorjustoranevening.Additionallytheriseotheelectroniccolossushastoacertainextenteliminatedotherormsocommunicationspecicallyoronetheletter.Ohocoursewestillsendtypedbusinesslettersromourofcesalthoughnotasoenasweusedtogiventhemodernusageoe-mailstocommunicatebusinessmatters.Butsomeousareoldenoughtorecallactuallyputtingapentopapertocommunicatepersonalamilyandsocialmatters.Suchcursivelettershavegonethewayothesodaountainandtheveanddimestore.BeoreyoustarttolabelmeLongtheLudditeletmeassureyouthatalthoughIstilluseaountainpenatmydeskIamtrulydevotedtokeepingupwithallthecontinuingprogressoourelectronicmediaandIamcloselyattunedtomanywebsitesdevotedtoliteraturehistorythingsIrishmoviesmusicpoliticalmattersandthelaw.ButaswithmycolleaguesmentionedabovewhobecamenervouswhendisconnectedromtheirsourcesoinormationIsometimesworrythatImtooconnectedthatImneverunconnected.FromthetimeIdressinthemorningImneverwithoutmycellphonewhichasweallknowismuchmorethanacellphone.Itreceivesandsendse-mailslogsontotheInternettextsanddoesmanyothertasks.AmIdoingsomethingwrongDoweallneedsomeseparationShouldwemakeourselvesdisconnectperiodicallyIsitthecorrectthingtodotowearaphoneallthetimeoralwayshaveourtabletsturnedonIllbedarnediIknowwhattheanswerstothesequestionsmaybe.Icanonlysaythattheelectronicrevolutionhasinmyopinionmadeallourlivesmostlybetternotworse.AndImhappytobeatthetouchoabuttonconnectedwithamilyriendsclientscolleaguesthecourtsandtheworldoinormation.Ijustdontknowhowmuchconnectionistoomuchconnection.IappreciatethatpsychologistsbusinessconsultantsandthelikearestudyingtheseissuesbutheyIdratherhearyourthoughtsonthesequestionsthantheirs.ElectronicallyyoursPatrickA.Longpalongldlawyers.comLetsGetAwayFortheWeekend 10verdictVolume32014ByDavidD.CardoneEsq.TrackingTrendsinCaliforniaEmploymentLawAlexanderv.FedExGroundPackageSys.Inc.andPattersonv.DominosPizza Volume32014verdict11continuedonpage12TeAlexanderv.FedExlawsuitwasledandcertiedasaclassactionorpurposesoresolvingcertainclaimsandwasconsolidatedwithothersimilarcasesormultidistrictlitigationMDL.OneotwocompanioncasesarisinginCaliorniaandOregonthecasehasacomplicatedproceduralhistory.AercerticationthetrialcourtdeniedtheplaintismotionorsummaryjudgmentwhilegrantingFedExsmotion.BecauseouniqueaspectsoCaliorniaemploymentlawthecaseresultedincross-appealsbybothpartiesonthequestionwhetherFedExhadmisclassiedtheworkersasindependentcontractorsratherthanemployees.TeNinthCircuitreversedthetrialcourtrulingsinavoroFedExusinglanguagethatprovidesacautionarytaletocompanieswhobelievetheyareentitledtorelyonexpressagreementswithworkerstoprovideservicesonanindependentcontractorbasis.EachothedriverswhowereclassmembersinthiscasehadsignedaversionoanindependentcontractoragreementwithFedEx.TeseagreementstermedOperatingAgreementsbyFedExprovidedthatthedriverswerenotemployeesandthatnoofceroremployeeoFedExshallhavetheauthoritynAugust272014athreejudgepanelotheUnitedStatesCourtoAppealsortheNinthCircuitpublisheditsrulinginAlexanderv.FedExGroundPackageSys.Inc.765F.3d9819849thCir.2014ndingthatFedExwastheemployerothenamedplaintisandapproximately2300similarlysituateddeliveryroutedriverswhoclaimedviolationsocertainrightsthatcouldbeassertedonlybyemployees.TecourtagreedwiththeplaintisonthequestionotheiremploymentstatuseventhoughthedrivershadsignedindependentcontractoragreementswithFedEx.TeAlexanderopinioncontinuesthetrendintheNinthCircuitasitinterpretsCaliorniaslawtocreateanemploymentrelationshipwherearighttocontroltheworkersisshown.MeanwhiletheCaliorniaSupremeCourtsrecentdecisioninPattersonv.DominosPizzaLLC60Cal.4th4742014oundnoemploymentrelationshipdespiteindiciaogeneralcontroloveremployeeswork.BothcasesoerinsightsintohowCaliorniaemploymentlawquestionsregardingacompanysstatusasanemployeraredecidedespeciallyinthecontextoranchiserelationships. 12verdictVolume32014toimposeanytermorconditiononthedriverwhichiscontrarytothisunderstanding.TeAgreementalsosetorththatdriversretainedauthoritytodeterminethemeansandmethodsodoingtheworkandthatFedExcouldnotprescribethehoursoworkwhetherorwhenthedriveristotakebreakswhatroutethedriveristoollowandsoon.TeCourtoundthatdespitetherelativereedomguaranteedtotheworkersbythislanguageday-to-daylieasaFedExdriverwasjusttheopposite.TeAlexanderCourtpointedoutthatFedExdidnotmerelydictatethedesiredendotheworkersperormancetimelydeliveryopackagesbutalsopreciselydictatedthemannerandmeansbywhichtheendwastobeaccomplished.FedExassigneddriverstospecicgeographicserviceareasandinsistedthatworkbedoneeachdaythatFedExwasopen.Driverswererequiredtosupplytheirowntruckwhichnormallywouldbeanindicatoroindependentcontractorratherthanemployeestatus.ButthetruckshadtodisplayFedExcolorsandlogoshadtobeoutttedtoFedExsprescribedcriteriaorshelvinganddrivershadtousethatvehicletodeliverallassignedpackageseachday.DriverswererequiredtoregisterandmaintaintheirvehiclestoFedExsstandards.DespiteowningtheirtrucksdriverswerenotpermittedtousethetrucksortheirownpurposeswithoutrstremovingallFedExlogosoridentiyingmarks.DriverswereencouragedtoleavetheirtrucksattheFedExacilitiesinordertohavethemloadedbyFedEx.DriverswererequiredtousescannersthatwereunavailableromanysourceotherthanFedEx.AlsodriverswererequiredtowearFedExuniorms.FedExevenregulateddriversappearanceandgrooming.AsorthejobitseltheCourtnotedthatFedExcareullyandstringentlyinsistedonwhenandhowpackagesweredeliveredandthatregulationextendedtothedriversworkdays.FedExrequiredthedriverswhotypicallyworked9.5-11hourseachdaytoworkheavilyregulatedschedulesandFedExlimitedtheabilityodriverstoaltertheirscheduleorgethelpromotherdrivers.DriversreceivedtrainingbyFedExandweresubjectedtoacodeoconductrefectiveoFedExsimageasahighqualityservice.FedExmanagersregularlyrodewithdriversalongtheirroutestoensurecompliancewithsuchregulations.ManagersEmploymentcontinuedfrompage11continuedonpage13observeddriverconductdowntominutiaeincludingwhetherdriversworkedwithasenseourgencyandobservedwhetherdriversheldtheirtruckkeysproperly.Driverswerealsosubjectedtodetailedsaedrivingstandards.Allthisdespiteinsistingthatthedriverswereindependentcontractors.ApplyingCaliorniaslong-standingcommonlawrighttocontrolanalysisthatistypicallyassociatedwiththeCaliorniaSupremeCourts1989decisioninS.G.BorelloSonsv.DepartmentofIndustrialRelations48Cal.3d341theNinthCircuitpanelocusedonwhethertherecorddemonstratedthatFedExretainedallnecessarycontrolovertheworkdonebythedrivers.HoweverinexplainingitsanalysistheCourtreliednotonlyBorellobutalsoontheCaliorniaSupremeCourts1970decisioninTiebergv.UnemploymentIns.App.Bd.2Cal.3d9431970.InterestinglyintherecentAyalav.AntelopeValleyNewspapersdecision59Cal.4th5222014theCaliorniaSupremeCourtalsorelieduponTieberginexplainingwhydemonstratingarighttocontroliscriticaltodemonstratinganemploymentrelationshipbutthatothersecondaryactorsmayalsobeconsidered.Tesesecondaryactorsallowconsiderationoavarietyoindividualizedaspectssuchaswhetherthereisanentrepreneurialupsidetotherelationshipandwhethertheworkrequiressupervisionorspecializedskill.TeAlexanderCourtultimatelyconcludedthatFedExretainedsuchabroadrighttocontrolthemannerinwhichitsdriversperormtheirworkthatthedriverswereFedExsemployeesasamatteroflaw.InAlexanderthepartiesagreedthattheBorelloanalysiswasthecorrectmeanstoresolvetheirdispute.TeyalsolargelyagreedontherelevantactsbutdisagreedonwhetherthoseactsanalyzedunderBorellodemonstratedthatthedriverswereFedExsemployees.TuswhilemarkingabaddayorFedExtheAlexanderopinionshouldnotbesaidtohaveexpandedCaliorniascommonlawruleordeninganemploymentrelationshipunderBorello.EmployersmayinactbeabletocontrastAlexanderinothercasestoshowthatarrangementslackingsucha Volume32014verdict13Employmentcontinuedfrompage12highdegreeocontrolshouldnotgiverisetoemployerstatus.QuestionswillundoubtedlyariseabouttheextenttowhichanemploymentrelationshipexistswhentheplaintiprovessomebutnotallotheeaturesoemploymentdescribedinAlexander.Deendantsshouldbeleeryoanyjuryinstructionorlegallyimproperargumenttothejurythatsuggestseachoneothoseeaturesissufcienttosupportandingthattheplaintiisnotanindependentcontractor.OnthatquestioncounselmayndguidanceinBowmanv.Wyatt186Cal.App.4th2862010inwhichtheCourtoAppealreversedaverdictoover15millioninapersonalinjuryactionbecauseoinstructionalerroronthequestionoemploymentstatus.TeplaintiinBowmansuedthedriverothedumptruckthatcausedhisinjuryaswellasthecityorwhomthedriverwasworkingatthetimeotheaccidentallegingnegligenceandvicariousliability.TeplaintiprevailedandonappealtheappellatecourtheldthejudgmentagainstthecitycouldnotstandbecausethestandardCACIormjuryinstructiononemploymentstatuswaserroneousCACINo.3704giveninthepresentcasedidnotcorrectlyinstructthejurythatitmustweighmultipleactorstodeterminewhetherplaintiwasanemployeeoranindependentcontractor.InsteadittoldthejurythatiitdecidedthattheCityhadtherighttocontrolhowplaintiperormedhisworkthenitmustconcludethatplaintiwasaCityemployee.Inotherwordsittoldthejurythattherightocontrolbyitselgaverisetoanemployer-employeerelationship.Inotherwordstheinstructiondidnotcaptureexistingprecedentontheissuewhichrequiresamorenuancedanalysis.GiventhatexplanationBowmanmayprovideauseulcounterpointtoargumentsthatrelyupontheoutcomeoAlexander.InsomethingoacoincidenceadayaerAlexanderwasdecidedtheCaliorniaSupremeCourtpublisheditsopinioninPattersonv.DominosPizzaLLC60Cal.4th4742014rehgdeniedSept.242014.TePattersonmajorityocusedonquestionsaboutwhetherandhowranchisorsmightbevicariouslyliableintorttoanemployeeoaranchiseewhoallegedsexualharassmentclaimsandviolationsoCaliorniasFairEmploymentandHousingAct.TemajorityopinioninPattersonturnedonapplicationotraditionalagencyprinciplesandoundthenotionovicariousliabilitybytheranchisortobeundamentallyinconsistentwiththeranchiserelationship.Tatwastrueeventhoughtheplaintidemonstratedtheimpositionandenorcementoauniormmarketingandoperationalplanbythedeendantcompany.Teranchisorinstitutedacomputertrainingprogramcoveringpizzamakingstoreoperationssaetyandsecurityanddrivinginstructions.Teranchisorrequireduseoacomputersystemthattheranchisorcouldaccessinordertotrackcertainsalessuchasthoseinvolvingproductpromotionsandrepeatcustomers.TecomputersystemalsocontainedemployeeinormationthatranchiseescouldusetoprepareworkschedulesandpayrolldocumentsTeranchisorprovidedaranchisehandbookandaManagersReerenceGuiderequiringranchiseeemployees1tobetrainedunderprogramsprovidedorapprovedbytheranchisor2tosubmittimecardsandreports3tosatisyminimumwageandexperiencestandardstoserveasdeliverydrivers4toweartheranchisorsuniorms5toadheretodetailedclothingandaccessoryguidelines6tomeetcertaingroomingandhygienestandardsand7torerainromconsumingalcoholorillicitdrugsandtolimittobaccousewhileworkingoronstorepremises.Teranchisorsareamanagersundertookvisitsandinspectionsthroughwhichtheywouldcoachranchiseesandemployeesonproblemstheyobservedwithpizzamakingoodsaetyproductpackagingstorecleanlinessemployeehygienecustomerordersconsumercomplaintsanddeliveryprocedures.Teyalsooeredadvicethatranchiseesreemployeeswhosesubstandardperormanceendangeredtheranchisorsbrandortheranchise.JusticeWerdegarwritingindissentconcludedthattheexistenceornon-existenceoarighttocontrolbytheranchisorshouldhavebeentheprimaryocus.JusticeWerdegarexplainedthattheplaintiinPattersonappearedtohaveraisedatriableissueoactonthatquestion.Heropinionmayprovidearoadmaporutureplaintistorameargumentsoranchisorliabilityinsuchcasesbyocusingonjointemploymentanalyses.DeendantsshouldbeonthealertorsuchtheoriesandmightpointoutthathavingbeenespousedinadissentingopiniontheywerenotacceptedbytheSupremeCourtmajorityandthusshouldnotbeadoptedinlowercourts.DavidD.CardoneEsq.TeauthorisashareholderoButzDunnDeSantisAPCaSanDiego-basedcivillitigationboutique.Hispracticeocusesondeendingcivilsuitsincludingproessionalliabilityandemploymentmattersalongwithissuesuniquetothetransportationindustry.Hecanbee-mailedatdcardonebutzdunn.com. 14verdictVolume32014 Volume32014verdict15continuedonpage16Youhavejustwonamajorvictorybyobtainingadeenseverdictbyavoteo9-3oryourcorporateclientavoidingaclaiminexcesso50million.Withinacoupleweeksyouareservedwiththeothersidesmotionornewtrialbasedonjurormisconduct.Tesupportingdeclarationsestablishthatoneothejurorsailedtodiscloseduringvoirdirethatrecentlysheandhercompanyowhichshewasapartownerhadsuccessullybeensuedonaclaimsimilartotheoneonwhichyoujustprevailed.Shortlyaerwardsheestablishedablogonwhichshecriticizedthejusticesystemandattorneyswhobringrivolousclaims.AnotherjurorduringdeliberationsusedhisiPhonetolookupthedenitionoprudentatermthatwascentraltotheliabilityissueinyourcase.Anotherjurorwhowasexcusedduringthetrialduetoahardshiptextedoneotheremainingjurorsduringtrialthatshehadormedabelieearlyonduringtheplaintiscase-in-chiethattheplaintismainwitnesswasaliarandthatdeendantshouldprevail.TeotherjurortextedbackIthinkyouareright.Illbringthisupwiththeotherjurors.Shethendidsobeorethecaseconcluded.AssumingtheseactsaretruewhatarethechancesyouwillbeabletoholdontothedeenseverdictTesearenotanciulscenarios.GoonlineandsearchGoogleorjurorsInternetmistrialsandyouwilldiscoveranumberoarticleswrittenaboutjurormisconductinvolvinguseotheInternetthatresultedineithermistrialsorreversalsonappealaerthetrialcourtdeniedamotionormistrial.Tisarticledoesnotrehashthevariouscasesaddressedinotherarticles.RatherouraimistoaddresshowyoucanusesocialmediaandtheInternettogainastrategicadvantagewithoutrunningaouloyourproessionaldutiesandhelpyoudetectjurormisconduct.TeDutyofCompetenceFirstyoumustrecognizethattobeacompetentattorneyyoumustunderstandandusetechnologywhenappropriate.CommentNo.8oRule1.1oTeAmericanBarAssociationModelRulesoProessionalConductstatesomaintaintherequisiteknowledgeandskillalawyershouldkeepabreastochangesinthelawanditspracticeincludingthebenetsandrisksassociatedwithrelevanttechnology.CaliorniahasnotyetadoptedsimilarlanguageinitsownRules.ButinanarticleintheLosAngelesCountyBarAssociationCountyBarUpdateOctober2013AndrewM.VogelopinesthatCaliorniawillrecognizesuchaduty.Seewww.lacba.orgshowpage.cfmpageid15158.AndProposedEthicsOpinionNo.11-0004recognizesthatanattorneysobligationsundertheethicaldutyocompetenceevolveasnewtechnologiesdevelopandthenbecomeintegratedwiththepracticeolaw.www.calbar.ca.govPortals0documentspublicComment20142014_11-0004ESI03-21-14.pdf.TisProposedOpinionaddressesanattorneyscompetenceinconnectionwithe-discovery.ItsonlyashortsteptoconcludeanattorneysdutyocompetencewillrequireuseotheInternetandsocialmediainconnectionwithlitigationwhenappropriate.JuryMisconductJurymisconductisanyconductbyajurorthatinterereswithapartysConstitutionalrighttounbiasedandunprejudicedjurors.Weathersv.KaiserFoundationHosps.19715C3d98103.Iyoulearnomisconductduringthetrialyoumustimmediatelybringittotheattentionothecourt.Youcannotwaitandseewhethertheoutcomewillbeavorabletoyourside.Lindemannv.SanJoaquinCottonOilCo.19365Cal.2d480496.Amotiontodismisstheviolatingjurorandinstallanalternateororamistrialareappropriateunderthecircumstances.SeeWeathersv.KaiserFoundationHosps.supra5Cal.3dat103Peoplev.Go1981127Cal.App.3d10391046.JurySelectionMissourirecognizesanafrmativedutyoralawyertoresearchpotentialjurors.SocialMediaandJuriesWhatCanGoWrongandWhattoDoAboutItByJusticeRet.J.GaryHastingsandJohnG.McCabePh.D 16verdictVolume32014SocialMediacontinuedfrompage15continuedonpage17InJohnsonv.McCulloughMo.2010306S.W.3d551ollowingadeenseverdictplaintifscounseldiscoveredromanonlinedatabasemaintainedbythecourtsCase.nethttpswww.courts.mo.govcasenetbasewelcome.dothatajurorhadliedduringvoirdireaboutnotbeingpreviouslyinvolvedinlitigation.Amotionornewtrialwasgrantedbythetrialcourtbutreversedonappeal.TeCourtconcludedthatlitigantscannotwaituntilaeraverdicttodobasicresearchonpotentialjurorswhenitcouldhavebeendoneduringjuryselection.ShortlyaerthattheMissouriSupremeCourtadoptedRule69.025whichmandatesbackgroundInternetsearchesonpotentialjurorsspecicallytheirlitigationhistoryusingCase.net.Researchingpotentialjurorsisraughtwithpotentialethicalandlegalviolations.CaliorniaRulesoProessionalConductRule5-320subsectionEprovidesAmembershallnotdirectlyorindirectlyconductanoutocourtinvestigationoapersonwhoiseitheramemberothevenireorajurorinamannerlikelytoinuencethestateofmindofsuchpersoninconnectionwiththepresentorfuturejuryservice.Emphasisadded.ABAModelRulesoProessionalConductModelRule3.5alsoprohibitscontactwithjurorsorpotentialjurorsexceptasauthorizedbylaworcourtorder.SeeInreHolmanS.C.1982286S.E.2d148.Teserulesdonotprohibitaninvestigationojurorsorpotentialjurorsonlythemannerinwhichitisdone.WhatdoesthismeanNewYorkBarAssociationFormalOpinion2012-2directlyaddressesthisissue.TeDigestprovidesAttorneysmaynotresearchjurorsitheresultotheresearchisthatthejurorwillreceiveacommunication.IanattorneyunknowinglyorinadvertentlycausesacommunicationwithajurorsuchconductmayrunaoulotheRulesoProessionalConduct.Teattorneymaynotusedeceptiontogainaccesstoajurorswebsiteortoobtaininormationandthirdpartiesworkingorthebenetooronbehaloanattorneymustcomportwithallthesamerestrictionsastheattorney.Shouldthelawyerlearnofjurormisconductthroughotherwisepermissibleresearchofajurorssocialmediaactivitiesthelawyermustrevealtheimproperconducttothecourt.Emphasisadded.TisFormalOpinionwascitedwithapprovalbytheSanDiegoCountyBarAssociationinitsEthicsOpinion2011-2whichdidnotaddressjurorcontactbutaddressedcontactwithanemployeeoanopposingparty.Seewww.sdcba.orgindex.cfmpgLEC2011-2.ButthegistotheopinionsaresimilaritisdeceptiveandaviolationotheRulesoProessionalConductianattorneyorsomeoneatthebehestotheattorneyseekstoriendorotherwisegetbehindthepublicportionsoawebsitetogaininormationabout Volume32014verdict17SocialMediacontinuedfrompage16continuedonpage18aperson.TeSanDiegoOpiniongoesurtherandstatesAriendrequestnominallygeneratedbyFacebookandnottheattorneyisatleastanindirectexpartecommunicationwitharepresentedpartyorpurposesoRule2-100A.ItsnotmucholeaptoconcludethatsuchanattempttoobtaininormationaboutajurorisalsoadeceptivepracticewhichmayviolateCaliorniasRule5-320subsectionE.TeNewYorkBarAssociationOpinionstatesTeCommitteeconcludesthatanattorneymayresearchpotentialorsittingjurorsusingsocialmediaservicesorwebsitesprovidedthatacommunicationwithajurordoesnotoccur.Communicationinthiscontextshouldbeunderstoodbroadlyandincludesnotonlysendingaspecicmessagebutalsoanynoticationtothepersonbeingresearchedthattheyhavebeenthesubjectofanyattorneysresearcheorts.Emphasisadded.ButtheAmericanBarAssociationinitsFormalOpinion466issuedonApril242014doesnotagreewiththeNewYorkBarAssociationthatnoticebythenetworktothepotentialjurorisaviolationoethics.TesummaryotheopinionstatesTeactthatajurororapotentialjurormaybecomeawarethatalawyerisreviewinghisInternetpresencewhenanetworksettingnotiesthejurorosuchdoesnotconstituteacommunicationromthelawyerinviolationoRule3.5b.SohowdoesanattorneyresearchjurorsorpotentialjurorswithoutacommunicationthatislikelytoinfuencethestateomindosuchpersoninconnectionwiththepresentoruturejuryserviceTeattorneymaytrytohidehisidentitybyusingsomeonenotconnectedwithhimorhisrmbutthatraisestheissueodeceptionaddressedintheNewYorkandSanDiegoBarOpinions.Stillconductingonlineresearchcanpotentiallycreateproblemsbecauseotheootprintswhichmaybelebehind.Footprintsareanyindicationtothepotentialjurorthattheyhavebeenthetargetoonlineresearchbyapartyinthesuit.Whileonlineresearchcanoersubstantialbenetsintermsoprovidingadditionalinormationtothatgarneredthroughvoirdireallormsoonlinejurorresearchhaveinherentrisksoleavingootprints.TekeyistominimizetheserisksthroughanunderstandingohowInternetandsocialmediasiteswork.Socialmediasitesoenallowuserstoaccessinormationonotheruserswhohaveviewedtheirpage.Inadditionsocialmediasitescollectinormationonthepagesthattheirusersvisitwithinthesite.Teserecordsareusedincreatingthepeopleyoumayknowportionotheusershomepage.TusiyouvisitsomeonespagewithinFacebookLinkedInetc.itislikelythatyouwillshowupontheirpeopleyoumayknowlist.TisallswellwithintheSanDiegoandNewYorkBarAssociationsdenitionocommunication.EvenitheresearchingattorneysadjusttheirownprivacysettingsinanattempttoviewotherspagesanonymouslythepotentialjurormayreceivenoticethatalegalproessionalromXYZlawrmviewedtheirpageagainacommunication.Tusattorneysandtheiragentsshouldneveraccessapotentialjurorspagesromwithinthesocialmediasite.Howevermanysocialmediauserswillallowsomeorallotheirinormationtobeaccessedbythepublicdependingontheusersprivacysettings.Tisisthecasewithwitterwheretweetscanbepublicbutinorderoruserstoseewhospecicallyisreadingtheirtweetsthereadermustbeaollower.TispublicinormationisaccessiblethroughsearchengineslikeGoogleandtherecordsothesesearchesthoughaccessibletothesocialmediasitearetypicallynotavailabletopotentialjurors.AsaresultonlineresearchojurorssocialmediashouldbeconductedthroughsearchengineslikeGoogleandlimitedtopubliclyavailableinormationwithoneveryimportantcondition.Attorneysandtheirresearchersshouldneverusetheirownpersonalizedcomputertoconductthesearches.Hereswhy.Manywebbrowserssaveinormationabouttheuserssocialmediaaccountse.g.user 18verdictVolume32014SocialMediacontinuedfrompage17nameandpassword.Tisinormationmakesaccessingsocialmediaaccountseasier.Howeverwhenauseraccessesapotentialjurorspublicinormationonasocialmediasitethroughasearchenginetheusersbrowsermayautomaticallylogintothesite.Tusthesearchwillcreatearecordotheattorneyssearchthatisavailabletothejuror.Asaresultattorneysandtheiragentsshoulduseonlysanitizedcomputersreeoadd-onsplug-insandpersonalizedinormation.Occasionallyapotentialjurorwillhaveawebsiteorpersonalblog.DependingonthejurorslevelosophisticationthejurormightbeabletotraceanysearchothewebsiteorblogbacktotheattorneythroughalogothesitevisitorsIPaddresses.Tisisparticularlytrueithepersonalwebsiteorbloggetsverylittletrafc.ItispossibletoavoidthisproblembyusingproxyserverswhichroutethesearchthroughotherserversmaskingtheoriginalserversIPaddress.Teuseoproxyserverstakessomeexpertiseonthepartotheattorneysortheiragentandalsohastheeectoslowingthesearchsometimesconsiderablyaproblemduringjuryselectionwhentimeisotheessence.Althoughthiswillprohibitthejurorromidentiyingtheattorneyssearchthecostscanoutweighthebenetsduringjuryselection.InsumbestpracticescallortheuseoasanitizedcomputerandasearchonlyopubliclyavailableinormationonpotentialjurorsthroughsearchengineslikeGoogle.IssuesArisingDuringTrialInU.S.v.JurorNo.1E.Dist.Pa2011866F.Supp842ajurorwasdismissedromjurydutyduetoworkconicts.Aerbeingdismissedshesentanemailtojurors8and9Itwasgreatmeetingyouandworkingwithyouthesepastthreedays.IIwassoortunateastohavenishedthejuryassignmentIwouldhaveoundDeendantguiltyonallourcountsbasedontheactsasIhearthem....Juror8respondedTankyouorsharingyourthoughts.Iamothesamemindandhavegreatdoubtthatthedeensecanproduceanythingnewtodaythatwillchangemythinking.Itdisturbsmegreatlythatpeoplelie....AnywayIwillshareyourmessagewiththegang.Juror1washitwitha1000neorcontemptocourtviolatinganorderocourtnottodiscussthecasewithanyoneuntilthecasehadbeencompleted.Weallknowthisoccursandthatjurorswillalsoseektoobtainoutsideinormationinaidodecidingthecaseitheybelievetheyhaventheardallotheevidence.Inmanycasesajurorwhohasheardandunderstoodtheadmonitionothejudgewillreportthemisconductanditcanberemediedduringthetrial.Inothercasescounselmaylearnothemisconductininterviewswithjurorsaerthetrialisoverwhichwilltriggeramotionornewtrial.InU.S.v.JurorNo.1suprathemisconductwasdiscoveredduringvoirdireojurorNo.8inatotallyunrelatedmatter.Butinsomecasesjurorsmaynotcomeorwardwithanyhelpulinormation.WhatdoyoudoFirstyoumustanticipatethatjurormisconductwilloccur.Addressthepossibilitywiththecourtattheoutsetandincludequestionsonvoirdireregardingjuroruseosocialmediatodeterminewhichjurorsusethetechnology.Makesurethecourtinstructsthejurorsregardingdiscussionothecasewithothersoramongthemselvespriortodeliberationsandthattheyarenottoobtaininormationromanyoutsidesources.AndtheseinstructionsshouldincludecommunicationsthroughsocialmediaandinormationsoughtthroughuseotheInternet.SeeCACINo.100Youmayalsorequestthatthejudgeissuetheadmonitionsasanorderthatcanbeenorcedbycontempt.WeallknowthatdespitetheseadmonitionsjurorsaretemptedtoanddoviolatetheinstructionsespeciallygiventheubiquitousnatureosocialmediaandtheInternet.SowhatmorecanyoudoIthecaseisworthityoumaywanttomonitortheInternettoseeithereisanyactivityinvolvingyourtrial.Howyoudosomaybeproblematic.Iduringvoirdireajuroridentiesherselasanactiveuserosocialmediatheattorneyshouldconsidermonitoringthejurorsonlineactivitiesduringthetrial.Tesameprecautionsdescribedaboveshouldbetaken.Butduringtrialwhentheremaybemoretimetocollectjurorinormationtheuseoproxyserversdespitetheirdrawbacksmaybeappropriate.Ocourseanyrelevantinormationgleanedromthismonitoringshouldbeimmediatelybroughttothecourtsattention.IssuesArisingAferTrialAerthetrialhasbeenconcludedianissueojurymisconductarisesamotionornewtrialpursuanttoCaliorniaCodeoCivilProceduresection6572istheappropriateremedy.Butevidenceislimitedinthisregard.CaliorniaEvidenceCodesection1150aprovidesUponaninquiryastothevalidityoaverdictanyotherwiseadmissibleevidencemaybereceivedastostatementsmadeorconductconditionsoreventsoccurringeitherwithinorwithoutthejuryroomosuchcharacterasislikelytohaveinuencedtheverdictimproperly.Noevidenceisadmissibletoshowtheeectofsuchstatementconductconditionoreventuponajuroreitherininuencinghimtoassenttocontinuedonpage19 Volume22014verdictgreensheetsiLisaPerrochetTheGreenSheetsalthoughpublishedlaterthanmostcurrentadvancesheetsbecauseofcopydeadlinesshouldserveasausefulreviewofrecentimportantdecisions.ReadersareinvitedtosuggestsignicantdecisionsforinclusioninthenextGreenSheetsedition.PleasecontactLPerrochethorvitzlevy.comTomaketheGreenSheetsausefultooltodefensecounseltheyareprintedingreenandinsertedinthemiddleofVerdictmagazineeachissue.eycanbeeasilyremovedandledforfurtherreference.OfcoursetheGreenSheetsarealwaysoneattorneysinterpretationofthecaseandeachattorneyshouldthoroughlyreadthecasesbeforecitingthemorrelyingonthisdigest.Carefulcounselwillalsochecksubsequenthistorybeforeciting.greensheetsNOTESONRECENTDECISIONSAttorneyFeesandCostsCourtsmaynotorderapartyscounseltopayopponentsdefensecostsunderCCP1038.Settlev.StateofCalifornia2014228Cal.App.4th215.eplaintisuedthestateandacityforpersonalinjuriesshesueredonthebeach.epublicentitieswereimmunefromsuitandwarnedtheplaintiscounselthattheywouldseekdefensecostsunderCodeofCivilProceduresection1038shouldhenotdismissthelawsuit.Plaintiscounseldidnotdismissthesuitandthepublicentitiessuccessfullymovedforsummaryjudgmentandobtainedanorderagainstopposingcounseltopaytheirdefensecosts.Plaintiscounselappealed.eCourtofAppealSecondDist.Div.Tworeversed.Section1038providesformandatorydefensecostswherethetrialcourtdeterminesthataplaintipetitionercross-complainantorintervenordidnotbringtheproceedingwithreasonablecauseandinthegoodfaithbeliefthattherewasajusticiablecontroversyunderthefactsandlawwhichwarrantedthelingofthecomplaint.Noreferencetosanctioningcounselappearsandthecourtdeclinedtoreadanysuchlanguageintothestatute.AmemorandumofcostsisnotrequiredtorecoverfeessoughtbymotionunderCCP1717.Kaufmanv.DiskeeperCorporation2014229Cal.App.4th1.Aerthedefendantprevailedinacontractualarbitrationitsoughtanawardofattorneyfeespursuanttoaprevailingpartyfeeclauseinthepartiescontract.edefendantmovedunderCodeofCivilProceduresection1717whichrequiresthecourttoxthereasonableamountoffeesuponnoticeandmotion.etrialcourtdeniedthemotionbecausethedefendanthadnotledamemorandumofcostspursuanttoCaliforniaRulesofCourtrule3.1700.eCourtofAppealSecondDist.Div.Fourreversed.Apartyseekingfeespursuanttosection1717neednotleamemorandumofcostsinadditiontolinganoticedmotion.Postjudgmentinterestonattorneyfeeawardsbelongstotheattorneysnottheclients.Hernandezv.Siegel2014230Cal.App.4th165.AertheplaintiprevailedattrialonemploymentdiscriminationclaimsthetrialcourtawardedattorneyfeesinherfavorpursuanttoGovernmentCodesection12965.edefendantsenttheplaintisattorneysacheckforanamountequalingthefeeawardpluspostjudgmentinterestonthataward.Plaintisattorneyscashedthecheckincludingtheinterest.eplaintithensuedherattorneysforbreachingtheirduciarydutybynotgivinghertheinterest.etrialrejectedtheplaintisclaimholdingthattheattorneyswereentitledtotheinterestonthefeeaward.eCourtofAppealFirstDist.Div.Fivearmedholdingtheattorneyswereentitledtotheinterestontheawardintheirfavor.Voume22014erictgreenseetsierrocetTheGreenSheetsalthoughpublishedlaterthanmostcurrentadvancesheetsbecauseofcopydeadlinesshouldserveasausefulreviewofrecentimportantdecisions.ReadersareinvitedtosuggestsignicantdecisionsforinclusioninthenextGreenSheetsedition.PleasecontactLPerrochethorvitzlevy.comTomaketheGreenSheetsausefultooltodefensecounseltheyareprintedinreenandinsertedinthemiddleofVerdicmaazineeachissue.eycanbeeasilyremovedandledforfurtherreference.OfcoursetheGreenSheetsarealwaysoneattorneysinterpretationofthecaseandeachattorneyshouldthoroughlyreadthecasesbeforecitingthemorrelyingonthisdigest.Carefulcounselwillalsochecksubsequenthistorybeforecitin.rnNTENREENTDEIINAttorneFeesandostsourtsmaynotorderapartyscounseltopayoonentsdefensecostsunderP1038.lv.flifrni2014228al.App.4th215.eplaintisuedthestateandacityforpersonalinjuriesshesueredonthebeach.epublicentitieswereimmunefromsuitandwarnedtheplaintiscounselthattheywouldseekdefensecostsunderCodeofCivilProceduresection1038shouldhenotdismissthelawsuit.Plaintiscounseldidnotdismissthesuitandthepublicentitiessuccessfullymovedforsummaryjudgmentandobtainedanorderagainstopposingcounseltopaytheirdefensecosts.Plaintiscounselappealed.eCourtofAppealSecondDist.Div.Tworeversed.Section1038providesformandatorydefensecostswherethetrialcourtdeterminesthataplaintipetitionercross-complainantorintervenordidnotbringtheproceedingwithreasonablecauseandinthegoodfaithbeliefthattherewasajusticiablecontroversyunderthefactsandlawwhichwarrantedthelingofthecomplaint.Noreferencetosanctioningcounselappearsandthecourtdeclinedtoreadanysuchlanguageintothestatute.AmemorandumofcostsisnotreuiredtorecoverfeessoughtbymotionunderP1717.Kaufmanv.DiskeeerCororatio2014229al.App.4th1.Aerthedefendantprevailedinacontractualarbitrationitsoughtanawardofattorneyfeespursuanttoaprevailingpartyfeeclauseinthepartiescontract.edefendantmovedunderCodeofCivilProceduresection1717whichrequiresthecourttoxthereasonableamountoffeesuponnoticeandmotion.etrialcourtdeniedthemotionbecausethedefendanthadnotledamemorandumofcostspursuanttoCaliforniaRulesofCourtrule3.1700.eCourtofAppealSecondDist.Div.Fourreversed.Apartyseekinfeespursuanttosection1717neednotleamemorandumofcostsinadditiontolinanoticedmotion.Postudmentinterestonattornefeeawardseonstoteattornesnottecents.Hernandezv.iee2014230al.A.4th165.AertheplaintiprevailedattrialonemploymentdiscriminationclaimsthetrialcourtawardedattorneyfeesinherfavorpursuanttoGovernmentCodesection12965.edefendantsenttheplaintisattorneysacheckforanamountequalingthefeeawardpluspostjudgmentinterestonthataward.Plaintisattorneyscashedthecheckincludingtheinterest.eplaintithensuedherattorneysforbreachingtheirduciarydutybynotgivinghertheinterest.etrialrejectedtheplaintisclaimholdingthattheattorneyswereentitledtotheinterestonthefeeaward.eCourtofAppealFirstDist.Div.Fivearmedholdingtheattorneyswereentitledtotheinterestontheawardintheirfavor. iiverdictgreensheetsVolume22014CivilProcedure28USC1367ddoesnotsuspendstatestatutesoflimitationonclaimsdismissedwithoutprejudiceinfederalcourt.CityofLosAngelesv.CountyofKern201459Cal.4th618.InadisputebetweentheCityofLosAngelesandKernCountyovercertainwastemanagementlawsthefederalcourtdeclinedjurisdictionoverthematteranddismissedthesuitwithoutprejudicetoLosAngelessrighttore-leinstatecourt.ecityledsuitinstatecourt68dayslater.Whetherthesuitwastimelydependedonthecorrectinterpretationof28U.S.C.section1367dwhichprovidesthatwhereafederaldistrictcourtdeclinestoexercisesupplementaljurisdictionoverstatelawclaimsandinsteaddismisseswithoutprejudicetotheplaintisrighttobringtheminstatecourtthelimitationsperiodunderstatelawistolledwhiletheclaimispendingandforaperiodof30daysaeritisdismissed.eCourtofAppealheldthatLosAngelesssuitwastimelybasedonitsviewthatthestatuteoflimitationswassuspendedatthemomentthefederalsuitwasledleavingthecitywiththeremainderofthelimitationsperiodthathadnotrunwhenLosAngelesleditsfederalsuitplus30moredays.eCaliforniaSupremeCourtreversed.Section1367dallowsclaimsthatwouldotherwisehavebecomebarredwhilependinginfederalcourttobepursuedinstatecourtifrelednolaterthan30daysaerfederalcourtdismissalitdoesnotsuspendthelimitationsclocksoastoaddtimethatwasleintheoriginallimitationsperiodatthetimeofthefederallingtothe30days.Trialcourterredbyexcludingonepartysexpertswhereopponentsdemandmisstateddeadlinefordisclosureandpartystardydisclosurewasnotunreasonable.Staubv.Kiley2014226Cal.App.4th1437.PerCodeofCivilProceduresection2034.210defendantsservedbymailademandforexchangeofwitnessinformationbyDecember27201150daysbeforetrial.DefendantscompliedwiththeDecember27datebutplaintisdidnotservetheirexpertinformationuntilJanuary92012.edelaywasduetodicultyincontactingtheexperts.Plaintisnotieddefendantsthattheywouldmaketheirexpertsavailablefordepositionwithinacoupleofweeksbutdefendantsrefusedtodeposetheexperts.Onthedaysetfortrialdefendantssuccessfullymovedinlimineforanorderprecludingplaintisfrompresentingthebelatedlydisclosedexpertstestimony.iseectivelypreventedplaintisfromprovingtheircase.OnappealtheCourtofAppealirdDist.reversed.FirstdefendantslackedstandingtoobjecttoplaintisuntimelydisclosuresbecausetheDecember27dateindefendantsdemandwasimproperlycalculated.UnderCodeofCivilProceduresection1013thedisclosuredateisextendedbyvedaysifserviceisbymailevenifaddingthoseveextradaysmeansthedisclosuredateisfewerthan50daysbeforetrial.Secondplaintistardydisclosurewasnotunreasonablebecausetheywereonlyaweeklatetheyhadoeredtheopportunitytodeposetheirexpertssoanyprejudicetodefendantswastheirownfaultforfailingtodeposetheexpertsandotherwisedidnotshowanysignsofgamesmanship.Suchcircumstancesdidnotwarrantwhatwasineectaterminatingsanction.Treatingdoctorsmaytestifytothereasonablevalueoftheirserviceswithoutbeingdesignatedasexperts.Ochoav.Dorado2014228Cal.App.4th120.Inanactionforpersonalinjuriesthetrialcourtprecludedplaintistreatingphysicianfromtestifyingonthereasonablevalueofhisservicestotheplaintisonthegroundhewasnotdisclosedasaretainedexpert.ejuryfoundfortheplaintis.WhenrulingonposttrialmotionsthetrialcourtheldthattheplaintishadpresentednoevidenceofthereasonablevalueoftheirpastandfuturemedicalcarebecausetheypresentedonlyevidenceofamountsbilledwhichisnotcompetentevidenceunderCorenbaumv.Lampkin2013215Cal.App.4th1308.eCourtofAppealSecondDist.Div.reedismissedtheappealforlackofanaljudgmentbutaddressedthemedicalexpensesissuestoguidethetrialcourtgoingforward.ecourtheldthatatreatingphysicianwhobecamefamiliarwiththereasonablevalueofhismedicalservicesinthecourseoftreatingtheplaintisandnotforpurposesofthelitigationmaytestifyastothereasonablevalueofhisserviceswithoutcomplyingwiththeretainedexpertdisclosurerules.Generalinpersonamjurisdictionovercorporationsexistonlywherecorporationsareathome.Martinezv.AeroCaribbean9thCir.2014764F.3d1062.CaliforniaresidentplaintissuedaFrenchairlineoveracrashthatoccurredinCuba.ToobtainpersonaljurisdictionovertheFrenchairlineinCaliforniatheplaintisservedoneofitsocerswhilehewasatabusinessconferenceinCalifornia.edistrictcourtdismissedthesuitforlackofpersonaljurisdictioninCalifornia.eNinthCircuitarmed.etagserviceofprocessonacorporationsocerwithintheforumstatedoesnotcreategeneralpersonaljurisdictionoverthecorporation.Generalpersonaljurisdictionoveracorporationexistsonlywhenthecorporationisincorporatedinthestatehasitsprincipalplaceofbusinessthereoritscontactsareotherwisesoconstantandpervasiveastorenderitessentiallyathomeintheforumstate.Absentgeneraljurisdictionplaintismustestablishspecicjurisdictioni.e.thatthecasearisesoutofoutoforrelatestothedefendantscontactswiththeforum.Partiesmaynotappointtemporaryjudgetoapproveclassactionsettlementpriortoclasscertication.Luckeyv.SuperiorCourtCottonOnUSAInc.2014228Cal.App.4th81.enamedplaintibroughtsuitforviolationsofthefederalFairandAccurateCreditTransactionsAct.epartiesreachedamediatedsettlementpriortoclasscerticationandstipulatedthatatemporaryjudgewouldbeappointedtoapprovethesettlement.eSuperiorCourtrefusedtoappointatemporaryjudgebecausecounselforthenamedplaintilackedauthoritytostipulatetoatemporaryjudgeonbehalfofabsentpotentialclassmembers.enamedplaintisoughtwritreliefrequestinganorderdirectingtheSuperiorCourttoappointatemporaryjudge.continuedonpageiiiiierictgreenseetsVoume22014ivilPrr28US1367ddoesnotsuspendstatestatutesflimiinnlimimiwihprejudiceinfederalcourt.CityofLosAngelesv.CountyofKer201459al.4th618.InadisputebetweentheCityofLosAngelesandKernCountyovercertainwastemanagementlawsthefederalcourtdeclinedjurisdictionoverthematteranddismissedthesuitwithoutprejudicetoLosAngelessrighttore-leinstatecourt.ecityledsuitinstatecourt68dayslater.Whetherthesuitwastimelydependedonthecorrectinterpretationof28U.S.C.section1367dwhichprovidesthatwhereafederaldistrictcourtdeclinestoexercisesupplementaljurisdictionoverstatelawclaimsandinsteaddismisseswithoutprejudicetotheplaintisrighttobringtheminstatecourtthelimitationsperiodunderstatelawistolledwhiletheclaimispendingandforaperiodof30daysaeritisdismissed.eCourtofAppealheldthatLosAngelesssuitwastimelybasedonitsviewthatthestatuteoflimitationswassuspendedatthemomentthefederalsuitwasledleavinthecitywiththeremainderofthelimitationsperiodthathadnotrunwhenLosAnelesleditsfederalsuitplus30moredays.eCaliforniaSupremeCourtreversed.Section1367dallowsclaimsthatwouldotherwisehavebecomebarredwhilependininfederalcourttobepursuedinstatecourtifrelednolaterthan30daysaerfederalcourtdismissalitdoesnotsuspendthelimitationsclocksoastoaddtimethatwasleintheoriinallimitationsperiodatthetimeofthefederallintothe30days.Trialcourterredbyexcludingonepartysexertswhereoonentsdemandmisstatedeadlinefordisclosureandpartystardyrwnnrn.taubv.Kile2014226al.App.4th1437.PerCodeofCivilProceduresection2034.210defendantsservedbymailademandforexchaneofwitnessinformationbyDecember27201150daysbeforetrial.DefendantscompliedwiththeDecember27datebutplaintisdidnotservetheirexpertinformationuntilJanuary92012.edelaywasduetodicultyincontactintheexperts.Plaintisnotieddefendantsthattheywouldmaketheirexpertsavailablefordepositionwithinacoupleofweeksbutdefendantsrefusedtodeposetheexperts.Onthedaysetfortrialdefendantssuccessfullymovedinlimineforanorderprecludingplaintisfrompresentingthebelatedlydisclosedexpertstestimony.iseectivelypreventedplaintisfromprovingtheircase.OnappealtheCourtofAppealirdDist.reversed.FirstdefendantslackedstandingtoobjecttoplaintisuntimelydisclosuresbecausetheDecember27dateindefendantsdemandwasimproperlycalculated.UnderCodeofCivilProceduresection1013thedisclosuredateisextendedbyvedaysifserviceisbymailevenifaddingthoseveextradaysmeansthedisclosuredateisfewerthan50daysbeforetrial.Secondplaintistardydisclosurewasnotunreasonablebecausetheywereonlyaweeklatetheyhadoeredtheopportunitytodeposetheirexpertssoanyprejudicetodefendantswastheirownfaultforfailingtodeposetheexpertsandotherwisedidnotshowanysignsofgamesmanship.Suchcircumstancesdidnotwarrantwhatwasineectaterminatingsanction.Treatingdoctorsmaytestiytothereasonablevalueoftheirserviceswithoutbeingdesignatedasexerts.hv.Dr2014228al.App.4th120.Inanactionforpersonalinjuriesthetrialcourtprecludedplaintistreatinphysicianfromtestifyinonthereasonablevalueofhisservicestotheplaintisonthegroundhewasnotdisclosedasaretainedexpert.ejuryfoundfortheplaintis.WhenrulingonposttrialmotionsthetrialcourtheldthattheplaintishadpresentednoevidenceofthereasonablevalueoftheirpastandfuturemedicalcarebecausetheypresentedonlyevidenceofamountsbilledwhichisnotcompetentevidenceunderCorenbaumv.Lampkin2013215Cal.App.4th1308.eCourtofAppealSecondDist.Div.reedismissedtheappealforlackofanaljudgmentbutaddressedthemedicalexpensesissuestoguidethetrialcourtgoingforward.ecourtheldthatatreatingphysicianwhobecamefamiliarwiththereasonablevalueofhismedicalservicesinthecourseoftreatintheplaintisandnotforpurposesofthelitiationmaytestifyastothereasonablevalueofhisserviceswithoutcomplyinwiththeretainedexpertdisclosureruleseneralinpersonamurisdictionoverorporationsexistonlywherecorporationsarehm.Mrinzv.Arri9thir.201474F.12.CaliforniaresidentplaintissuedaFrenchairlineoveracrashthatoccurredinCuba.ToobtainpersonaljurisdictionovertheFrenchairlineinCaliforniatheplaintisservedoneofitsocerswhilehewasatabusinessconferenceinCalifornia.edistrictcourtdismissedthesuitforlackofpersonaljurisdictioninCalifornia.eNinthCircuitarmed.etagserviceofprocessonacorporationsocerwithintheforumstatedoesnotcreategeneralpersonaljurisdictionoverthecorporation.Generalpersonaljurisdictionoveracorporationexistsonlywhenthecorporationisincorporatedinthestatehasitsprincipalplaceofbusinessthereoritscontactsareotherwisesoconstantandpervasiveastorenderitessentiallyathomeintheforumstate.Absenteneraljurisdictionplaintismustestablishspecicjurisdictioni.e.thatthecasearisesoutofoutoforrelatestothedefendantscontactswiththeforum.artesmaynotapponttemporaryugetoarovecassactonsettementrortocasscertication.Luckeyv.uperiorourtottonnUAInc.2014228al.App.4th81.enamedplaintibrouhtsuitforviolationsofthefederalFairandAccurateCreditTransactionsAct.epartiesreachedamediatedsettlementpriortoclasscerticationandstipulatedthatatemporaryjudewouldbeappointedtoapprovethesettlement.eSuperiorCourtrefusedtoappointatemporaryjudebecausecounselforthenamedplaintilackedauthoritytostipulatetoatemporaryjudeonbehalfofabsentpotentialclassmembers.enamedplaintisouhtwritreliefrequestinanorderdirectintheSuperiorCourttoappointatemporaryjude.contnueonae Volume22014verdictgreensheetsiiieCourtofAppealSecond.DistDiv.reedeniedwritrelief.eCaliforniaConstitutiontheCaliforniaRulesofCourtandpublicpolicyconcernsallprecludetheappointmentofatemporaryjudgeforpurposesofapprovingthesettlementofapre-certicationclassaction.OfcialenforcementactionsunderCaliforniasUCLarenotbarredbyaclassactionsettlementinvolvingprivatecitizensclaimsforthesameconductsolongasthereliefsoughtisnotduplicative.Peoplev.IntelliGenderLLC9thCir.2014771F.3d1169.edefendantsettledaclassactionsuitbroughtunderCaliforniasunfaircompetitionlawagainstthemarketerofatestthatpurportedlypredictedthegenderofafetus.Noticeofthesettlementwasgiventotherelevantstateocialswhodidnotobjecttothesettlement.SubsequentlytheStateofCalifornialedanenforcementactionagainstthedefendanttestmarketerandthedefendantsoughttoenjointheenforcementactionasseekingduplicativerecoveryandinterferingwiththeclassactionsettlement.edistrictcourtdeniedthedefendantsmotiontoenjointheocialenforcementactionandthedefendantappealed.eNinthCircuitarmedthedistrictcourtsdenialofthedefendantsmotiontoenjointheentireenforcementactionbutreversedthedenialofthepartofthedefendantsmotionseekingtoenjointheclaimsforrestitution.estatewasnotentitledtoobtainarecoverrestitutiononbehalfofthestatescitizensbecausethatremedywouldduplicatetherestitutionaryreliefprovidedbytheclassactionsettlement.Butthepublicenforcementactionaimedatvindicatingbroadergovernmentalintereststhanwereatissueintheclassactionsothoseclaimscouldproceedtothatextent.EvidenceWorkersCompensationAppealBoardcannotorderincamerareviewofprivilegeddocuments.RegentsoftheUniversityofCaliforniav.WorkersCompensationAppealsBoard2014226Cal.App.4th1530.eWorkersCompensationAppealBoardorderedthedefendantemployertoproducedocumentstheemployerclaimedwereprivilegedforincamerareviewbyaspecialmaster.eemployersoughtwritreviewofwhethertheEvidenceCodestatutesgoverningprivilegeapplyinworkerscompensationproceedings.eCourtofAppealFourthDist.Div.reeheldthatEvidenceCodesection915doesapplyinworkerscompensationproceedings.AndbecauseitexpresslyprohibitsatribunalfromorderingapartytoproducedocumentsforreviewasameansofdeterminingthevalidityofaclaimedprivilegethecourtdeterminedthattheBoardsorderwaserroneousandgrantedthewrittherebyrelievingtheemployeroftheobligationtosubmittheprivilegeddocumentsforincamerareview.CourtofAppealreafrmsrulethatsubsequentremedialmeasuresareinadmissible.McIntyrev.TheColonies-PacicLLC2014228Cal.App.4th664.eplaintitenantwhosebusinessexperiencedarobberysuedthedefendantownerofashoppingcenterforfailingtoprovideadequatesecurity.etrialcourtexcludedunderEvidenceCodesection1151evidencethataertherobberytheshoppingcenterhiredsecurity.eplaintiappealedarguingthattheevidencewasrelevanttocausationi.e.thathavingsecuritywouldhavepreventedtherobbery.eCourtofAppealFourthDist.Div.Twoarmed.ecourtrejectedtheplaintisargumentthattheevidencewasrelevanttocausationandsonotwithinthescopeofEvidenceCodesection1151.Inthiscasetherewasnoquestionofwhethertherewassecurityatthecenteratthetimeoftherobbery.ecourtrejectedtheplaintisargumentthatevidenceofsubsequentremedialmeasuresisadmissibleundertheguiseofshowingthecausationratherthanbreachofthedutyofcare.atwouldignorethepublicpolicybehindsection1151whichistoencourageremedialmeasures.HealthcareCourtofAppealappliesHowelltovaluehospitalservicesrenderedwithoutacontract.ChildrensHospitalCentralCaliforniav.BlueCrossofCalifornia2014226Cal.App.4th1260.AhospitalsoughttorecoverfromBlueCrossthereasonableandcustomaryvalueasauthorizedbyregulationformedicalservicesrenderedwithoutacontracttoBlueCrossmembers.Attrialthecourtadmittedevidenceofthehospitalsfullbilledchargesbutexcludedevidenceofthelesseramountsithadhistoricallyacceptedaspayment.eCourtofAppealFihDist.reversedrelyingonHowellv.HamiltonMeatsProvisionsInc.201152Cal.4th541forthepropositionthatamedicalcareprovidersbilledpriceforparticularservicesisnotnecessarilyrepresentativeofeitherthecostofprovidingthoseservicesortheirmarketvalue.etrialcourterredbyexcludingevidenceofthehistoricalpaidamountsbecausethereasonablevalueofthehospitalsmedicalservicesmustbedeterminedaerconsideringallfactorsincludingtheamountsthehospitalacceptsaspaymentforitsservices.BlueCrossshouldhavebeenallowedtoconductdiscoveryintotheamountspaidbyotherpartiesforthehospitalsmedicalservices.ehospitalarguedthatthediscoverywoulddiscloseproprietarynancialinformationandtradesecretsbutthecourtheldthatanysuchinterestscouldbeprotectedthroughtheuseofprotectiveorders.ThereleaseofmerelydemographicinformationdoesnottriggerstatutorydamagesundertheCondentialityofMedicalInformationAct.EisenhowerMedicalCenterv.SuperiorCourtMalanche2014226Cal.App.4th430.Plaintisclassactioncomplaintallegedthatmedicalinformationwasreleasedwhensomeonestoleapasswordprotectedcomputerfromamedicalcenterswaitingroomarea.ecomputercontainednamesbirthdatespartialsocialsecuritynumbersandanindexofnumberscontinuedfrompageiicontinuedonpageivVoume22014erictgreenseetsiiieCourtofAppealSecond.DistDiv.reedeniedwritrelief.eCaliforniaConstitutiontheCaliforniaRulesofCourtandpublicpolicyconcernsallprecludetheappointmentofatemporaryjudgeforpurposesofapprovingthesettlementofapre-certicationclassaction.OfcialenforcementactionsunderCaliforniasULarenotbarredbyaclassactionsettlementinvolvingprivatecitizensclaimsforthesameconductsolongasthereliefsoughtisnotucatve.Peoplev.IntellienderLL9thir.2014771F.11.edefendantsettledaclassactionsuitbroughtunderCaliforniasunfaircompetitionlawagainstthemarketerofatestthatpurportedlypredictedthegenderofafetus.Noticeofthesettlementwasgiventotherelevantstateocialswhodidnotobjecttothesettlement.SubsequentlytheStateofCalifornialedanenforcementactionagainstthedefendanttestmarketerandthedefendantsoughttoenjointheenforcementactionasseekingduplicativerecoveryandinterferingwiththeclassactionsettlement.edistrictcourtdeniedthedefendantsmotiontoenjointheocialenforcementactionandthedefendantappealed.eNinthCircuitarmedthedistrictcourtsdenialofthedefendantsmotiontoenjointheentireenforcementactionbutreversedthedenialofthepartofthedefendantsmotionseekingtoenjointheclaimsforrestitution.estatewasnotentitledtoobtainarecoverrestitutiononbehalfofthestatescitizensbecausethatremedywouldduplicatetherestitutionaryreliefprovidedbytheclassactionsettlement.Butthepublicenforcementactionaimedatvindicatingbroadergovernmentalintereststhanwereatissueintheclassactionsothoseclaimscouldproceedtothatextent.vnWorkersomensationAealBoardcannotorderincamerareviewofprivilegeddocuments.eentsoftheUniversitofaliforniav.WorkersomensationAealsBoar2014226al.A.4th1530.eWorkersCompensationAppealBoardorderedthedefendantemployertoproducedocumentstheemployerclaimedwereprivilegedforincamerareviewbyaspecialmaster.eemployersoughtwritreviewofwhethertheEvidenceCodestatutesgoverningprivilegeapplyinworkerscompensationproceedings.eCourtofAppealFourthDist.Div.reeheldthatEvidenceCodesection915doesapplyinworkerscompensationproceedings.AndbecauseitexpresslyprohibitsatribunalfromorderingapartytoproducedocumentsforreviewasameansofdeterminingthevalidityofaclaimedprivilegethecourtdeterminedthattheBoardsorderwaserroneousandgrantedthewrittherebyrelievingtheemployeroftheobligationtosubmittheprivilegeddocumentsforincamerareview.CourtofAppealreafrmsrulethatsubsequentrmilmrrinmiil.McIntrev.TheColonies-PacicLLC2014228al.App.4th664.eplaintitenantwhosebusinessexperiencedarobberysuedthedefendantownerofashoppincenterforfailintoprovideadequatesecurity.etrialcourtexcludedunderEvidenceCodesection1151evidencethataertherobberytheshoppingcenterhiredsecurity.eplaintiappealedarguingthattheevidencewasrelevanttocausationi.e.thathavingsecuritywouldhavepreventedtherobbery.eCourtofAppealFourthDist.Div.Twoarmed.ecourtrejectedtheplaintisargumentthattheevidencewasrelevanttocausationandsonotwithinthescopeofEvidenceCodesection1151.Inthiscasetherewasnoquestionofwhethertherewassecurityatthecenteratthetimeoftherobbery.ecourtrejectedtheplaintisargumentthatevidenceofsubsequentremedialmeasuresisadmissibleundertheguiseofshowingthecausationratherthanbreachofthedutyofcare.atwouldignorethepublicpolicybehindsection1151whichistoencouraeremedialmeasures.rourtoAealaliesHowelltovaluehositalrvirnrwihnr.hilrnHospitalentralaliorniav.luerossoaliorni2014226al.A.4th1260.AhospitalsoughttorecoverfromBlueCrossthereasonableandcustomaryvalueasauthorizedbyregulationformedicalservicesrenderedwithoutacontracttoBlueCrossmembers.Attrialthecourtadmittedevidenceofthehospitalsfullbilledchargesbutexcludedevidenceofthelesseramountsithadhistoricallyacceptedaspayment.eCourtofAppealFihDist.reversedrelyingonowellv.HamiltonMeatsProvisionsInc.201152Cal.4th541forthepropositionthatamedicalcareprovidersbilledpriceforparticularservicesisnotnecessarilyrepresentativeofeitherthecostofprovidingthoseservicesortheirmarketvalue.etrialcourterredbyexcludingevidenceofthehistoricalpaidamountsbecausethereasonablevalueofthehospitalsmedicalservicesmustbedeterminedaerconsideringallfactorsincludintheamountsthehospitalacceptsaspaymentforitsservices.BlueCrossshouldhavebeenallowedtoconductdiscoveryintotheamountspaidbyotherpartiesforthehospitalsmedicalservices.ehospitalaruedthatthediscoverywoulddiscloseproprietarynancialinformationandtradesecretsbutthecourtheldthatanysuchinterestscouldbeprotectedthrouhtheuseofprotectiveorders.ThereleaseofmerelydemographicinformationdoesnottriggerstatutorydamagesundertheCondentialityofMedicalInformationAct.EisenhowerMedicalenterv.uperiorourtMalanche2014226al.App.4th430.Plaintisclassactioncomplaintalleedthatmedicalinformationwasreleasedwhensomeonestoleapasswordprotectedcomputerfromamedicalcenterswaitinroomarea.ecomputercontainednamesbirthdatespartialsocialsecuritynumbersandanindexofnumbersontinuedromaeiicontnueonpagev ivverdictgreensheetsVolume22014assignedtopaperleselsewhereinthebuilding.Plaintissought1000instatutorydamagesforeachofthe500000-plusallegedclassmembersforapurportedviolationoftheCondentialityofMedicalInformationActCMIACivilCode56etseq..emedicalcenterarguedthatthecomputerthedidnotresultinthedisclosureofmedicalinformationwithinthemeaningoftheCMIA.etrialcourtdeniedsummaryjudgmentandthemedicalcentersoughtawritofmandate.eCourtofAppealFourthDist.Div.TwoissuedthewritholdingthatthedemographicinformationthatbyitselfrevealednothingsubstantiveaboutthelistedpersonsmedicalconditionwasnotprotectedundertheCMIA.MerepossessionofstolenmedicalrecordsisinsufcienttoestablishviolationofCondentialofMedicalInformationAct.SutterHealthv.SuperiorCourtAtkins2014227Cal.App.4th1546.Athiefstoleahealthcareproviderscomputercontainingmedicalrecordsofapproximately4millionpatients.eplaintisledaclassactionundertheCondentialityofMedicalInformationActseeking1000perpatientwhoserecordswereonthecomputer.ehealthcareprovidersuccessfullydemurredonthegroundtherewasnoallegationthattherecordswereeveraccessedbythethiefandthuswereneverreleased.etrialcourtsustainedtheprovidersdemurrer.eCourtofAppealirdDist.armed.eplaintisdidnotallegethatthestolenmedicalinformationwasactuallyviewedbyanunauthorizedperson.MerepossessionofthemedicalrecordswasinsucienttoestablishbreachofcondentialityundertheAct.Moreoverthecourtplaintishadnotdemonstratedtheycouldallegethatprivatemedicalinformationwasactuallyviewedsoplaintiswerenotentitledtoleavetoamend.InsuranceConspiracytoabductchildisnotanoccurrenceunderhomeownerspolicy.Upasaniv.StateFarmGeneralInsuranceCompany2014227Cal.App.4th509.AfatheraccusedseveralindividualsincludingtheinsuredsofconspiringtohelpthemotherabducttheirchildtoIndia.einsuredssoughtadefensefromtheirhomeownersinsurerbuttheinsurerdisclaimedcoverage.etrialcourtruledthattherewasnodutytodefendandgrantedsummaryjudgmentintheinsurersfavor.eCourtofAppealFourthDist.Div.reearmed.Alloftheconductallegedwasnonaccidentalintentionalandpurposeful.ecourtrejectedtheinsuredsargumentthatthemothersunexpectedlylongstayinIndiawasunexpectedfromthestandpointoftheinsuredsandthusanaccidentbecausetheextendedstaymayhaveexacerbatedthefathersdamagesbutdidnotnegatetheintentionaltortthattriggeredtheclaim.Sexualmisconductbymassagetherapistwasnotcoveredbytherapistsemployersgeneralliabilitypolicy.Baekv.ContinentalCasualtyCompany2014230Cal.App.4th356.Amassagetherapistemployedbytheinsuredsexuallyassaultedaclientwhileperformingamassage.einsuredspolicycoveredtheinsuredwithrespecttotheconductoftheinsuredsbusinessandcovereditsemployeeswhileperformingdutiesrelatedtotheconductoftheinsuredsbusiness.Defendantinsurersuedbytheinsuredsaerdenyingcoveragesuccessfullydemurred.eCourtofAppealSecondDist.Div.Fouragreeingwithseveralout-of-statedecisionsarmed.Sexualmisconductatworkcannotbesaidtooccurwhileperformingdutiesrelatedtotheconductofaninsuredsbusinesseveniftheassaultoccursattheplaceofworkandduringtheworkday.Homeexerciseregimenwaswithinthecourseandscopeofcorrectionalofcersemployment.Youngv.WorkersCompensationAppealsBoard2014227Cal.App.4th472.Acorrectionalocerwasinjuredwhileperformingjumpingjacksathomeaspartofhisregularwarm-upexerciseregimen.HesoughtworkerscompensationbenetsbuttheWorkersCompensationAppealsBoardconcludedthattheexercisesdidnotariseinthecourseandscopeoftheocersemploymentanddeniedbenets.eCourtofAppealirdDist.reversed.Whereadepartmentalorderrequiredcorrectionalocerstomaintainthemselvesingoodphysicalconditionsothattheycanhandlethestrenuousphysicalcontactsoenrequiredofalawenforcementocerandwheretheemployerrequiredtheocerstoundergoperiodictrainingexercisesmanyofwhichinvolvedphysicalactivitysuchtrainingexercisesathomewerewithinthecourseandscopeoftheocersemployment.LaborEmploymentEmployersmaynotattributecommissionspaidononepayperiodtopreviouspayperiodstoachievecompliancewithminimumwagelaws.Peabodyv.TimeWarnerCableInc.201456Cal.4th662.eplaintianaccountexecutivewhosoldcableadvertisingbroughtawageandhourclassactionsuitagainstTimeWarnerallegingthatTimeWarnerfailedtopaytheminimumwageandforovertime.TimeWarneracknowledgedthattheplaintiregularlyworked45hoursperweekandwaspaidnoovertimeandthattheplaintispaycheckswereforlessthanone-and-a-halftimestheminimumwageasrequiredtoqualifyherforthecommissionedemployeeexemptiontothewageandhourlaws.TimeWarnerarguedhoweverthatperiodiccommissionsitpaidtheplaintishouldbereassignedtoearlierpayperiodsthusresultinginatotalsalaryhigherthantheminimumwage.edistrictcourtagreedwithTimeWarnerandgrantedsummaryjudgmentinitsfavor.OnappealtheNinthCircuitaskedtheCaliforniaSupremeCourtwhetherCaliforniascompensationrequirementscouldbesatisesbyreassigningcommissionwagespaidinonepayperiodtootherpayperiods.continuedonpagevcontinuedfrompageiiiiverictgreenseetsVoume22014assignedtopaperleselsewhereinthebuilding.Plaintissought1000instatutorydamagesforeachofthe500000-plusallegedclassmembersforapurportedviolationoftheCondentialityofMedicalInformationActCMIACivilCode56etseq..emedicalcenterarguedthatthecomputerthedidnotresultinthedisclosureofmedicalinformationwithinthemeaningoftheCMIA.etrialcourtdeniedsummaryjudgmentandthemedicalcentersoughtawritofmandate.eCourtofAppealFourthDist.Div.TwoissuedthewritholdingthatthedemographicinformationthatbyitselfrevealednothingsubstantiveaboutthelistedpersonsmedicalconditionwasnotprotectedundertheCMIA.MerepossessionofstolenmedicalrecordsisinsufcienttoestablishviolationofCondentialofMedicalInformationAct.utterHealthv.uerioourtAtkins2014227al.A.4th1546.Athiefstoleahealthcareproviderscomputercontainingmedicalrecordsofapproximately4millionpatients.eplaintisledaclassactionundertheCondentialityofMedicalInformationActseeking1000perpatientwhoserecordswereonthecomputer.ehealthcareprovidersuccessfullydemurredonthegroundtherewasnoallegationthattherecordswereeveraccessedbythethiefandthuswereneverreleased.etrialcourtsustainedtheprovidersdemurrer.eCourtofAppealirdDist.armed.eplaintisdidnotallegethatthestolenmedicalinformationwasactuallyviewedbyanunauthorizedperson.MerepossessionofthemedicalrecordswasinsucienttoestablishbreachofcondentialityundertheAct.Moreoverthecourtplaintishadnotdemonstratedtheycouldallegethatprivatemedicalinformationwasactuallyviewedsoplaintiswerenotentitledtoleavetoamend.nrnonsiractoabductchildisnotanoccurrenceunderhomeownersolic.asanv.tateFarmeneralInsuranceompan2014227al.A.4th509.AfatheraccusedseveralindividualsincludingtheinsuredsofconspiringtohelpthemotherabducttheirchildtoIndia.einsuredssoughtadefensefromtheirhomeownersinsurerbuttheinsurerdisclaimedcoverage.etrialcourtruledthattherewasnodutytodefendandgrantedsummaryjudgmentintheinsurersfavor.eCourtofAppealFourthDist.Div.reearmed.Alloftheconductallegedwasnonaccidentalintentionalandpurposeful.ecourtrejectedtheinsuredsargumentthatthemothersunexpectedlylongstayinIndiawasunexpectedfromthestandpointoftheinsuredsandthusanaccidentbecausetheextendedstaymayhaveexacerbatedthefathersdamagesbutdidnotnegatetheintentionaltortthattriggeredtheclaim.exualmisconductbymassagetherapistwasnotcoveredbytherapistsemployersgeneralliabilitypolicy.Baekv.ontinentalasualtyompan2014230al.App.4th356.Amassaetherapistemployedbytheinsuredsexuallyassaultedaclientwhileperforminamassae.einsuredspolicycoveredtheinsuredwithrespecttotheconductoftheinsuredsbusinessandcovereditsemployeeswhileperformingdutiesrelatedtotheconductoftheinsuredsbusiness.Defendantinsurersuedbytheinsuredsaerdenyingcoveragesuccessfullydemurred.eCourtofAppealSecondDist.Div.Fouragreeingwithseveralout-of-statedecisionsarmed.Sexualmisconductatworkcannotbesaidtooccurwhileperformingdutiesrelatedtotheconductofaninsuredsbusinesseveniftheassaultoccursattheplaceofworkandduringtheworkday.Homeexerciseregimenwaswithinthecourseandscopeofcorrectionalofcersemployment.Younv.WorkersompensationAppealsBoar2014227al.A.4th472.Acorrectionalocerwasinjuredwhileperformingjumpingjacksathomeaspartofhisregularwarm-upexerciseregimen.HesoughtworkerscompensationbenetsbuttheWorkersCompensationAppealsBoardconcludedthattheexercisesdidnotariseinthecourseandscopeoftheocersemploymentanddeniedbenets.eCourtofAppealirdDist.reversed.Whereadepartmentalorderrequiredcorrectionalocerstomaintainthemselvesingoodphysicalconditionsothattheycanhandlethestrenuousphysicalcontactsoenrequiredofalawenforcementocerandwheretheemployerrequiredtheocerstoundergoperiodictrainingexercisesmanyofwhichinvolvedphysicalactivitysuchtrainingexercisesathomewerewithinthecourseandscopeoftheocersemployment.LaborEmlomentEmployersmaynotattributecommissionspaidononepayperiodtopreviouspayperiodstoacevecompancewtmnmumwageaws.Peabodyv.TimeWarnerableInc.201456al.4th662.eplaintianaccountexecutivewhosoldcableadvertisinbrouhtawaeandhourclassactionsuitaainstTimeWarneralleinthatTimeWarnerfailedtopaytheminimumwaeandforovertime.TimeWarneracknowlededthattheplaintireularlyworked45hoursperweekandwaspaidnoovertimeandthattheplaintispaycheckswereforlessthanone-and-a-halftimestheminimumwaeasrequiredtoqualifyherforthecommissionedemployeeexemptiontothewaeandhourlaws.TimeWarneraruedhoweverthatperiodiccommissionsitpaidtheplaintishouldbereassinedtoearlierpayperiodsthusresultininatotalsalaryhiherthantheminimumwae.edistrictcourtareedwithTimeWarnerandrantedsummaryjudmentinitsfavor.OnappealtheNinthCircuitaskedtheCaliforniaSupremeCourtwhetherCaliforniascompensationrequirementscouldbesatisesbyreassinincommissionwaespaidinonepayperiodtootherpayperiods.contnueonpagevontinuedromaeiii Volume22014verdictgreensheetsveCaliforniaSupremeCourtheldthatemployersmaynotattributecommissionwagespaidinonepayperiodtootherpayperiods.Whethertheminimumearningsprongissatiseddependsontheamountofwagesactuallypaidinapayperiod.Anemployermaynotattributewagespaidinonepayperiodtoapriorpayperiodtocureashortfall.ExhaustionofDFEHadministrativeremediesisnotajurisdictionalrequirement.Kimv.KonadUSADistributionInc.2014226Cal.App.4th1336.eplaintibroughtsexualharassmentclaimsagainstheremployer.Aerthecasewassubmittedtothetrieroffactfordecisiontheemployercontendedtheplaintihadfailedtoproveshehadexhaustedheradministrativeremediesi.e.presentingherclaimstotheDepartmentofFairEmploymentandHousingsosubjectmatterjurisdictionwaslacking.etrialcourtenteredjudgmentfortheplaintiandtheemployerappealed.eCourtofAppealFourthDist.Div.reearmed.ExhaustionofFairEmploymentandHousingActremediesisnotajurisdictionalprerequisitethataplaintimustproveattrialandsolackofproofofexhaustiondidnotrequirereversalofthejudgmentwheretheemployerdidnotraisetheissuepriortoorattrialnottomentiontherewasevidenceofexhaustionintherecordthatplainticouldhavepresentedattrialhadtheemployerraisedtheissuepriortosubmissionofthecasefordecision.MoreovertheplaintiwasnotrequiredtoprovethattheemployerhadatleastveemployeestoprevailonherclaimthatshewasforcedtoresignheremploymentduetosexualharassmentbecauseneitherharassmentclaimsunderFEHAnorcommonlawwrongfulterminationclaimsaresubjecttotheve-employeeminimum.Employersmustreimburseemployeesforareasonablepercentageoftheircellphonebills.Cochranv.SchwansHomeServiceInc.2014228Cal.App.4th1137.Inthisclassactionbroughtbyemployeeswhousedtheirpersonalcellphonestheemployeessoughtreimbursementforareasonablepercentageoftheircellphonebills.etrialcourtdeclinedtocertifytheclassbecauseofalackofcommonalityindividualizedinquiriesintoeachclassmemberscellphoneplanwouldberequired.eCourtofAppealSecondDist.Div.Tworeversedthetrialcourtsdenialofclasscertication.ecourtheldthatwhenemployeesmustusetheirpersonalcellphonesforwork-relatedcallsLaborCodesection2802requirestheemployertoreimbursethem.eindividualcircumstancesofeachemployeesplanmayberelevanttodamagesbutisirrelevanttocommonalitybecausethefailuretoreimbursealoneiswhatgivesrisetotheemployersliability.Whethertheemployeeshavecellphoneplanswithunlimitedminutesorlimitedminutesthereimbursementowedisareasonablepercentageoftheircellphonebills.Franchisorsarenottheemployersoffranchiseessupervisorandthusnotvicariouslyliableforsupervisorssexualharassmentofanotheremployee.Pattersonv.DominosPizzaLLC201460Cal.4th474caseno.S204543.PlaintiwhoworkedforaDominosPizzafranchisesuedheremployerthefranchiseeforsexualharassmentandalsosoughttoholdthefranchisorvicariouslyliable.etrialcourtgrantedsummaryjudgmentforthefranchisoronthegroundtherequisiteagencyrelationshipdidnotexistbetweenthefranchiseeandthefranchisor.eCourtofAppealreversed.eCaliforniaSupremeCourtreversedtheCourtofAppealandreinstatedthesummaryjudgment.Despiteagreatdealofcontrolbythefranchisoroverfranchiseesbusinessoperationsthefranchisordoesnotstandinanemploymentoragencyrelationshipwiththefranchiseeanditsemployeesforpurposesofholdingitvicariouslyliablefortheallegedworkplaceinjurieshere.ButseeAlexanderv.FedExGroundPackageSystemInc.9thCir.2014765F.3d981FedExdriverswhohadbeenclassiedasindependentcontractorswereinfactemployeesasamatteroflawwherethedriverscontractgivesFedExabroadrighttocontrolthemannerinwhichitsdriversperformtheirworkwithnumerousspecicday-to-dayworkactivitieswithinthecontrolofFedExratherthanatthediscretionofthedriversAndseeCastanedav.eEnsignGroupInc.2014229Cal.App.4th1015wheredefendantaholdingcompanywithnoemployeeswastheindirectownerofanothercorporationanursinghomewithemployeestheplaintinursinghomeemployeepresentedatriableissueoffactonthequestionwhethertheholdingcompanycouldbedeemedanadditionalemployerforpurposesofallegedLaborCodeviolationsgiventhecorporateownershipstatuspartialoverlapofcorporateocersandambiguousevidenceofsomecontroloverorinputintonursinghomeoperations.TortsArchitectsoweadutyofcaretofutureownersofahometodesignasafehome.BeaconResidentialCommunityAssociationv.SkidmoreOwingsMerrillLLP201459Cal.4th568.Ahomeownersassociationsuedamongotherstwoarchitecturalrmsfordesigndefectsthatallegedlymadehomesunsafeanduninhabitable.etrialcourtdismissedthearchitectsbecausetheyhadmadeonlyrecommendationsnotthenaldecisionsonconstructionandthereforeowednodutyofcaretofuturehomeownerswithwhomtheyhavenocontractualrelationship.eCaliforniaSupremeCourtreversed.Anarchitectowesadutyofcaretofuturehomeownersinthedesignofaresidentialbuildingwhere...thearchitectisaprincipalarchitectontheprojectthatisthearchitectinprovidingprofessionaldesignservicesisnotsubordinatetootherdesignprofessionals.edutyofcareextendstosucharchitectsevenwhentheydonotactuallybuildtheprojectorexerciseultimatecontroloverconstruction.continuedfrompageivVoume22014erictgreenseetseCaliforniaSupremeCourtheldthatemployersmaynotattributecommissionwagespaidinonepayperiodtootherpayperiods.Whethertheminimumearningsprongissatiseddependsontheamountofwagesactuallypaidinapayperiod.Anemployermaynotattributewagespaidinonepayperiodtoapriorpayperiodtocureashortfall.ExhinfDFEHminirivrmisnotaursctonarequrement.mv.nUADistributionInc.2014226al.App.4th1336.eplaintibroughtsexualharassmentclaimsagainstheremployer.Aerthecasewassubmittedtothetrieroffactfordecisiontheemployercontendedtheplaintihadfailedtoproveshehadexhaustedheradministrativeremediesi.e.presentingherclaimstotheDepartmentofFairEmploymentandHousingsosubjectmatterjurisdictionwaslacking.etrialcourtenteredjudgmentfortheplaintiandtheemployerappealed.eCourtofAppealFourthDist.Div.reearmed.ExhaustionofFairEmploymentandHousingActremediesisnotajurisdictionalprerequisitethataplaintimustproveattrialandsolackofproofofexhaustiondidnotrequirereversalofthejudgmentwheretheemployerdidnotraisetheissuepriortoorattrialnottomentiontherewasevidenceofexhaustionintherecordthatplainticouldhavepresentedattrialhadtheemployerraisedtheissuepriortosubmissionofthecasefordecision.MoreovertheplaintiwasnotrequiredtoprovethattheemployerhadatleastveemployeestoprevailonherclaimthatshewasforcedtoresignheremploymentduetosexualharassmentbecauseneitherharassmentclaimsunderFEHAnorcommonlawwrongfulterminationclaimsaresubjecttotheve-employeeminimum.Employersmustreimburseemployeesforareasonablepercentageoftheircellphonebills.ochranv.chwansHomeerviceInc.2014228al..4t1137.Inthisclassactionbroughtbyemployeeswhousedtheirpersonalcellphonestheemployeessoughtreimbursementforareasonablepercentageoftheircellphonebills.etrialcourtdeclinedtocertifytheclassbecauseofalackofcommonalityindividualizedinquiriesintoeachclassmemberscellphoneplanwouldberequired.eCourtofAppealSecondDist.Div.Tworeversedthetrialcourtsdenialofclasscertication.ecourtheldthatwhenemployeesmustusetheirpersonalcellphonesforwork-relatedcallsLaborCodesection2802requirestheemployertoreimbursethem.eindividualcircumstancesofeachemployeesplanmayberelevanttodamagesbutisirrelevanttocommonalitybecausethefailuretoreimbursealoneiswhatgivesrisetotheemployersliability.Whethertheemployeeshavecellphoneplanswithunlimitedminutesorlimitedminutesthereimbursementowedisareasonablepercentageoftheircellphonebills.Franchisorsarenottheemployersofranchiseessuervisorandthusnotvicariouslyliableforsupervisorssexualharassmentofanotheremployee.Pattersov.DominosPizzaLL201460al.4th474caseno.204543.PlaintiwhoworkedforaDominosPizzafranchisesuedheremployerthefranchiseeforsexualharassmentandalsosoughttoholdthefranchisorvicariouslyliable.etrialcourtgrantedsummaryjudgmentforthefranchisoronthegroundtherequisiteagencyrelationshipdidnotexistbetweenthefranchiseeandthefranchisor.eCourtofAppealreversed.eCaliforniaSupremeCourtreversedtheCourtofAppealandreinstatedthesummaryjudgment.Despiteagreatdealofcontrolbythefranchisoroverfranchiseesbusinessoperationsthefranchisordoesnotstandinanemploymentoragencyrelationshipwiththefranchiseeanditsemployeesforpurposesofholdingitvicariouslyliableforthealleedworkplaceinjurieshere.utseeAlexanderv.FedExGroundPackageSystemInc.9thCir.2014765F.3d981FedExdriverswhohadbeenclassiedasindependentcontractorswereinfactemployeesasamatteroflawwherethedriverscontractgivesFedExabroadrighttocontrolthemannerinwhichitsdriversperformtheirworkwithnumerousspecicday-to-dayworkactivitieswithinthecontrolofFedExratherthanatthediscretionofthedriversAndseeCastanedav.eEnsignGroupInc.2014229Cal.App.4th1015wheredefendantaholdingcompanywithnoemployeeswastheindirectownerofanothercorporationanursinghomewithemployeestheplaintinursinghomeemployeepresentedatriableissueoffactonthequestionwhethertheholdingcompanycouldbedeemedanadditionalemployerforpurposesofallegedLaborCodeviolationsgiventhecorporateownershipstatuspartialoverlapofcorporateocersandambiguousevidenceofsomecontroloverorinputintonursinghomeoperations.rArchitectsoweadutyofcaretofutureownersofahometodesignasafehome.eaoResidentialommunityAssociationv.kidmorewingserr201459al.4th568.Ahomeownersassociationsuedamonotherstwoarchitecturalrmsfordesindefectsthatalleedlymadehomesunsafeanduninhabitable.etrialcourtdismissedthearchitectsbecausetheyhadmadeonlyrecommendationsnotthenaldecisionsonconstructionandthereforeowednodutyofcaretofuturehomeownerswithwhomtheyhavenocontractualrelationship.eCaliforniaSupremeCourtreversed.Anarchitectowesadutyofcaretofuturehomeownersinthedesinofaresidentialbuildinwhere...thearchitectisaprincipalarchitectontheprojectthatisthearchitectinprovidinprofessionaldesinservicesisnotsubordinatetootherdesinprofessionals.edutyofcareextendstosucharchitectsevenwhentheydonotactuallybuildtheprojectorexerciseultimatecontroloverconstruction.ontinuedromaeiv viverdictgreensheetsVolume22014In-homecaregiversassumetheriskofinjuryfromAlzheimerspatientstheyarehiredtocarefor.Gregoryv.Cott201459Cal.4th996.WhenanAlzheimerspatientinjuredherin-homecaregiverthecaregiversuedforpersonalinjuries.etrialcourtgrantedsummaryjudgmentinfavorofthepatientonprimaryassumptionofriskgroundsandtheCourtofAppealarmed.eCaliforniaSupremeCourtarmed.eprimaryassumptionofriskdoctrinewhichismostoenappliedincasesinvolvingrecreationalactivitybutalsogovernsclaimsarisingfrominherentoccupationalhazardsapplied.Applicationofthedoctrineintheoccupationalcontextrstdevelopedasthereghtersrulewhichprecludesreghtersandpoliceocersfromsuingmembersofthepublicfortheconductthatmakestheiremploymentnecessary.erationaleforthisruleisthatsuchworkersasamatteroffairnessshouldnotbeheardtocomplainofthenegligencethatisthecauseoftheiremployment.edoctrinelikewiseappliedtotherelationshipbetweenhiredcaregiversandAlzheimerspatientsbecauseviolentbehaviorisacommonsymptomofthediseaseandnodutyshouldbeowedtoprotectcaregiversfromtheverydangerstheyarehiredtoconfront.HowevertheSupremeCourtlimiteditsruletoprofessionalhealthcareworkerswhoaretrainedandemployedbyanagencywithoutaddressingclaimsbyothercaregivers.Stairwaywidthandrailingdefectswerepatentasamatteroflaw.DelonHamptonAssociatesChtd.v.SuperiorCourtLosAngelesCountyMetropolitanTransportationAuthority2014227Cal.App.4th250.eplaintifellonastairwellatatransitstationandsuedtheMetropolitanTransportationAuthorityallegingthatthestairwellwastoonarrowandthatthebanisterwastoolow.MTAcross-complainedagainstthecontractorthatdesignedandbuiltthestairwell.econtractordemurredtothecross-complaintonthegroundtheallegeddefectswerepatentandaccordinglyclaimsbasedonthemwerebarredbythe4-yearstatuteoflimitationsapplicabletopatentdefects.etrialcourtheldthatthedefectswerelatentandrefusedtodismissthecross-complaint.ecross-defendantcontractorsoughtwritrelief.eCourtofAppealSecondDist.Div.reeissuedthewritdirectingthetrialcourttosustainthecontractorsdemurrer.eallegedstairwelldefectswerepatentasamatteroflaw.CompareHeskelv.CityofSanDiego2014227Cal.App.4th313trip-and-fallclaimagainstcityfailedasamatteroflawwhereplaintifailedtopresentevidencethattheconditionthatcausedthefallwasobvioussuchthatthecityintheexerciseofduecareshouldhavebecomeawareofitnotwithstandingevidencethattheconditionwaspresentforoveroneyearbeforehisaccident.MICRAstatuteoflimitationsappliestointentionaltortclaimsagainstdoctorbasedonconductoccurringwhiledoctortreatedpatient.Larsonv.UHSofRanchoSpringsInc.2014230Cal.App.4th336.eplaintiunderwentaprocedureforthetreatmentofakidneystone.eplaintiallegedthatduringapreoperativecheckupandtheadministrationofanesthesiatheanesthesiologistcommittedabatteryandintentionallyinictedemotionaldistressbygrabbingandtwistingtheplaintisarmpryinghismouthopenandliingpullingandpushingonhisfaceandhead.etrialcourtsustainedthedefendantsdemurrerstothecomplaintholdingthatthecomplaintwastime-barredundertheone-yearMICRAstatuteoflimitationscontainedinCodeofCivilProcedureSection340.5eCaliforniaCourtofAppealarmed.ecourtheldthatalthoughtheplaintilabeledhisclaimsasintentionaltortsareviewofthecomplaintshowsthattheplaintisclaimswereinfactbasedonprofessionalnegligencewithinthemeaningofsection340.5.ustheclaimsweretime-barred.ConsumerLawUCLclaimsbasedonworkplaceinjuriesarepreemptedbyCaliforniasfederally-approvedworkplacesafetyplan.SolusIndustrialInnovationsLLCv.SuperiorCourtPeople2014224Cal.App.4th17.Twofactoryworkerswerekilledwhenawaterheaterexplodedinthedefendantsmanufacturingfacility.AertheDivisionofOccupationalSafetyandHealthassignedfaultfortheexplosiontothedefendantthedistrictattorneyledacivilactionagainstthedefendantthatincludedarequestforcivilpenaltiesunderCaliforniasUnfairCompetitionLawUCLBus.Prof.Code17200etseq..edefendantarguedtheclaimwaspreemptedbyfederalworkplacesafetyregulations.etrialcourtdisagreedoverruledthedefendantsdemurrerandthedefendantsoughtwritrelief.eCourtofAppealFourthDistDiv.reereversedndingpreemption.efederalworkplacesafetylawpreemptsanystatelawworkplacesafetyenforcementmechanismincludingtheUCLthatwasnotspecicallyincorporatedintothestateworkplacesafetyplanapprovedbytheU.S.SecretaryofLabor.Magnusson-MossWarrantyActisnotsupplantedbySong-BeverlyConsumerWarrantyAct.Orichianv.BMWofNorthAmericaLLC2014226Cal.App.4th1322.eplaintiboughtaBMWbutstoppeddrivingitaeritdevelopednoisesthatseveraltripstothedealerdidnotcureandthatcausedplaintitofearforhersafetywhiledriving.PlaintieventuallysuedallegingclaimsforbreachofexpresswarrantyunderthestateSong-BeverlyConsumerWarrantyActandbreachofwrittenwarrantyunderthefederalMagnuson-MossWarrantyAct.ecasewenttotrial.etrialcourtdeclinedtoinstructthejuryonboththeSong-BeverlyandMagnuson-MossactsbelievingtheSong-BeverlyactsupplantedtheMagnuson-MossclaimandthataninstructioncontinuedonpageviiierictgreenseetsVoume22014In-homecaregiversassumetheriskoinjuryfromAlzheimerspatientstheyarehiredtorfr.regorv.ot201459al.4th996.WhenanAlzheimerspatientinjuredherin-homecareiverthecareiversuedforpersonalinjuries.etrialcourtrantedsummaryjudmentinfavorofthepatientonprimaryassumptionofriskgroundsandtheCourtofAppealarmed.eCaliforniaSupremeCourtarmed.eprimaryassumptionofriskdoctrinewhichismostoenappliedincasesinvolvingrecreationalactivitybutalsogovernsclaimsarisingfrominherentoccupationalhazardsapplied.Applicationofthedoctrineintheoccupationalcontextrstdevelopedasthereghtersrulewhichprecludesreghtersandpoliceocersfromsuingmembersofthepublicfortheconductthatmakestheiremploymentnecessary.erationaleforthisruleisthatsuchworkersasamatteroffairnessshouldnotbeheardtocomplainofthenegligencethatisthecauseoftheiremployment.edoctrinelikewiseappliedtotherelationshipbetweenhiredcareiversandAlzheimerspatientsbecauseviolentbehaviorisacommonsymptomofthediseaseandnodutyshouldbeowedtoprotectcareiversfromtheverydanerstheyarehiredtoconfront.HowevertheSupremeCourtlimiteditsruletoprofessionalhealthcareworkerswhoaretrainedandemployedbyanagencywithoutaddressingclaimsbyothercaregivers.tairwaywidthandrailingdeectswerepatentmrlw.DelonHamptonAssociateshtd.v.uperiorourtLosAngelesountMetropolitaTransportationAuthorit2014227al.App.4th250.eplaintifellonastairwellatatransitstationandsuedtheMetropolitanTransportationAuthorityallegingthatthestairwellwastoonarrowandthatthebanisterwastoolow.MTAcross-complainedagainstthecontractorthatdesignedandbuiltthestairwell.econtractordemurredtothecross-complaintonthegroundtheallegeddefectswerepatentandaccordinglyclaimsbasedonthemwerebarredbythe4-yearstatuteoflimitationsapplicabletopatentdefects.etrialcourtheldthatthedefectswerelatentandrefusedtodismissthecross-complaint.ecross-defendantcontractorsoughtwritrelief.eCourtofAppealSecondDist.Div.reeissuedthewritdirectinthetrialcourttosustainthecontractorsdemurrer.ealleedstairwelldefectswerepatentasamatteroflaw.CompareHeskelv.CityofSanDiego2014227Cal.App.4th313trip-and-fallclaimaainstcityfailedasamatteroflawwhereplaintifailedtopresentevidencethattheconditionthatcausedthefallwasobvioussuchthatthecityintheexerciseofduecareshouldhavebecomeawareofitnotwithstandinevidencethattheconditionwaspresentforoveroneyearbeforehisaccident.MICRAstatuteoflimitationsappliestointentionaltortclaimsagainstdoctorbasedonconductoccurringwhiledoctortreatedpatient.Larsonv.UHofRanchoprinsInc.2014230al.A.4th336.eplaintiunderwentaprocedureforthetreatmentofakidneystone.eplaintiallegedthatduringapreoperativecheckupandtheadministrationofanesthesiatheanesthesiologistcommittedabatteryandintentionallyinictedemotionaldistressbygrabbingandtwistingtheplaintisarmpryinghismouthopenandliingpullingandpushingonhisfaceandhead.etrialcourtsustainedthedefendantsdemurrerstothecomplaintholdingthatthecomplaintwastime-barredundertheone-yearMICRAstatuteoflimitationscontainedinCodeofCivilProcedureSection340.5eCaliforniaCourtofAppealarmed.ecourtheldthatalthoughtheplaintilabeledhisclaimsasintentionaltortsareviewofthecomplaintshowsthattheplaintisclaimswereinfactbasedonprofessionalneliencewithinthemeaninofsection340.5.ustheclaimsweretime-barred.nmrLwULclaimsbasedonworkplaceinuriesarepreemptedbyaliorniasederally-approvedworkplacesaetyplan.olusIndustrialInnovationsLLv.uperiorourtPeople2014224al.App.4th17.Twofactoryworkerswerekilledwhenawaterheaterexplodedinthedefendantsmanufacturingfacility.AertheDivisionofOccupationalSafetyandHealthassignedfaultfortheexplosiontothedefendantthedistrictattorneyledacivilactionagainstthedefendantthatincludedarequestforcivilpenaltiesunderCaliforniasnfairCompetitionLawUCLBus.Prof.Code17200etseq..edefendantarguedtheclaimwaspreemptedbyfederalworkplacesafetyregulations.etrialcourtdisagreedoverruledthedefendantsdemurrerandthedefendantsoughtwritrelief.eCourtofAppealFourthDistDiv.reereversedndingpreemption.efederalworkplacesafetylawpreemptsanystatelawworkplacesafetyenforcementmechanismincludintheUCLthatwasnotspecicallyincorporatedintothestateworkplacesafetyplanapprovedbytheU.S.SecretaryofLabor.Magnusson-MossWarrantyActisnotsupplantedbyong-Beverlyonsumerarrantyct.richianv.BMWofNorthAmericaLL2014226al.App.4th1322.eplaintibouhtaBMWbutstoppeddrivinitaeritdevelopednoisesthatseveraltripstothedealerdidnotcureandthatcausedplaintitofearforhersafetywhiledrivin.PlaintieventuallysuedalleinclaimsforbreachofexpresswarrantyunderthestateSon-everlyConsumerWarrantyActandbreachofwrittenwarrantyunderthefederalManuson-MossWarrantyAct.ecasewenttotrial.etrialcourtdeclinedtoinstructthejuryonboththeSon-BeverlyandManuson-MossactsbelievintheSon-BeverlyactsupplantedtheManuson-Mossclaimandthataninstructioncontnueonpagev Volume22014verdictgreensheetsviionSong-Beverlywassucient.ejuryfoundforthedefenseaerndingthatareasonablepersonwouldnothavebeenconcernedaboutthecarssafety.eCourtofAppealSecondDist.Div.reearmedbutonlyaerholdingthattheMagnuson-MossclaimwasnotsupplantedbySong-BeverlybecausetheMagnuson-Mossbreachofwrittenwarrantyclaimcanbeestablishedwithoutshowingareasonablepersonwouldbeconcernedabouttheproductsafety.Instructionsonbothclaimswererequired.ecourtnonethelessdeterminedthattheinstructionalerrorwasharmlessbothofplaintisclaimswerebasedonplaintisassertionthatenginenoisesindicatedtheenginewasdefectiveandrequiredreplacementsothejurysndingthattherewasnodefectareasonablepersoninplaintispositionwouldbelievesubstantiallyimpairedthevehiclesusevalueorsafetynecessarilyimpliedacompleterejectionofplaintistheoryofliability.ButseeBrandv.HyundaiMotorAmerica2014226Cal.App.4th1538trialcourterredinconcludingthatnoreasonablejurycouldconcludeanewvehiclesunroofthatspontaneouslyopensandcloseswhiledrivingconstitutesasafetyhazardinviolationoftheimpliedwarranty.PotentialConsumerLegalRemediesActdefendantmaynotseekdeclaratoryreliefthatitsconductdoesnotviolatetheAct.LunadaBiomedicalv.Nunez2014230Cal.App.4th459.eplaintiinaputativeclassactionallegingviolationsoftheConsumerLegalRemediesActforfalseandmisleadingmarketingofadietarysupplementservedthedefendantwithademandtoceaseanddesistthefalseadvertisingandsettlementcorrespondencefollowed.Beforeanysettlementwasreachedhoweverthedefendantledadeclaratoryreliefactionseekingadeclarationthatitsadvertisingwasnotfalseormisleading.eclassactionplaintiledananti-SLAPPmotionarguingthatthenoticeandsubsequentsettlementcommunicationswereprotectedactivityandthatsupplementmakerhadnotshownaprobabilityofsuccessonthemerits.etrialcourtgrantedthemotion.eCourtofAppealSecondDist.Div.Fivearmed.ApartywhoexpectstofaceaCLRAsuitmaynotaerreceivingstatutorynoticeofintenttosuemaintainadeclaratoryreliefactiontoestablishthattherewasnoviolationoftheCLRA.ItisinequitableforaconsumertobeforcedtodefendadeclaratoryreliefactiondivorcedoftheincentivesandrightsundertheCLRAmerelybecausetheconsumersentaCLRAnoticeandregardlessofwhetherthatconsumerdecidedultimatelytolealawsuitundertheCLRA.IndeedtheconsumermayreviewresponsestotheCLRANoticeanddecidenottobringanaction.Apreemptiverequestforadeclarationofrightswouldcompelthepartiestolitigatethematter.usconsumerswouldbedeterredfrommakingclaimsundertheCLRA.CASupremeCourtPendingCasesAddressingwhethertrialcourtorarbitratordecidesscopeofarbitrationagreementsasprovidingforclasswidearbitration.Sandquistv.LeboAutomotiveInc.caseno.S220812reviewgrantedNovember122014.AnAfrican-Americancarsalesmanbroughtindividualandclassclaimsagainsthisemployer-dealershipamongothersfordiscriminationahostileworkenvironmentandconstructivedischarge.Relyingonthreearbitrationagreementssignedbythesalesmanonhisrstdayofworkdefendantsmovedtocompelindividualarbitrationandtostayordismisstheproceedingswiththetrialcourtretainingjurisdictiontoenforceanyarbitrationaward.etrialcourtgrantedthemotiondismissingtheclassallegationsbecausetherewasnocontractualbasistocompelclassarbitration.Sincetheplaintihimselfisnowgoingtobesubjecttoindividualarbitrationtherewouldnolongerbeanyrepresentativeinthelawsuitthatwouldbeabletoadequatelyrepresentaclassactiontopursuetheclaimsthatareassertedbyplainti.eCourtofAppealreversedthedismissaloftheclassclaimsholdingthatabsentanexpressprovisioninthepartiesagreementanarbitratornotthetrialjudgemustdecidewhetherthenamedplaintisclaimssenttoarbitrationcanincludeclaimsforreliefonbehalfofaclass.eCaliforniaSupremeCourtgrantedreviewtodecidewhetherthetrialcourtorthearbitratordecideswhetheranarbitrationagreementprovidesforclassarbitrationiftheagreementitselfissilentontheissue.SeeNetworkCapitalFundingCorporationv.Papke2014230Cal.App.4th503agreementtosubmitanyclaimdisputeandorcontroversybetweenemployerandemployeetobindingarbitrationincluding...alldisputeswhetherbasedontortcontractstatute...equitablelaworotherwisewithspeciedexceptionsauthorizedcourtnotarbitratortodeterminewhetherclass-widearbitrationwaspermissibleundertheagreementagreementdidnotauthorizeclass-widearbitrationSeealsoKnutssonv.KTLALLC2014228Cal.App.4th1118trialcourtcorrectlyruledonarbitrabilityratherthanreferringtheissuetoarbitrationintheabsenceofanagreementunambiguouslyrequiringthattheissuebedecidedbyanarbitratorAndseeMalonev.SuperiorCourtCaliforniaBankTrust2014226Cal.App.4th1551delegationclausepermittingarbitratortodeterminedisputedissuesregardingenforceabilityofthearbitrationagreementitselfwasnotunconscionablewheretheclausewasapplicabletobothpartiesdidnotprovideforabiaseddecisionmakerandwasclearlyandconspicuous.AddressingwhetherHMOswhodelegatepaymentresponsibilitytoIPAsremainresponsibleforreimbursingphysiciansfortheirservicesiftheIPAfailstopay.CentinelaFreemanEmergencyMedicalAssociatesv.HealthNetofCaliforniaInc.caseno.S218497reviewgrantedJuly162014.UnderHealthandSafetyCodesection1371.4subdivisioneanHMOmustreimbursephysiciansforemergencyhealthcareservicescontinuedfrompagevicontinuedonpageviiiVoume22014erictgreenseetsviionSong-Beverlywassucient.ejuryfoundforthedefenseaerndingthatareasonablepersonwouldnothavebeenconcernedaboutthecarssafety.eCourtofAppealSecondDist.Div.reearmedbutonlyaerholdingthattheMagnuson-MossclaimwasnotsupplantedbySong-BeverlybecausetheMagnuson-Mossbreachofwrittenwarrantyclaimcanbeestablishedwithoutshowingareasonablepersonwouldbeconcernedabouttheproductsafety.Instructionsonbothclaimswererequired.ecourtnonethelessdeterminedthattheinstructionalerrorwasharmlessbothofplaintisclaimswerebasedonplaintisassertionthatenginenoisesindicatedtheenginewasdefectiveandrequiredreplacementsothejurysndingthattherewasnodefectareasonablepersoninplaintispositionwouldbelievesubstantiallyimpairedthevehiclesusevalueorsafetynecessarilyimpliedacompleterejectionofplaintistheoryofliability.utseeBrandv.HyundaiMotorAmerica2014226Cal.App.4th538trialcourterredinconcludingthatnoreasonablejurycouldconcludeanewvehiclesunroofthatspontaneouslyopensandcloseswhiledrivingconstitutesasafetyhazardinviolationoftheimpliedwarranty.PotentialonsumerLegalRemediesActefendantmaynotseekdeclaratoryreliefthatnnv.nmv.n2014230al.App.4th459.eplaintiinaputativeclassactionallegingviolationsoftheConsumerLegalRemediesActforfalseandmisleadingmarketingofadietarysupplementservedthedefendantwithademandtoceaseanddesistthefalseadvertisingandsettlementcorrespondencefollowed.Beforeanysettlementwasreachedhoweverthedefendantledadeclaratoryreliefactionseekingadeclarationthatitsadvertisingwasnotfalseormisleading.eclassactionplaintiledananti-SLAPPmotionarguingthatthenoticeandsubsequentsettlementcommunicationswereprotectedactivityandthatsupplementmakerhadnotshownaprobabilityofsuccessonthemerits.etrialcourtgrantedthemotion.eCourtofAppealSecondDist.Div.Fivearmed.ApartywhoexpectstofaceaCLRAsuitmaynotaerreceivingstatutorynoticeofintenttosuemaintainadeclaratoryreliefactiontoestablishthattherewasnoviolationoftheCLRA.ItisinequitableforaconsumertobeforcedtodefendadeclaratoryreliefactiondivorcedoftheincentivesandrightsundertheCLRAmerelybecausetheconsumersentaCLRAnoticeandregardlessofwhetherthatconsumerdecidedultimatelytolealawsuitundertheCLRA.IndeedtheconsumermayreviewresponsestotheCLRANoticeanddecidenottobringanaction.Apreemptiverequestforadeclarationofrightswouldcompelthepartiestolitigatethematter.usconsumerswouldbedeterredfrommakingclaimsundertheCLRA.AuremeourtPendinasesressngwetertracourtorartratordecidesscopeofarbitrationagreementsasprovidingforclasswidearbitration.andquistv.eoutomotvencaseno.S220812reviewgrantedovemer122014.AnAfrican-Americancarsalesmanbroughtindividualandclassclaimsagainsthisemployer-dealershipamongothersfordiscriminationahostileworkenvironmentandconstructivedischarge.Relyingonthreearbitrationagreementssignedbythesalesmanonhisrstdayofworkdefendantsmovedtocompelindividualarbitrationandtostayordismisstheproceedingswiththetrialcourtretainingjurisdictiontoenforceanyarbitrationaward.etrialcourtgrantedthemotiondismissingtheclassallegationsbecausetherewasnocontractualbasistocompelclassarbitration.Sincetheplaintihimselfisnowgoingtobesubjecttoindividualarbitrationtherewouldnolongerbeanyrepresentativeinthelawsuitthatwouldbeabletoadequatelyrepresentaclassactiontopursuetheclaimsthatareassertedbyplainti.eCourtofAppealreversedthedismissaloftheclassclaimsholdinthatabsentanexpressprovisioninthepartiesareementanarbitratornotthetrialjudemustdecidewhetherthenamedplaintisclaimssenttoarbitrationcanincludeclaimsforreliefonbehalfofaclass.eCaliforniaSupremeCourtrantedreviewtodecidewhetherthetrialcourtorthearbitratordecideswhetheranarbitrationareementprovidesforclassarbitrationiftheareementitselfissilentontheissue.SeeNetworkCapitalFundingCorporationv.Papke2014230Cal.App.4th503areementtosubmitanyclaimdisputeandorcontroversybetweenemployerandemployeetobindinarbitrationincludin...alldisputeswhetherbasedontortcontractstatute...equitablelaworotherwisewithspeciedexceptionsauthorizedcourtnotarbitratortodeterminewhetherclass-widearbitrationwaspermissibleundertheareementareementdidnotauthorizeclass-widearbitrationSeealsoKnutssonv.KTLALL2014228Cal.App.4th1118trialcourtcorrectlyruledonarbitrabilityratherthanreferrintheissuetoarbitrationintheabsenceofanareementunambiuouslyrequiringthattheissuebedecidedbyanarbitratorndseealonev.SuperiorCourtCaliforniaBankTrust2014226Cal.App.4th1551delegationclausepermittingarbitratortodeterminedisputedissuesregardingenforceabilityofthearbitrationagreementitselfwasnotunconscionablewheretheclausewasapplicabletobothpartiesdidnotprovideforabiaseddecisionmakerandwasclearlyandconspicuous.AddressingwhetherHMOswhodelegatepaymentresponstytosremanresponsibleforreimbursingphysiciansfortheirservicesiftheIPAfailstopay.ninlFrmEmergencyMedicalAssociatesv.HealthNetofCalifornianc.caseno.S218497reviewgrantedJuly162014.nderHealthandSafetyCodesection1371.4subdivisioneanHMOmustreimbursephysiciansforemergencyhealthcareservicesontinuedromaevicontnueonpagev viiiverdictgreensheetsVolume22014providedtoitsenrolleesevenwhenthephysiciansarenotundercontractstotheHMO.InthiscasethedefendantHMOdelegateditshealthcareobligationstoanindependentphysiciansassociationIPAmakingtheIPAliableforanypaymentstothephysicians.WhentheIPAfailedtomakepaymentsbecauseofnancialhardshipthephysicianssoughtpaymentfromtheHMO.WhentheHMOfailedtoreimbursethephysicianstheysuedtheHMOfornegligentdelegationofitsresponsibilitytotheIPA.eCourtofAppealSecondDist.Div.reeheldtheHMOliabletothephysiciansonthegroundthatanHMOhasadutynottodelegateitsobligationtoreimburseemergencyphysicianstoanIPAitknowsorhasreasontoknowwillbeunabletopay.eSupremeCourtgrantedreviewtoaddressthefollowingquestions1DoesthedelegationbyanHMOtoanIPAunderHealthandSafetyCodesection1371.4subdivisioneoftheHMOsresponsibilitytoreimburseemergencymedicalserviceprovidersforemergencycareprovidedtotheHMOsenrolleesrelievetheHMOoftheultimateobligationtopayforemergencymedicalcareprovidedtoitsenrolleesbynon-contractingemergencymedicalserviceprovidersiftheIPAbecomesinsolventandisunabletopay2DoesanHMOhaveadutytoemergencymedicalserviceproviderstoprotectthemfromnancialharmresultingfromtheinsolvencyofanIPAwhichisotherwisenanciallyresponsiblefortheemergencymedicalcareprovidedtoitsenrolleesAddressingwhetherjointlyandseverallyliablepartiesmaybesuedinseparateactions.DKNHoldingsv.Faerbercaseno.S218597reviewgrantedJuly232014.elessorofacommercialpropertybroughtanactionagainstthreeco-lesseesforpastduerents.elessordismissedwithoutprejudicetwoofthepartiesandreceiveda3millionjudgmentagainstthethirdpartywhichremainsunsatised.eleasespeciedalllesseeswerejointlyandseverallyresponsible.elessorthenbroughtthepresentactionagainsttheothertwolesseesfortheunpaidrent.etrialcourtsustainedthetwolesseesdemurrerswithoutleavetoamend.eCourtofAppealFourthDist.DivisionTwoarmed.Itheldthecomplaintdoesnotandcannotstateacauseofactionagainstthelesseesformoniesdueundertheleasebecausethelessorsclaimsagainstthelesseesinthepresentactionarebarredbytheclaimpreclusionaspectoftheresjudicatadoctrine.IngrantingreviewtheSupremeCourtlimitedtheissuestothefollowing1Whetherpartiesthatarejointlyandseverallyliableonanobligationcanbesuedinseparateactionsand2whethertheopinionoftheCourtofAppealconictswiththeopinionofthiscourtinWilliamsv.Reed195748Cal.2d57.AddressinguseofpatientinformationobtainedviatheControlledSubstanceUtilizationReviewandEvaluationSystem.Lewisv.SuperiorCourtcaseno.S219811reviewgrantedSeptember172014.eMedicalBoardofCaliforniatheBoardreceivedacomplaintfromadoctorspatientaboutthetreatmentshereceived.eBoardlaunchedaninvestigationofthedoctorwhichincludedaControlledSubstanceUtilizationReviewandEvaluationSystemCURESreportonhisprescribingpractices.BasedonthereporttheBoardobtainedrecordsfromsixofthedoctorspatientstwoofthosesetsofrecordswereobtainedthroughanadministrativesubpoena.Ultimatelythedoctorwasplacedonprobationforthreeyears.ChallengingtheprobationinanactionseekingawritofadministrativemandamusinthetrialthedoctorarguedtheBoardviolatedhispatientsinformationalprivacyrightsbyaccessingCURESinformationduringaninvestigationunrelatedtoimproperprescriptionpractices.etrialcourtdeniedthepetitionconcludingthatthepublichealthandsafetyconcernsservedbythemonitoringandregulationoftheprescriptionofcontrolledsubstancesservesacompellingpublicinterestthatjustiesdisclosureofprescriptionrecordswithoutnoticationorconsent.eCourtofAppealSecondDist.Div.reearmed.eSupremeCourtgrantedreviewofthefollowingissues1DoaphysicianspatientshaveaprotectedprivacyinterestinthecontrolledsubstanceprescriptiondatacollectedandsubmittedtotheCaliforniaDepartmentofJusticeunderHealthandSafetyCodesection111652IfsoisdisclosureofsuchdatatotheMedicalBoardofCaliforniajustiedbyacompellingstateinterestAddressingwhetherthereisarighttoajurytrialinactionsforviolationofhealthcareworkerwhistleblowerstatute.Shawv.SuperiorCourtTHCOrangeCountyInc.caseno.S221530reviewgrantedSept.292014.HealthandSafetyCodesection1278.5prohibitsahealthfacilityfromretaliatingagainstanyofitsemployeesforcomplainingaboutthequalityofcareorservicesprovidedbythefacilityandprovidesforremediesincludingreinstatementreimbursementforlostwagesandworkbenets...legalcosts...or...anyremedydeemedwarrantedbythecourt.Whenanex-employeeofahealthfacilitybroughtsuitunderthisprovisionforretaliationseekingmonetarylossesanddamagesforemotionaldistressthetrialcourtruledthatshewasnotentitledtoajurytrial.eemployeesoughtawritofmandate.eCourtofAppealSecond.Dist.Div.reeissuedthewrit.ecourtheldthatanemployeeseekinglostwagesorbenetsratherthanreinstatementisentitledtoajurytrial.eSupremeCourtgrantedreviewtoaddressthefollowingissues1DidtheCourtofAppealerrbyreviewingplaintisrighttoajurybywritofmandateratherthanappealSeeNesbittv.SuperiorCourt1931214Cal.1.2IstherearighttojurytrialonaretaliationcauseofactionunderHealthandSafetyCodesection1278.5CompareBristol-MyersSquibbCompanyv.SuperiorCourtAnderson2014228Cal.App.4th605wheredefendantengagedinsubstantialcontinuouseconomicactivityinCaliforniaincludingbillionsofdollarsinsalesofallegedlydefectivedrugspecicpersonaljurisdictionoverdefendantdrugmanufacturerincasebroughtbynonresidentplaintiswasconsistentwithdueprocess.continuedfrompageviiiiierictgreenseetsVoume22014providedtoitsenrolleesevenwhenthephysiciansarenotundercontractstotheHMO.InthiscasethedefendantHMOdelegateditshealthcareobligationstoanindependentphysiciansassociationIPAmakingtheIPAliableforanypaymentstothephysicians.WhentheIPAfailedtomakepaymentsbecauseofnancialhardshipthephysicianssoughtpaymentfromtheHMO.WhentheHMOfailedtoreimbursethephysicianstheysuedtheHMOfornegligentdelegationofitsresponsibilitytotheIPA.eCourtofAppealSecondDist.Div.reeheldtheHMOliabletothephysiciansonthegroundthatanHMOhasadutynottodelegateitsobligationtoreimburseemergencyphysicianstoanIPAitknowsorhasreasontoknowwillbeunabletopay.eSupremeCourtgrantedreviewtoaddressthefollowingquestions1DoesthedelegationbyanHMOtoanIPAunderHealthandSafetyCodesection1371.4subdivisioneoftheHMOsresponsibilitytoreimburseemergencymedicalserviceprovidersforemergencycareprovidedtotheHMOsenrolleesrelievetheHMOoftheultimateobligationtopayforemergencymedicalcareprovidedtoitsenrolleesbynon-contractingemergencymedicalserviceprovidersiftheIPAbecomesinsolventandisunabletopay2DoesanHMOhaveadutytoemergencymedicalserviceproviderstoprotectthemfromnancialharmresultingfromtheinsolvencyofanIPAwhichisotherwisenanciallyresponsiblefortheemergencymedicalcareprovidedtoitsenrolleesressngweterontyanseverayaepartesmayesuenseparateactons.ongsv.aerercaseno.218597reviewgranteduy232014.elessorofacommercialpropertybroughtanactionagainstthreeco-lesseesforpastduerents.elessordismissedwithoutprejudicetwoofthepartiesandreceiveda3millionjudgmentagainstthethirdpartywhichremainsunsatised.eleasespeciedalllesseeswerejointlyandseverallyresponsible.elessorthenbroughtthepresentactionagainsttheothertwolesseesfortheunpaidrent.etrialcourtsustainedthetwolesseesdemurrerswithoutleavetoamend.eCourtofAppealFourthDist.DivisionTwoarmed.Itheldthecomplaintdoesnotandcannotstateacauseofactionagainstthelesseesformoniesdueundertheleasebecausethelessorsclaimsagainstthelesseesinthepresentactionarebarredbytheclaimpreclusionaspectoftheresjudicatadoctrine.IngrantingreviewtheSupremeCourtlimitedtheissuestothefollowing1Whetherpartiesthatarejointlyandseverallyliableonanobligationcanbesuedinseparateactionsand2whethertheopinionoftheCourtofAppealconictswiththeopinionofthiscourtinWilliamsv.Reed195748Cal.2d57.AddressinuseofatientinformationobtainedvihnrllnilizinReviewandEvaluationstem.Lewisv.uerioourtcaseno.219811reviewrantedetember17214.eMedicalBoardofCaliforniatheBoardreceivedacomplaintfromadoctorspatientaboutthetreatmentshereceived.eBoardlaunchedaninvestigationofthedoctorwhichincludedaControlledSubstanceUtilizationReviewandEvaluationSystemCURESreportonhisprescribinpractices.BasedonthereporttheBoardobtainedrecordsfromsixofthedoctorspatientstwoofthosesetsofrecordswereobtainedthroughanadministrativesubpoena.Ultimatelythedoctorwasplacedonprobationforthreeyears.ChallengingtheprobationinanactionseekingawritofadministrativemandamusinthetrialthedoctorarguedtheBoardviolatedhispatientsinformationalprivacyrightsbyaccessingCURESinformationduringaninvestigationunrelatedtoimproperprescriptionpractices.etrialcourtdeniedthepetitionconcludingthatthepublichealthandsafetyconcernsservedbythemonitoringandregulationoftheprescriptionofcontrolledsubstancesservesacompellingpublicinterestthatjustiesdisclosureofprescriptionrecordswithoutnoticationorconsent.eCourtofAppealSecondDist.Div.reearmed.eSupremeCourtgrantedreviewofthefollowingissues1DoaphysicianspatientshaveaprotectedprivacyinterestinthecontrolledsubstanceprescriptiondatacollectedandsubmittedtotheCaliforniaDepartmentofJusticeunderHealthandSafetyCodesection111652IfsoisdisclosureofsuchdatatotheMedicalBoardofCaliforniajustiedbyacompellinstateinterestressnweterteresarttoaurrialinactionsforviolationofhealthcareworerwsteowerstatute.hawv.uerioourtTHraneountInc.aseno.221530reviewrantedet.292014.HealthandSafetyCodesection1278.5prohibitsahealthfacilityfromretaliatinaainstanyofitsemployeesforcomplaininaboutthequalityofcareorservicesprovidedbythefacilityandprovidesforremediesincludinreinstatementreimbursementforlostwaesandworkbenets...lealcosts...or...anyremedydeemedwarrantedbythecourt.Whenanex-employeeofahealthfacilitybrouhtsuitunderthisprovisionforretaliationseekinmonetarylossesanddamaesforemotionaldistressthetrialcourtruledthatshewasnotentitledtoajurytrial.eemployeesouhtawritofmandate.eCourtofAppealSecond.Dist.Div.reeissuedthewrit.ecourtheldthatanemployeeseekinlostwaesorbenetsratherthanreinstatementisentitledtoajurytrial.eSupremeCourtgrantedreviewtoaddressthefollowingissues1DidtheCourtofAppealerrbyreviewingplaintisrighttoajurybywritofmandateratherthanappealSeeNesbittv.SuperiorCourt1931214Cal.1.2IstherearighttojurytrialonaretaliationcauseofactionunderHealthandSafetyCodesection1278.5CompareBristol-MyersSquibbCompanyv.SuperiorCourtAnderson2014228Cal.App.4th605wheredefendantengagedinsubstantialcontinuouseconomicactivityinCaliforniaincludingbillionsofdollarsinsalesofallegedlydefectivedrugspecicpersonaljurisdictionoverdefendantdrugmanufacturerincasebroughtbynonresidentplaintiswasconsistentwithdueprocess.ontinuedromaevii Volume32014verdict19ordissentfomtheverdictorconcerningthementalprocessesbywhichitwasdetermined.Emphasisadded.Inotherwordsevidencerelatingtothesubjectivereasoningprocessesothejuryorthejurorsisinadmissible.Tislimitationpreventsonejurorromupsettingaverdictothewholejurybyimpugninghisownorhisellowjurorsmentalprocessesorreasonsorassentordissent.Teonlyimproperinfuencesthatmaybeprovedundersection1150toimpeachaverdictthereorearethoseopentosighthearingandtheothersensesandthussubjecttocorroboration.Citation.heseactscanbeeasilyprovedordisproved.Tereisinvariablylittledisagreementastotheiroccurrence.Citation.Peoplev.Hutchinson196971C2d342350.OneexampleoappropriatelyobtainingevidenceromsocialmediaisJurorNumberOnev.SuperiorCourtoSacramentoCounty2012206CA4th854.AertrialthetrialcourtwaspresentedwithinormationthatoneothejurorshadpostedinormationonhisFacebookpageduringtrialaboutthetrial.TecourtorderedthejurortoprovideconsenttoFacebooktoturnoverpostsmadeduringtheapplicabletimeperiodsothejudgecoulddetermineithejurorhadbeenguiltyomisconductandisowhetherthemisconductwasprejudicial.TeCourtoAppealdeniedapetitionorwritoprohibitionsoughtbyajurorwhoclaimedtheorderviolatedhisprivacy.Butobtainingthenecessaryevidencemaynotbeeasy.CaliorniaRulesoProessionalConductRule5-320subdivisionDprovidesAerdischargeothejuryromurtherconsiderationoacaseamembershallnotaskquestionsoormakecommentstoamemberothatjurythatareintendedtoharassorembarrassthejurorortoinuencethejurorsactionsinuturejuryservice.Emphasisadded.AswithsubsectionEthereisnoprohibitionromcontactingthejurorsitisthemannerinwhichthejurorsarecontactedwhichmaybetheproblem.ForanexampleoanimpropercommunicationseeLindv.Medevac1990219Cal.App.3d516.ButiajurorstatesheorshedoesnotwanttospeakwithcounseloraninvestigatoritmaybeaviolationothisRuleicounselortheinvestigatorcontinuestopressurethejuror.TatissounderABAModelRulesRule3.5c2.Incriminalcasesareusaloajurortodiscussthecaseprecludesanyurthercontact.CodeCiv.Proc.206b.AndiinormationaboutthejurorshasbeensealedcounselmustollowtheproperprocedureunderCodeoCivilProceduresection237toobtainthenecessaryinormationtocontactthejurors.Attorneysshouldsuperviseanythirdpartiese.g.trialconsultantsorinvestigatorsconductingposttrialinterviewswithjurorsbothintermsotheproceduresorcontactingjurorsaswellasthequestionstobeasked.Generallytheseinterviewsareconductedbytelephone.Bestpracticeistodevelopaprotocol.Teprotocolshouldincludehowtheinterviewisintroducedtothejurorhowtohandlecommonquestionse.g.whichsideispayingtheinterviewerandwhattodowhenthejurorreusesi.e.thankthemortheirtimeandhangup.Surprisinglymanyjurorsarehappytobeinterviewedabouttheirexperiencesandwilltalksometimesorseveralhours.Tisisparticularlytrueitheinterviewerisamiliarwiththecase.Havingbeenorbiddentotalkaboutthecasetheinterviewisoenacatharticexperienceorthejuror.Teattorneyshouldalsoreviewwithanythirdpartyinterviewerwhattodoithejurorreersintheinterviewtoeventsthatmayconstitutejurormisconduct.ConclusionPracticinglawinthe21stcenturyrequiresattorneystobecomputersavvyandtousetechnologywhenappropriate.TeInternetoersachancetolearnmorethaneverbeoreaboutpotentialjurorsandtheirbiasesandtomonitortheironlinebehaviorduringthetrial.Tistechnologypresentsopportunitiesbutalsoimposesresponsibilities.Attorneysmustnotdeceivejurorsandalsomustinadvertentlycommunicatewithpotentialjurorsbyleavingootprintswhentheyareinvestigatingjurorsonline.Inadditionattorneysshouldnotleavejurorswiththeeelingthattheirprivacyisthreatenedbytheirservicepotentiallysouringtheiropinionojuryserviceandthejusticesystem.Itheproperprecautionsaretakenhoweverattorneyscanmakemoreinormeddecisionsandeliminatejurorswhosebiasisnotrevealedduringvoirdire.Inadditionjurorswhofoutjudicialadmonitionscanbecalledtoaccountortheirtransgressions.Inallmoderntechnologycanprovidegreaterjusticeiattorneysknowhowtouseit.JusticeRet.J.GaryHastingsJusticeJ.GaryHastingsRet.servedasaJudgeattheLosAngelesSuperiorCourtrom1985to1993ocusingoncivilandcriminaltrialsamilylawmattersprobatecalendarlawandmotioncalendarsandcivilmastercalendar.HewastheSupervisingJudgeotheSouthwestbranch1989-1990.JohnG.McCabePh.DJohnG.McCabePh.D.isaLosAngeles-basedcognitivepsychologistandtrialstrategyconsultantwithDOAR.Sincebeginningworkasaconsultantin2005Dr.McCabehasdesignedandparticipatedinawidevarietyostudiesrelatedtojurybehaviorincludingmocktrialandocusgroupresearch.Healsosupportstrialcounselbypreparingwitnessesconductinginternetsearchesoprospectivejurorscomposingvoirdirequestionsandassistingwithjuryselection.jmccabedoar.com.SocialMediacontinuedfrompage18 20verdictVolume32014 Volume32014verdict21continuedonpage22omeothegreatestmoviemomentsinhistoryhavetakenplacewithinacourtroom.InoKillAMockingbirdAtticusFinchGregoryPeckcourageouslytookonracismashedeendedanArican-Americanwhowaswronglyaccusedorape.MilitarylawyerKafeeomCruiseinAFewGoodMendeendedagroupoMarinesaccusedomurderwhocontendtheywereactingonorders.Ahas-beenlawyerplayedbyPaulNewmaninTeVerdicttookachancetosalvagehiscareerandsel-respectbytakingamalpracticecasetotrialratherthansettling.Althoughdramaticthesesilver-screenmomentsepitomizeaewbasicstorytellingprinciplesthatwhenefectivelyincorporatedintoareal-liecourtroomtrialcanhelpanattorneywin.Withover10yearsoexperienceinanimationandvisualefectsIhaveusedsimilarprinciplestotellentertainingstoriesorlmandtelevision.ButthesesameapproachescanHowHollywoodCanHelpYouWinalsobeatremendousassetinthecourtroom.StorytellingandanimationtechniquesusedinHollywoodcanbeavaluableresourceortrialattorneys.Animationhasgainedgrowingacceptanceinthecourtroomasanaidtohelpjuriesunderstandtheevidence.ForexampletheCaliorniaSupremeCourthasspecicallyapprovedcomputeranimationsasdemonstrativeevidenceattrial.InPeoplev.Duenas201255Cal.4th1thecourtrejectednumerousattacksonananimationsuseincludingobjectionsthattheanimationwasspeculativethatitcreatedanimproperairoscienticcertaintyandthatitwascumulativeotestimony.Id.atpp.17-25.Tecourtconcludedthatacomputeranimationisadmissibleiitisaairandaccuraterepresentationotheevidencetowhichitrelates....Id.atp.20.Aswithanaudiencewatchingamovieinatheaterajurywillenteratrialwithmyriadbiases.Audiencemembersexpecttobeintroducedtoaprotagonistandanantagonist.Ajuroralsohaspreconceivednotionsabouthowthetrialmightunoldandwhothebadactoris.Anattorneyusesefectivestorytellingtoovercomeinherentbiasinthesamewaythatadirectorshapesanaudiencesperceptionaboutthecharactersandeventsinamovie.Itheactspresentedtothejuryarenotclearjurorswillmakeuptheirownstoriesandconabulatecomponentsothesceneastheyseeit.oavoidconusionandpreventthejurorromllingintheblanksinaharmulwayintroducingefectivevisualsanddemonstrativeevidenceguaranteesthatthepowerocompletestorycreationwillbelongsolelytotheattorney.BySamirLyons 22verdictVolume32014Animationcontinuedfrompage21Incourtanattorneyhasaniteamountotimetoeducateajuryonthevolumesoactsthatheorshehasspentmonthsresearching.SimilarlyHollywooddirectorsarechallengedtotellastoryintraditionally120minutesorless.Whenpresentedwithacombinationobothauditoryandvisualinormationaudiencesandjuriesalikeareabletoprocesslargeamountsoinormationinrelativelyshortperiodsotime.Aerallastheysayapictureisworthathousandwords.ManyattorneystodayhavebecomeadeptatPowerPointswithstaticslides.Buttheaudienceinacourtroomthejuryoenincludesyoungerolkswhowantabreakintheverbalmonotonyoinormationthrownatthemandmayexpectmoreoashow.Moreimportantlyasimulationmaybeamuchbetterwaytodemonstrateanaccidentreconstructionorthemechanicsoaphysicalinjury.Evenboringmaterialsuchasadensetimelinecanbemucheasiertodigestithedatamarchessequentiallyontothescreeninawaythatsupplementsthemessage.With3Danimationstrategicdesignandstorytellingtechniquessuchassoundefectslightingcolorandbasiccinematographyattorneysareempoweredintheirpresentationotheactsinawaythatissuretohavemaximumimpact.AsananimatortrainedtoconveyadirectorsvisionIenjoyapplyingthesamestorytellingtechniquestohelpattorneyswininthecourtroom.SamirLyonsSamirLyonsmovedtoLosAngelestopursueacareerin3DComputerAnimationaergraduatingwithaBFAromSavannahCollegeoArtandDesignin2004.HehasworkedoneaturelmssuchasIronManTerminatorSalvationandDisneysSorcerersApprenticeandhasworkedwithavarietyohighendbrandstodevelopTVandonlinecommercialsorPorscheSamsungNikeBridgestoneHersheysandmore.HeisnowtheounderoAnimationForLawwww.animationforlaw.comacompanythatprovideslegalanimationandgraphicsortrial. Volume32014verdict23Bystatutepunitivedamagesarerecoverableinsurvivalactionsbroughtbyadecedentsrepresentativetocollectcertaindamagesthatthedecedentincurredbeoredeathandwouldhavereceivedhadheorshelivedtoprosecutetheactionpersonally.Howeveralsobystatutepunitivedamagesarenotrecoverableinwronguldeathactionsbroughtbythedecedentsstatutoryheirsortheirownpecuniarylossesrelatedtothedecedentscompanionshipandinappropriatecasesnancialsupport.Yetcreativeplaintifscounselpursuingbothwronguldeathandsurvivalactionscontinuetoadvanceargumentsthatefectivelywouldawardthewronguldeathplaintifspunitivedamages.Careulanalysisisneededtodemonstratewhythisshouldnotbepermittedandwhydeensecounselmustbevigilantinprotectingtheirclientromthistypeooutcomeattrial.TeStatutoryBasisfortheMutuallyExclusiveDamagesInSurvivalandWrongfulDeathActions.TereisnodoubtthatthedamagesprovidedbytheLegislatureinthesurvivalstatuteandinthewronguldeathstatutearediscrete.Damagesrecoverableinasurvivalactionarestatutorilyexcludedromdamagesrecoverableinawronguldeathaction.CodeoCivilProceduresection377.61.Indeedthetwostatutesoperateexclusivelytocompensatedistinctinterestsseparately.VanderLindv.SuperiorCourt1983146Cal.App.3d358366.Tediferentrecoveriesavailableasbetweensurvivalactionsandwronguldeathactionscanbeseenincontextsinadditiontopunitivedamages.ForexamplealthoughtheSurvivingClaimsforPunitiveDamagesInWrongfulDeathCasesdecedentslostwagesmayberecoveredbythepersonalrepresentativeinthesurvivalactionandtheheirslossonancialsupportmayberecoveredinthewronguldeathactionwhatisrecoverableisdistinctlydiferent.Inwronguldeathcasesdamagesincludethelossonancialbenetsthatthedecedentcontributedtotheamilybywayosupportatthetimeodeathwhichtheamilycouldreasonablyexpectintheuturehadtheinjurynotoccurred.Canavinv.Pac.Sw.Airlines1983148Cal.App.3d512520-21.Wronguldeathplaintifscanrecoverthepresentvalueothesupportthedecedentwouldhavecontributedtotheamilyduringthelieexpectancyodecedentorplaintifwhicheverisshorter.See6WitkinSummaryoCaliorniaLawortssection1692pp.1223-12245thEd.2005Overlyv.IngallsShipbuildingInc.199974Cal.App.4th164176.seealsoCACINo.3921.Butthevalueattributedtodecedentspersonalconsumptionshouldbedeductedromanyawardolossosupporttotheheirs.SeeOverlyv.IngallsShipbuildingInc.199974Cal.App.4th164176.Butinsurvivalactionstheestatemayrecoveronlydecedentslostwagesincurredbeoredeath.SeeCountyoLosAngelesv.SuperiorCourt199921Cal.4th292304.ItcannotbedisputedthattheLegislatureexpresslyprovidedorpunitivedamagesonlyinthesurvivalstatutebasedonanyeconomiclossincurredbythedecedentpriortodeath.SeeCodeoCivilProceduresections377.34and377.61.Tismakessenseinviewotheseparateanddistinctnatureothesurvivalandwronguldeathactions.Firstthedeathodecedentcreatesanewstatutorycauseoactionintheheirsthepurposeowhichistocompensatetheheirsortheirpersonalinjuryintheormodecedentslostsupportandcompanionship.SeeCodeoCivilProceduresection377.60Quirozv.SeventhAve.Center2006140Cal.App.4th12561263-1264.Butthesurvivalactionisnotanewcauseoaction.Ratheriacauseoactionexistedduringthelieothedecedentasurvivalactionpreventstheabatementothatactionandpermitsthecauseoactiontobebroughtbytherepresentativesodecedent.Id.at1264.TeNinthCircuitoundthatitisimportanttonotethecontrastinremediesothetwoenactmentsandwentontoexplainTesurvivalstatuteisbestunderstoodasamatteroprobatelawnottortlaw.Itsgoalistoinsurethattheestateoadecedentlosesnovaluablerightspossessedbyhimduringhisliebyreasonohisdeathwhethertheserightsariseromtortcontractorotherprinciples.InreParisAirCrash9thCir.1980622F.2d13151323emphasisadded.AShortHistoryOfPunitiveDamagesInWrongfulDeathAndSurvivalActionsTeissueowhetherpunitivedamagesshouldberecoverableinwronguldeathactionshasalonghistory.EarlyinourstatesjurisprudencetheCaliorniaLegislaturerstpermittedandthenexpresslyexcludedtherecoveryopunitivedamagesbytheheirsinawronguldeathaction.From1862until1874Caliorniaswronguldeathstatutepermittedheirstorecoverpunitivedamages.SeePeasev.BeechAircrafCorp.197438Cal.App.3d450461.Howeverin1874theLegislaturestruckcontinuedonpage24ByMarkV.BerryandJoyceM.Peim 24verdictVolume32014thewordspecuniaryandexemplaryromthewronguldeathstatutewiththeintenttotakeawaytherightotheheirstorecoverpunitivedamages.Seeid.seealsoTarasov.RegentsoUniversityoCaliornia197617Cal.3d425450GeorgieBoyManuacturingInc.v.SuperiorCourt1981115Cal.App.3d217222InreParisAirCrashsupra622F.2dat1318n.2TecorrectnessoTarasosstatutoryinterpretationissupportedbythelegislaturesailuretoamends377toincludepunitivedamagesdespiteattentionhavingbeendrawntotheiromission..IndeedasestablishedabovethewronguldeathstatutecontainstheexclusiveremediesavailabletoawronguldeathplaintiandtheCaliorniacourtsandLegislaturearereluctanttoprovideanyrelienotspecicallyauthorizedbystatute.SeeVanderLindsupra146Cal.App.3dat364-365.Notablypriorto1961CaliorniassurvivalstatutethencodiedasCivilCodesection956alsodidnotpermitrecoveryopunitivedamages.Dunwoodyv.Trapnell197547Cal.App.3d367370.Sincethattimehoweversurvivalactionshaveprovidedthebeneciariesoadecedentsestatewhoareoenthesameasthestatutoryheirsentitledtopursuewronguldeathclaimsawaytoobtainpunitivedamagesatleasttotheextentthatthedecedentcouldhaveobtainedsuchdamageshadheorshelived.Animportantlimitationonsurvivalactionshoweveristhattheyprovidecompensationonlyordamagesthatthedecedentincurredbeoredeath.ForexampleinStencelAeroEngineeringCorp.v.SuperiorCourt197656Cal.App.3d978thecourtpermittedtheclaimorpunitivedamagestoproceedpastthepleadingsstagebutcautionedthatthespecialadministratrixbearstheburdenoprovingthatanevidence-supportedintervalotimeelapsedbetweenthepropertydamagelossandthedeathothedecedent.Id.at988emphasisadded.Aninterestingquestionarisesastohowmuchtimeissufcienttoestablishthatthedecedentsurvivedlongenoughtohaveincurredeconomiclossbeoredeathinordertoseekpunitivedamageswithinthemeaningothestatute.Someintermediateappellatecourtshavesuggestedthateconomicdamagessuchasruinedclothingmaysupportpunitivedamagesinasurvivalactionnotwithstandingactswhichindicatedecedentsnear-instantaneousdeath.SeePeasev.BeechAircrafCorp.197438Cal.App.3d450ndingnoclaimorpunitivedamagesinasurvivalactionlieswheredeathwassimultaneouswithcrashbutaddingindictathatsomepropertydamagesandthussomepunitivedamagesmightyetbeclaimedbyapersonalrepresentativewitharightocontroloverthedecedentspropertyStencelAeroEngineeringCorp.v.SuperiorCourtsupra56Cal.App.3datp.987-988andn.6200inpersonalarticlesallegedlydamagedbyrocketblastoaircraejectionmechanismwhendeathoccurredsecondslateruponimpactwithgroundGrimshawv.FordMotorCo.1981119Cal.App.3d757829wheredecedentsurvivedthreedaysaeraccidentcourtsaidPunitivedamagesarehoweverrecoverablebythepersonalrepresentativeothedecedentsestateithedecedentsurvivedtheaccidenthoweverbrieyRuov.Simpson200186Cal.App.4th573582decedentstabbedtodeathRelativelyminorcompensatorydamagessuchasherethedecedentsclothingandpersonalpropertydamagedduringthehomicidescanbethespringboardorsubstantialpunitivedamagesseealsoInreAirCrashDisasteratSiouxCityIowaonJuly191989760F.Supp.12831287N.D.Ill.1991ederaldistrictcourtdisallowedpunitivedamagesbutsaidGrimshawStencelandPeasedemonstratethatpunitivedamagesarenotavailable...unless1thedecedentsurvivedtheaccidentionlyoramoment.HoweverinviewoitsintenttopreventwronguldeathplaintisromrecoveringpunitivedamagesitisunlikelythattheLegislatureintendedtocreatetherighttorecoverpunitivedamagesinsituationswheremeresecondsorminuteselapsedbetweentheallegedtortiousactanddeathastodosowouldsubvertthestatutorydistinctionbetweendamagesrecoverableinsurvivalandwronguldeathactions.IndeedarecentunanimousCaliorniaSupremeCourtdecisionindicatedthatdamagesarenotincurredbeoredeathithevictimdiedmoreorlessinstantaneously.Peoplev.Runyan201254Cal.4th849861.ButputtingasidethatquestionwemustaskwhathappenstothepunitivedamagesawardwhereitisundisputedthatthedeathwasnotinstantaneousPunitivedamagesmustbetiedtothedecedentsharmbeingcompensated.SeeStateFarmMut.Auto.Ins.Co.v.Campbell2003538U.S.408429123S.Ct.15131526punitivedamagesmustbereasonableandproportionatetothewrongcommitted.Butcourtshavenotclearlyestablishedwhatthatmeansinthecontextoasurvivalactionandtheyhavenotconsistentlyevaluatedtheextenttowhichthebaronpunitivedamagesinwronguldeathactionsshouldorecloseargumentsthatsurvivalactiondamagesmayincludethosethatpunishthedeendantorthedeath.SurvivalActionsasanimproperBack-DoortoRecoveryofPunitiveDamagesinCompanionWrongfulDeathActionsosomeextentitisinevitablethatasurvivalactionwillallowthebeneciariesoanestatetocollectpunitivedamageswherethesamepeoplecouldnotcollectpunitivedamagesasstatutoryheirsinawronguldeathaction.TeCourtoAppealacknowledgedasmuchinFordMotorCo.v.SuperiorCourt1981120Cal.App.3d748751-752whenthecourtstatedwhereaninjuredpersondoesnotdieimmediatelyhisheirswillbeabletorecoverpunitivedamagesindirectlyacauseoactionorexemplarydamageswillsurvivehimoralllossordamagessustainedbyhimpriortodeath.Italicsadded.Howeverinpersonalinjurytortlitigationwerequentlyseesurvivalactionsinthecontextoincidentscausingdeath.Underthesecircumstancesunlessthecourtcareullycontrolswhatthejuryisallowedtoconsiderasthebasisorpunitivedamagestheymaybebasedimproperlyonthewronguldeathitselratherthanthedecedentsowneconomicharmincurredpriortodeath.TisistantamounttopermittingtheheirstorecoverpunitivedamagesorthewronguldeathotheirdecedentincontraventionotheLegislativeintent.Tekeypointisthatthedamagesuponwhichthepunitivedamagesareoundedarenotthedamagessustainedbytheheirstheirwronguldeathdamagesbutbythedecedentbeoredeath.Tosearedistinctlydierent.continuedonpage25WrongfulDeathcontinuedfrompage23 Volume32014verdict25TeRomoCaseErroneouslyApprovesHighPunitiveDamagesinMalicious-ConductWrongfulDeathActions.ItiscrystalclearthatCaliorniadoesnotpermitrecoveryopunitivedamagesinwronguldeathcases.AstheNinthCircuitstatedinInreParisAirCrashsupra622F.2dat1317n.2Caliorniacourtshaveuniormlyheldthatthestatuteallowingpunitivedamagerecoveriesgenerallyintortactionsisavailableordeathrecoveringonlyinsurvivalactionsandnotinwronguldeathsuits.SeealsoGeorgieBoyManufacturingInc.v.SuperiorCourtsupra115Cal.App.3datp.225ApparentlytheLegislaturesoughttolimitrecoveryothisvolatileremedytothosecausesoactionpersonaltothedecedent....TeLegislaturesapparentconcernorthedangeroexcessiverecoveriesincasesinvolvingdeathisasufcientdiscernibleandlegitimatepurposeviewedintheperspectiveorationalanalysis.AndasnotedinInreAirCrashDisasterNearChicagoIllinoisonMay2519797thCir.1981644F.2d594623-24CaselawindicatesthatCaliorniaseemstohaveastrongcommitmenttoitspolicyodenyingpunitivedamagesinwronguldeathcases.FurtherdeathasapersonalinjurytothedecedentisnotactionableinCaliornia.Norisdecedentsdeathitselacompensablecomponentodamagesinawronguldeathaction.Ratherintheeventoanallegedwronguldeathdecedentsstatutoryheirsmayrecoveronlypecuniarydamagescausedbythedeathsuchaslossonancialsupportandthepecuniaryvalueothelossodecedentssociety.SeeCodeoCivilProceduresection377.61Canavinsupra148Cal.App.3datpp.520-21EstateofDindia197663Cal.App.3d942947UnderCaliornialawanheirisentitledtorecoverwronguldeathdamagesorpecuniarylossalonepecuniarylossmayincludethelossosuchelementsaspersonalcompanionshiporsocietybutonlyiandtotheextentthatitmayreasonablybeassessedinpecuniarytermsundertheevidenceintheparticularcase.HoweveroneCourtoAppealdecisionignoredclearstatutoryandcaselawimpermissiblysupportedthesubversionotheLegislaturesexpressdecisiontodisallowrecoveryopunitivedamagesinwronguldeathsuitsandthushasencouragedthestrategyobasingpunitivedamagesonthedecedentsdeathitsel.Romov.Fordsupra113Cal.App.4th738wasanautomotiveproductliabilityactionthatgaverisetowronguldeathsurvivalandpersonalinjuryclaims.Tejuryawarded5millionincompensatorydamagesand290millioninpunitivedamages.Id.at744.AerthepunitivedamagesawardwasupheldinCaliorniatheUnitedStatesSupremeCourtgrantedcertiorarivacatedthejudgmentandremandedthematterorreconsiderationinviewoStateFarmMut.AutomobileIns.Co.v.Campbellsupra.Romo113Cal.App.4that744seealsoFordMotorCo.v.Romo2003538U.S.1028123S.Ct.2072.OnremandhowevertheRomoCourtreafrmedareducedpunitivedamagesaward.InsodoingthecourtreliedonahighlydebatableelementodamagesthatisnotgenerallyrecognizedinCaliornialawhedonicdamagesorthelossoenjoymentolieTedeceasedamilymemberswouldhavebeenentitledtorecoverpunitivedamageshadtheylived377.34justasthesurvivingamilymemberswereentitledtosuchdamages.Althoughtherighttosuchdamagesarisesromthesamestatutorysourceorbothdeceasedandsurvivingvictimstheamountosuchdamagesmustinordertoservethepurposesarticulatedbysection3294bemeasuredsomewhatdierentlyandinthecaseothedeceasedvictimstakeintoaccounttheimpactofdeathuponthedecedentandthelossofdecedentsopportunitytolive.Romo113Cal.App.4that760n.12.Italicsinoriginalandadded.Tisanalysissuggeststhatadecedentisentitledtopunitivedamagesortheirlossotheabilitytoenjoylie.ButasnotedinGarciav.SuperiorCourt199642Cal.App.4th177180thelossoenjoymentolieorhedonicdamagescontinuedonpage26WrongfulDeathcontinuedfrompage24 26verdictVolume32014isaconceptoreigntoourstatesurvivalstatute.Romosurtherreasoninghoweverisnotjustnovelitisatlycontrarytostatute.SpecicallythecourtgoesontostateInthiscontextomaliciousconductasopposedtoordinarynegligenceactionspublicpolicyandlegitimateinterestsothestateintheprotectionoitspeoplerequireamechanismtopunishanddeterconductthatkillspeople.Itwouldbeunacceptablepublicpolicytoestablishasysteminwhichitislessexpensiveoradeendantsmaliciousconducttokillratherthaninjureavictim.Tusthestatehasanextremelystronginterestinbeingabletoimposesucientlyhighpunitivedamagesinmalicious-conductwrongfuldeathactionstodeteracheapertokillthemmindsetwhilestillmaintaininglimitsonwrongfuldeathcompensationincasesofordinarynegligence.Id.at761.Italicsadded.Romoiswrongorseveralreasons.FirstRomoignorestheexpresslanguageothewronguldeathandsurvivalstatutes.SecondRomoignoreswell-settledandwell-establisheddecisionallawconrmingthattheLegislatureintendedthatpunitivedamagesnotbeawardedinwronguldeathcases.TirdbyreasoningthatdespitethestatutorybarwronguldeathplaintisinstrictproductsliabilitycasesshouldbeabletoobtainpunitivedamagesRomoignorestheactthat50yearsagoCaliorniadramaticallylessenedthestrictproductliabilityplaintisburdentoproveliabilityastoaproductdeect.SeeGreenmanv.Yuba196359Cal.2d57.FinallyRomoignorestheCaliorniaPenalCodewhichulllsCaliorniasinterestindeterringconductthatkillspeople.InsumandcontrarytoRomounderCaliornialawtherearenocircumstanceswherethedeathodecedentshouldbeusedtosupportrecoveryopunitivedamagesinthesurvivalaction.UncompensatedPotentialHarmCreativeplaintiscounselmayarguethatpunitivedamagesshouldberecoverableorthedeathontheargumentthatthepunitivedamageawardcanconsideruncompensatedpotentialharm.HoweveraewyearsaerRufoinabreachocontractpromissoryraudcasetheCaliorniaSupremeCourtrejectedtheargumentthatuncompensatedpotentialharmcouldsupportanexcessiveawardopunitivedamages.SeeSimonv.SanPaoloU.S.HoldingCo.Inc.200535Cal.4th1159.TejuryinSimonconcludedthecontractinquestionwasnotenorceablebutoundthatthedeendantengagedinpromissoryraud.Teplaintiwasawarded5000incompensatorydamagesand2.5millioninpunitivedamages.Tecasewasre-triedonlyastopunitivedamageswhichresultedinanawardo1.7million.Onappealtheplaintiarguedthatuncompensatedorpotentialharmintheormolostprotso400000theallegeddierenceinthevalueothepropertyatthetimeothecontractandthecurrentvaluecouldbeconsideredinsupportothepunitivedamagesaward.TeSupremeCourtdisagreedandbasedondueprocessrestrictionsreducedthepunitivedamagesawardto50000.Simon35Cal.4that1166.UnortunatelytheSimonCourtdidnotcompletelyclosethedoortotheconsiderationouncompensatedorpotentialharmasabasisorpunitivedamagesinothercasesalthoughitdidsuggestthatawardsbasedonsuchharmwillbestrictlyscrutinizedordueprocessviolations.Simon35Cal.4that1174.WhatDoesTisMeanItcannotbedisputedthattheLegislatureintendedtoprecludeheirsinwronguldeathactionsromrecoveringpunitivedamages.Itissimilarlyclearthatdependingontheactswronguldeathplaintisstandtorecoversomepunitivedamagesorthedeathotheirdecedentundertheguiseoasurvivalactionatleastincasesonon-instantaneousdeath.BethatasitmayunderCaliornialawwronguldeathsurvivalplaintiscannotmixandmatchthedamagesrecoverableunderthewronguldeathandsurvivalstatutesandcannotusetheirownwronguldeathdamagesortheactodecedentsdeathtosupportrecoveryopunitivedamagesinthesurvivalaction.odosowouldyintheaceotheLegislaturesexpressdecisiontodisallowrecoveryopunitivedamagesinwronguldeathsuitsandcontrollingcaselawsupportingthatdecision.Tereoreinawronguldeathsurvivalactionthedeendantmustcareullycraaclearjuryinstructionregardingtheverylimiteddamagesrecoverableinthesurvivalactionbasedonpre-deathharmtodecedentsproperty.Tismeansinstructingthejurythatpunitivedamagesmaynotbeusedtopunishthedeendantortheimpactoitsallegedconductexcepttotheextentthatconductcausedthedecedentspre-deatheconomicharmandnottotheextentthatconductcausedthedecedentsdeath..Furtherthejurymustbeinstructedthatpunitivedamagesmaynotbeawardedorheirspersonallossrelatedtothedecedentsdeath.NoappellatecourthascriticallyanalyzedthecommentinFordMotorCo.v.SuperiorCourti.e.thatthesurvivalstatutepermitsheirstoindirectlyrecoverpunitivedamages.SimilarlytheerroneousstatementsolawsetorthinRomoremainavailabletocreativewronguldeathplaintis.Tuswherepresentedinawronguldeathsurvivalactiontheseissuesmaywellbeworthadvancinginthetrialcourtviamotiontostrikemotionorsummaryjudgmentandormotioninlimineandthroughtheappellatesystemintheeventoanadverseruling.MarkV.BerryMarkV.BerryisapartneratBowmanandBrookeLLPsLosAngelesofcewherehedeendsmotorvehicleandothermanuacturersinproductliabilitycasesaroundthecountry.Markhashadmorethan30jurytrialsandmostrecentlywasco-counselinUnov.oyotatherstbellwetherunintendedaccelerationtrialintheCaliorniacoordinatedproceedingsthatresultedinadeenseverdictin2013.JoyceM.PeimJoyceM.PeimisSeniorCounselatBowmanandBrookeLLPsLosAngelesofcewheresheocusesprimarilyonthedeenseoautomotiveandrecreationalvehiclemanuacturersanddistributorsinproductliabilitycases.WrongfulDeathcontinuedfrompage25 Volume32014verdict27youhaveeverappearedincourtoranyreasonthisbookwillgrabandpullyoubetweenitscovers.TeauthorJayJacobsormerlyaSanFranciscodeenseattorneyrevealsheartandsoulangstandturmoilindescribinghisdeenseoawronguldeathlawsuitresultingromthelossoaprivateshingboatwithcaptainandourmenaboardinthewatersoutsideSanFranciscoBay.Teshingboata34-ooterwasownedbyFrancisDowdaRaytheonvice-president.TepassengerswereDowdssonDowdsbrother-in-lawDowdsriendandDowdsbusinessassociateAndyAng.TesuitwasbroughtbyAngswidowandvechildrenagainsttheEstateoFrancisDowd.TetrialwasheldinSantaClaraCountywhereDowdlived.TeboattheAlohaleSausalitoharboronthemorningoMarch91984.Teboatwasneverseenorheardoagain.FrancisDowdsbodywasoundfoatinginSanFranciscoBayaboutamonthaerthetragedy.JayJacobswasayounglawyerwithtenyearsexperienceselectedbyDowdsTHEWIDOWWAVEabookreviewoamaritimetrialBookReviewbyBernardCotterinsurerAllstatetodeendthecase.TeplaintiswererepresentedbyhighlysuccessullawyersDavidBaumandMartinBlakeoSanFrancisco.Atstakewasa1.1millionliabilitypolicyandDowdsestate.ColdAirMeetsWarmAirTebookbeginsonanobscurenotedescribingastormwhenicycoldairromSiberiametwarmmoistairromtheSouthPacic.TewritingispoeticInthisbrutallycoldenvironmentthereisoneunexpectedelementobeautyatexceptionallylowtemperaturesadeepbreathexpelledintothebonedryarcticairreezesinstantlyormingminiatureicecrystalsthatmakeatinklingsoundastheyfoatdownwards.TestormmayhaveproducedawaveounexpectedheightandpowerthatslammedintotheAlohacausinghertocapsizeandsinktothebottomothePacic.continuedonpage28ThisarticlefrstappearedintheADCDefenseCommentandisreprintedwithpermissionotheAssociationoDeenseCounseloNorthernCaliorniaandNevada 28verdictVolume32014BookReviewcontinuedfrompage27continuedonpage29KeepinganOpenMindItiswellthejurorsaretoldtokeepanopenmindandnotcometoanyconclusionsuntilthecaseisnallysubmittedtothem.TetrialoAngetal.v.EstateofDowdrantruetoormorthreeweeksinJudgeDavidLeahysSanJosecourtroom.Laywitnessesandexpertsappearedandtestied.Conictingactsandopinionsclashed.Objectionsweresustainedandbroachedtopicsleunexplored.Teattorneysespousedtheirconictingviewsotheevidenceandimploredthejurytocometodirectlyoppositeconclusions.YouAretheJurorAuthorJacobsputsthereaderinthejurorsseatsinrecountingthetrial.BydeensereckoningtheAlohaleSausalitoHarborat600am.PlainticounselattemptedtoestablishtheAlohaliedanchorat730am.Tiswasavitalpointinthetrial.TeAlohasdestinationwasDuxburyReejustwestoStinsonBeach.ogettoDuxburyCaptainDowdwouldhavepassedundertheGoldenGateBridge.TeopeningtoSanFranciscoBayisactually2.5mileswestothebridge.TelandmarksarePointLobosontheSanFranciscoorsouthsidePointBonitaonthenorthorMarinside.AerpassingunderthebridgeCaptainDowdhadthechoiceocontinuingstraightintheMainShippingChannelorveorsixmilesintotheopenseabeoreturningrightornorthtoDuxburyortakingashorterroutebyturningrightatPointBonitaintoshallowBonitaChannelandthenontoDuxbury.Pertheexpertstheshallowerthepassagethemorelikelywavesaretoincreaseinsizewhenthewindisblowing.Onthemorninginquestion15to20shingboatsheadingorDuxburytooktheMainShippingChannel.NooneonanyotheboatssawtheAloha.TeconclusionwasCaptainDowdanexperiencedboaterandshermantookBonitaChanneltheshorterroute.AstothestormthatwasbrewingbecauseothecollisionoSiberianandSouthPacicairatprecisely800amtherewasasmallcrawarningthatwaveshadbecomedangerousinBonitaChannel.AttorneysBaumandBlakecontendedthattheAlohahavingleSausalitoHarborat730amandnot600amasthedeenseclaimednegligentlyventuredintoBonitaChannelaerthe800amwarninghadaired.roublefortheDefenseAmonthbeoretheaccidentwhiletheAlohawasinitsberthinSausalitoHarborsomeonesnuckaboardandstoletheradarequipmentthetwo-wayradioandtheship-to-shoretelephone.Replacementequipmenthadbeenpurchased.Howevertherewasastronginerencethattheequipmenthadnotbeenre-installed.TisallowedBaumandBlaketoargueCaptainDowdwasoperatinganimproperlyoutttedboatandnothearingthesmallcrawarningnegligentlyblunderedintoshallowBonitaChannelaer800amwheretheAlohawasswampedbymonsterwavesandsenttothebottomwithallhandsaboard.TeLossoftheAlohaJacobswhoservedintheMerchantMarineasasailorandanofcerorthreeyearsbeorestartingGoldenGateUniversitySchooloLawagainturnspoeticindescribingthelossotheAlohaAsitiswithalllivingthingstherecomesatimeoravesseltodie.AtthemomentthersthintosunlightbecamevisibleovertheMarinhillserasingthelasthintostarsromtheadingnightskytheAlohadied.Strikingthebottominareverberatingshuddertheboatgentlyrockedontheseabedpreparinganalrestingplaceorhersel.Temenentombedinsidewerenowindeathsreposetheirvaliantstruggletoliveconcluded.Teyappearedasleeprestinginsilence.Inashorttimetheseaoverheadwouldreverttogentlerswellsleavingnotraceothemenortheboatthathadintrudedintoitsrealm.rialBeginsonaBadNoteTetrialbeganonabadnoteorthedeense.Baumannouncedhewaswaivingthejury.AtapreviousrialSettingConerenceJacobshadwaivedajury.Hehadnorecollectionodoingsobuthadcheckedthejurywaiverboxonthecourtormbearinghissignature.SomehowhewasabletoconvinceJudgeLeahytopermithimtohaveajury.SunkbyaCoincidenceWaveJacobscalledintwoexpertsCaptainDavidSeymouraboatsaetyexpertandRaeStrangeameteorologistinordertoexplaintothejurythattheAlohawentdownbeorethesmallcrawarningwasbroadcastat800am.TeyreliedondataromthreebuoysintheopenwatersoutsidethebaywhichsuggestedtheAlohawentdowninrelativelycalmwaterswhenstruckbyacoincidencewaveawaveounanticipatedmagnitudeormedbytwosmallerwavesbeore800am.Tecoincidencewavecouldhavereachedaheighto20eettoomuchora34-ootshingboatsuchastheAlohatohandle.TreeBooksinOneInreadingTeWidowWavethereaderwillsenseheorsheisreadingthreebooksinone.Firstthereistheaccountothesinking.Secondthereisthejumbleothetrial.TirdandbestisJacobsrecitationohisdeepestthoughtswhilethetrialunolded.JacobshadprooundrespectorBaumsabilityasatriallawyer.AerIlearnedBaumwasgoingtotrythecaseiawayhadpresenteditseltogetoutogoingtotrialIwouldhaveseizedit.AtonepointTiscasewasgoingtobemyrstormaybemylastbigtrial.AtanotherIsawamaninthemirroroverwhelmedwithearlookingbackatme.AndthenIleanedagainstthetabletostrengthenmylegswhichdidntseemtobecooperating.LaterAsthesecondstickedbymyheartpoundedasterthanasewingmachine.owardstheendInthethreeweekssincethetrialbeganIhadbeeninconstantturmoilaboutnotsettling.OverallIblunderedon.BaumandBlaketriedtoignoreJacobsduringthetrialnotrespondingtohisgoodmorninggreetingsonlydisclosingnextdayswitnesseswhenasked.IhadbeendismissedwithouteventhecourtesyoBaumlookinginmy Volume32014verdict29BookReviewcontinuedfrompage28direction.AtonepointJacobsheardBaumonthetelephoneItsalloverwithnowitsjustamatterohowmuch.Jacobseltlikethewindhadbeenknockedoutome.FascinatingtotheEndIneverytrialsomethingcompletelyunexpectedusuallyoccurs.Inthiscasetheleadingsideseemedtochangedaybydaywitnessbywitness.WhathappenedincludingJudgeLeahysclosingcommentwillkeepyouascinatedtotheend.MCLEcreditsshouldbegivenorreadingTeWidowWaveitsthatgood.TebookcanbeorderedthroughAmazonBooksorBarnesNoble.BernardCotterTisreviewoTeWidowWavewaswrittenbylong-timeADCmemberBernieCotterwhoaer50yearsotryingcasesnowdevoteshistimetomediatingandarbitratingcasesatMcDowallCotterSanMateowhenheisnotofshing. 30verdictVolume32014LosAngelesCountyReportTheLosAngelesSuperiorCourtsystemisupdatingtheirtelephonesystemsandallcourthouseswillhavenewtelephonenumbers.ManyothecourtshavealreadyconvertedtothenewsystembutthechangeswillcontinuetotakeplaceonarollingbasisthroughApril2015.AlistoallnewcourthousetelephonenumbersisavailableontheCourtswebsitewww.lacourt.orgundertheGeneralInormationtab.JudgeCarolynB.KuhlhasbeenelectedasthenewPresidingJudgeortheLosAngelesSuperiorCourt.JudgeDanielJ.BuckleywaselectedtoserveastheAssistingPresidingJudge.TeAntelopeValleyCourthousenowrequiresallmotionsetc.tobecalendaredthroughtheOnlineCourtReservationSystemavailableontheLosAngelesSuperiorCourtswebsite.OrangeCountyReportEectiveFebruary22015all24civilcourtroomsincludingthecivilcomplexcourtroomswillshiromone-to-oneassignmentocourtreporterstocivilcourtroomsorallhearingstoasystemwherecourtreportersareassignedtoacourtroomasneededortrialsandevidentiaryhearingsonly.Ofcialcourtreportersi.e.courtreportersemployedbytheCourtwillonlybeprovidedortrialsandmattersinwhichoralevidencewillbepresented.Teexpansionothisprojectollowsasuccessulpilotwhichhasbeenoperatingin14unlimitedcivilcourtroomssinceAugust252014.TepilotprojecthasprovidedasignicantcostsavingsortheCourt.Alsopooledcourtreportercoveragehasresultedinmoreefcientstafngassignmentsandtheuseoewerprotemporecourtreportersi.e.reportersnotemployedbytheCourt.PresidingJudgeGlendaSanderssaidPersistentpleasoradequateundingortheCaliorniaCourtshaveailed.OurCourtscurrentbudgetallocationorscalyear2014-2015isinsufcientandthepictureor2015-2016isevenbleakerwithananticipatedundingdecito5.7million.BecauseothisourCourtmustndwaystooperatemoreefciently.RiversideCountyReportRiversideCountyhasenactednewlingdeadlinesoralllingtypes.AsoDecember12014thelingdeadlineisnow400pmoralllingtypesincludinginpersonlingseFilingdropboxandaxlings.Anydocumentleinthedropboxaer400pmwillhavebeendeemedledonthenextcourtday.TeRiversideSuperiorCourtisalsoconsolidatingitslings.OnlycaseswithzipcodesromthecitiesoMurrietaMenieeWildomarandWinchesterwillbeledandheardattheSouthwestJusticeCenter.AllcasescurrentlyassignedtotheSouthwestJusticeCenterwillremaincalendaredthere.AllotherzipcodeswiththeexceptionothoseledandheardattheBlytheandPalmSpringsCourtswhichremainunchangedwillbeledandheardintheHistoricCourthouse.SanDiegoCountyReportDuetoongoingbudgetcutsvariousSanDiegoSuperiorCourtbusinessofcesareclosingandbeingconsolidated.AllcivilappealsamilylawappealsandbothEastandSouthCountycriminalappealsmustnowbeledintheCentralDivisioneectiveJanuary52015.AdditionallytheKearnyMesaSmallClaimsbusinessofceisclosingallSmallClaimsmatterswillnowbeledintheCentralDivision.DontorgettheSanDiegoSuperiorCourtLocalRuleshavebeenrevisedandthenewrulesgointoeectJanuary12015.oseeithechangesaectyourpracticegototheRulestabatwww.sdcourt.ca.gov.continuedonpage31 Volume32014verdict31SantaBarbaraCountyReportAewamendmentstotheSantaBarbaraSuperiorCourtlocalruleshavebeenproposedoradoptiononJanuary12015.Keepaneyeonthestatusothesechangesatwww.sbcourts.org.VenturaCountyReportTheVenturaCountySuperiorCourthasenactednewLocalRuleswhichgointoefectonJanuary12015.Tenewlocalrulescanbedownloadedorreeatwww.ventura.courts.ca.govlocal-rules.html.TeJudgesotheVenturaSuperiorCourthaveelectedJudgeDonaldD.ColemanasPresidingJudgeandJudgePatriciaM.MurphyasAssistantPresidingJudgeor2015and2016.TenewtermorbothbeginsJanuary12015.AudtCutcontinuedfrompage30NEWTGINGRICHFdyLucKytSpkCNNsCross-FirePanelist58THSpkftUtdSttfAmcHufRpttHouseMinorityWhipUnitedStatesCongressmanfor20yearsCo-AuthorContractwithAmericaTimeMagazineManoftheYear1995FounderandChairAmericanSolutionsforWgtFutudCtfHtTfmtJORDANCONDOMttSpkUberTechnologiesHeadofPublicPolicyAsiaPacicUnitedStatesMarineCorpwithmultipletoursofdutyIqdAfgtSEMINARTOPICSINCLUDEeYearinReviewCaseHighlightsandHotIssuesWhataCrimeDefendingPartiesinCivilCasesInvolvingCriminalActsWinYourCasewithDepositionsTakingandDefendingDepositionstoWYuCAnnualLegislativeUpdatewithMichaelBeloteSubstantiveLawSessionsE-BR54THANNUALSEMINARMarch562015SheraonUniversalUCCActfSutCfDfCuNOTENwLcttUStuddUCtyWkEarlyBirdRegularOnsiteby13015131153215after3215Member395425450ClaimsPersonnel325325325Non-MemberAttorney495525550YoungLawyerMember295325350CompanionTicketPresidentsReception75Inpracticeupto5years.GuestroomreservationsmustbemadebyFebruary102015.Callthehoteldirectlyat888627-7186forthediscountedASCDCroomratesof185pernight.akeadvantageoearly-birdsavingsbyregisteringnowtogetqualitydeense-orientedMCLEatlessthan50percredithour.Registeonlinetwww.ascdc.org. 32verdictVolume32014 Volume32014verdict33defensesuccessesseptemberdecemberDescribeyourDefenseVerdictForPublicationinVerdictMagazineLetushelpyouadvertiseyourtrialsuccessesHaveyouwonadefenseverdictinajurytrialHaveyouobtainedadefensejudgmentinabenchtrialorfollowingadispositiverulingduringoraftertrialsuchasbynonsuitdirectedverdictorJNOVIfsocompletetheinformationintheformontheASCDCwebsitewww.ascdc.orgpublications_sub.asporsubmityourfavorabletrialresulttoWestlawinfo.legalsolutions.thomsonreuters.comtrialsdigestform.aspandsendusacopyinaWordorPDFfletoascdccamgmt.comandwewillpublishitinVerdictMagazine.RaymondBlesseyTaylorBlesseyLLPGrigorianv.MaissianConstanceA.EndelicatoWoodSmithHenningBermanLLPWaksbergv.St.JohnsHealthCenterRichardGowerInglisLedbetterGowerWarrinerLLPHectorv.LewinKennethN.GreenfeldLawOcesoKennethN.GreenfeldZimmermanv.WawanesaGeneralInsuranceCo.JosephMachaFoleyMansfeldEvansv.HoodCorporationJefWalkerWalkerMannLLPPerryv.BuchanBrianL.WilliamsSullivanBallogWilliamsLLPSeayv.CountyofOrangeMichaelA.ZukHerzfeldRubinLLPNewsomev.J.TimothyKatzen 34verdictVolume32014amicuscommitteereportcontinuedonpage35ASCDCsAmicusCommitteecontinuestoworkenergeticallyonbehalfofitsmembership.ASCDCsAmicusCommitteehassubmittedamicuscuriaebriefsinseveralrecentcasesintheCaliforniaSupremeCourtandCaliforniaCourtofAppealandhashelpedsecuresomemajorvictoriesforthedefensebar.RECENTAMICUSVICTORIESTeAmicusCommitteehasrecentlyparticipatedasamicuscuriaeintheollowingcasesLarsonv.UHIofRanchoSpringsInc.2014230Cal.App.4th336DavePruettromCarrollKellyrotterFranzenMcKennadraedasuccessfulpublicationrequest.TeCourtoAppealafrmedanordersustainingademurrertoclaimsobatteryandintentionalinictionoemotionaldistressagainstanesthesiologistbasedonphysicalcontactduringpre-operativecheckup.TeCourtoAppealheldthatMICRAsone-yearstatuteolimitationappliesandrejectedplaintisattempttocircumventMICRA.InreWalgreenCompanyOvertimeCasesB230191Oct.232014__Cal.App.4th__2014WL5390402.BradPauleyandStevenFleischmanromHorvitzLevysubmittedasuccessfulpublicationrequest.TeCourtoAppealafrmedthedenialoclasscerticationinpostBrinkerwageandhourcase.Tecourtcriticizedplaintissubmissiono44ormdeclarationmostowhichwererecantedbyplaintisduringdepositions.MatterofYeeCal.BarCt.May21201412-O-132042014WL3748590SuccessfulpublicationrequesttotheReviewDepartmentotheStateBarCourtwrittenbyMarkSchaeeroNemecekCole.TiscaseinvolvesattorneydisciplineoranattorneywhoerredincomplyingwithherMCLErequirementsandmisreportedcompliancetotheStateBarwhichwasoundnottobeintentional.TeStateBarwanteda30-daysuspension.Tetrialcourtrecommendedapublicreprimandinsteadosuspension.TeStateBarappealed.TedecisiontoreprimandratherthansuspendwasafrmedandtheReviewDepartmentgrantedASCDCsrequestorpublication.PENDINGCASESATTHECALIFORNIASUPREMECOURTANDCOURTOFAPPEALASCDCsAmicusCommitteehasalsosubmittedamicuscuriaebriesintheollowingcasespendingattheCaliorniaSupremeCourtorCaliorniaCourtoAppealointeresttoASCDCsmembershipSanchezv.Valenciadocketno.S199119pendingintheCaliorniaSupremeCourt.TiscaseincludestheollowingissueDoestheFederalArbitrationAct9U.S.C.2asinterpretedinATTMobilityLLCv.Concepcion2011563U.S.__131S.Ct.1740preemptstatelawrulesinvalidatingmandatoryarbitrationprovisionsinaconsumercontractasprocedurallyandsubstantivelyunconscionableJ.AlanWareldPolsinelliLLPsubmittedanamicusbrieonbehaloASCDC.Rashidiv.Moserdocketno.S214430pendingintheCaliorniaSupremeCourt.TisinvolvestheinterplaybetweenMICRAandProp51.TeissueasramedbythecourtonitswebsiteisIajuryawardstheplaintiinamedicalmalpracticeactionnon-economicdamagesagainstahealthcareproviderdeendantdoesCivilCodesection3333.2entitlethatdeendanttoasetobasedontheamountoapretrialsettlemententeredintobyanotherhealthcareproviderthatisattributabletonon-economiclossesordoesthestatutoryrulethatliabilityornon-economicdamagesisseveralonlynotjointandseveralbarsuchasetoHarryChamberlainMeyersNavesubmittedanamicusbrieonbehaloASCDC.Winnv.PioneerMedicalGroupInc.docketno.S211793pendingintheCaliorniaSupremeCourt.Plaintisclaimsareagainstdeendantphysiciansorelderabusearisingoutothecareprovidedto Volume32014verdict35AmicusCommitteeReportcontinuedfrompage34theplaintifsdeceasedmotherwhodiedattheageo82.TeCourtoAppealhadheldthatelderabuseclaimsarenotlimitedtocustodialsituations.TeSupremeCourthasramedtheissuepresentedasollowsDoesneglectwithinthemeaningotheElderAbuseandDependentAdultCivilProtectionActWel.Inst.Code15657includeahealthcareprovidersailuretoreeranelderpatienttoaspecialistithecaretookplaceonanoutpatientbasisormustanactionorneglectundertheActallegethatthedeendanthealthcareproviderhadacustodialrelationshipwiththeelderpatientHarryChamberlainMeyersNavesubmittedanamicusbrieonbehaloASCDC.Hudsonv.CountyofFresnodocketNo.F067460.RobertWrightLisaPerrochetandStevenFleischmanromHorvitzLevysubmittedanamicusbrieonthemeritsinthisappealpendingatFihAppellateDistrictinFresno.TedeendantclaimsthattheplaintifimproperlyusedReptileargumentsduringclosingargument.TeCourtoAppealacceptedASCDCsamicuscuriaebrieandtheappealremainspending.HOWTHEAMICUSCOMMITTEECANHELPYOURAPPEALORWRITPETITIONANDHOWTOCONTACTUSHavingthesupportotheAmicusCommitteeisoneothebenetsomembershipinASCDC.TeAmicusCommitteecanassistyourrmandyourclientinseveralways1.Amicuscuriaebriesonthemeritsincasespendinginappellatecourts.2.LettersinsupportopetitionsorrevieworrequestsordepublicationtotheCaliorniaSupremeCourt.3.LettersrequestingpublicationounpublishedCaliorniaCourtoAppealdecisions.InevaluatingrequestsoramicussupporttheAmicusCommitteeconsidersvariousissuesincludingwhethertheissueathandisointeresttoASCDCsmembershipasawholeandwouldadvancethegoalsoASCDC.IyouhaveapendingappellatematterinwhichyoubelieveASCDCshouldparticipateasamicuscuriaeeelreetocontacttheAmicusCommitteeStevenS.FleischmanChairothecommitteeHorvitzLevy818-995-0800SusanBrenneckeTompsonColegate951-682-5550HarryChamberlainMeyersNave916-556-1531MichaelColtonTeColtonLawFirm805-455-4546ReneeDiazHugoParkerLLP415-808-0300RichardNakamuraMorrisPolichPurdy213-891-9100RobertOlsonGreinesMartinSteinRichlandLLP310-859-7811SheilaWirkusPendergastHennellyGrossfeld310-305-2100DavidPruettCarrollKellyrotterFranzenMcKenna562-432-5855JeremyRosenHorvitzLevy818-995-0800DavidSchultzPolsinelliLLP310-203-5325BenShatzManattPhelpsPhillips310-312-4000JoshuaTraverColePedroza626-431-2787J.AlanWareldPolsinelliLLP310-203-5341TedXandersGreinesMartinSteinRichlandLLP310-859-7811 36verdictVolume32014EricSchwettmannPatrickStockalperJeffreyA.WalkerN.DeniseTaylorImmediatePastPresidenttheassociationofsoutherncaliforniadefensecounsel2520ventureoakswaysuite150sacramentoca95833800.564.6791www.ascdc.orgexecutivecommitteeRobertA.OlsonPresidentMichaelSchonbuchPresident-ElectGlennT.BargerVicePresidentClarkR.HudsonSecretary-TreasurerboardofdirectorsMichaelA.ColtonPeterS.DoodyThomasP.FeherLisaJ.McMainsGaryT.MontgomeryLisaPerrochetLawrenceR.RamseyStephenC.PasarowNinosP.SaroukhanioffJulianneDeMarcoChristopherE.FaenzaEdwardR.LeonardPatrickJ.KearnsDianaP.Lytel Volume32014verdict3 theassociationofsoutherncaliforniadefensecounsel2520VentureOaksWaySuite150sacramentoca95833PRE-SORTFIRSTCLASSU.S.POSTAGEPAIDPERMIT1660SacramentoCAMarch5-6201554THAnnualSeminarSheratonHotelJune42015HallofFameReceptionDinnerMillenniumBiltmoreLosAngelesSeptember18-192015SantaBarbaraConferenceDoubleTreeSantaBarbara